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Finquelievich, feldman and fischnaller, public policies for multilingual education using ict in la

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  • 1. 3RD INTERNATIONALCONFERENCEON LINGUISTICAND CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN CYBERSPACE 28 June - 3 July, 2014,Yakutsk, Russia
  • 2.  The “conquest” of Latin America meant the dramatic reduction or disappearance of its indigenous peoples, their languages and cultures  War, genocide, slavery, and disease, reduced, absorbed or eliminated the native population in most of the Region
  • 3.  Scarce research about LA indigenous languages in cyberspace reveals a vacancy area which needs development, as well as attention and technical support from UNESCO and other international organizations.
  • 4.  Aymara: spoken in Bolivia, Argentina,Chile, and Peru (Speakers total population in all countries: 2,589,000).  Guaraní: Spoken in Paraguay and parts of northeastern Argentina, southeastern Bolivia and southwestern Brazil; it is a second official language of the Argentine province of Corrientes; it is also an official language of Mercosur
  • 5.  Quechua is a spoken primarily in Perú, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, and Argentina  It is the most widely spoken language family of the indigenous. Total speakers: 8.9 million  The Mayan languages form a language family spoken primarily in Guatemala, México, Belize, and Honduras.  Spoken by at least 6 million indigenous Maya.
  • 6.  In Paraguay, 48% of its population is bilingual in Guaraní and Spanish (both official languages of the Republic)  Bolivia is officially multilingual, supporting Spanish and 36 native languages  Ecuador defines Spanish as its official language. Spanish, Quechua and Shuar are considered as official languages of intercultural relations
  • 7.  Peru's official languages are Spanish and, in the zones where they are predominant, Quechua, Aymara, and other aboriginal languages.  In Mexico, the government recognizes 62 indigenous languages.There is no official language at the federal level, although Spanish is the de facto state language.  In Guatemala, 23 indigenous languages are co-official with Spanish.
  • 8.  Public policies on intercultural bilingual education date from the late 1960s  Since the 1970s the indigenous peoples started to claim the recognition of their cultural patrimony  They expressed the need to receive an education which included the contact between the multiple languages and cultures in the LA territory
  • 9.  UNESCO Meeting in 1983 it was decided to replace the concept of biculturalism by interculturalism  Cultures were conceived as diachronic processes that develop and change with time and history, instead of synchronic entities which stay immutable through historic changes  Based on that conceptual change, Latin American countries started to implement bilingual intercultural education policies
  • 10.  Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, México, Perú, among other countries, have implemented multilingual education  Different degrees of implementation  Diverse results
  • 11.  LA countries are integrating educational efforts with ICT in order to reach the overall population, including small and remote communities  One Laptop Per Child Programs  Specific training of indigenous and non- indigenous teachers  Production of multilingual educational contents  Systematization of information about the educational situation of indigenous peoples, educational research, and grants for indigenous students.
  • 12.  RELPE offers an open access search engine for contents within Education Portals of LAC  The initiative began in 2001 within the framework of bilateral cooperation agreements  Education Portals are full members designated as such by the respective Ministry of Education in each country  The Executive Secretariat of RELPE is currently the responsibility of Argentina  RELPE gathers and makes accessible multicultural and multilingual contents, resources, and dictionaries to be used both in in-person classrooms as well as in virtual education  http://www.relpe.org/
  • 13.  The existence of public policies for intercultural and multilingual education in cyberspace in LA countries does not necessarily have a direct relation with the number of indigenous peoples and languages in the countries  While countries such as Argentina, where the indigenous population amounts to less than 3% are developing effective public policies with the participation of indigenous peoples, in other countries with a considerable proportion of indigenous population policies and actions do not come primarily from the National State, but from indigenous organizations.
  • 14.  The efforts for multilingual education in cyberspace cannot come only from State policies  It is desirable to promote bottom-up initiatives from indigenous communities  The goal: facilitating a constructive dialogue between governments and civil society, particularly the representative organizations of the diverse ethnic and cultural groups
  • 15.  Indigenous social movements have obtained some successes, achieving the recognition of indigenous rights by the National states  However, in many cases, the new national and international legislations regarding indigenous rights and languages do not go further than well intentioned declarations  One of the problems in LA is not the lack of good legislations regarding multilingual rights, but the lack or insufficiency of policies´ implementation, as a consequence of deep-rooted discriminatory practices  Overcoming these limitations would require more participative and democratic consultation policies with the indigenous peoples
  • 16.  Multilingual education in cyberspace is acquiring an increasing importance due to the programs of digital education and literacy, as the OLPC plans  More and more these plans are including contents about indigenous languages and cultures  However, this tendency is recent.The impacts on the educational community have not been studied in depth yet
  • 17.  When planning multicultural and multilingual education in cyberspace it is necessary to consider BIE not only for rural areas, but also for urban and urban marginalized areas  BIE in urban marginalized areas is the new challenge in LA cities.  Intercultural and multilingual diversity should not be limited to primary education  In LA countries young indigenous students are accessing higher education  New indigenous and intercultural universities are being created  BIE should not only be “for all”, but also “for lifelong education and training”.
  • 18.  Supporting the digitization and preservation of content with anthropological or historical value  Small communities are holders of valuable cultural treasures that will be lost unless documented  Mobile technologies should be considered for multilingual use and education in cyberspace  Implementing an Observatory of Latin American linguistic and cultural diversity, with the direct participation of indigenous communities.
  • 19.  Recent initiatives, such as creating indigenous universities (i.e. the Intercultural Indigenous University (UII) in México, the Autonomous Intercultural Indigenous University, or the Universidad Autónoma Indígena Intercultural (UAII) in Colombia are enterprises which should be strongly supported to promote new articulations among indigenous peoples and the Academia  Provide online counseling to indigenous teachers and professors in conflictive situations with the national and regional educational systems
  • 20.  Supporting the organizations of indigenous educators in cultural and educational activities (training of indigenous educators, congresses, virtual forums, etc.).  Using the Internet to gather updated information about schools of indigenous modality, number of indigenous and non-indigenous educators and students, etc.  Strengthening regional educational portals such as RELPE to disseminate multilingual and multicultural educational contents.
  • 21.  Encouraging the creation and processing of and access to educational, cultural and scientific content in digital form in schools  Ensure that all cultures can express themselves and have access to the Internet in all languages, including indigenous ones  School teachers, computer technicians and librarians can be trained to become digitizing experts
  • 22.  Promoting multilingualism in the Internet so that everyone can have access to the content in their own language  Means: electronic translators, dictionaries and language tools for indigenous languages, translation of useful software tools, multilingual contents in government sites, tax incentives and subsidies for the development of content and software tools in local languages, among other possible actions  Promoting and supporting plurinational education portals, such as RELPE, in order to provide access search engines for multicultural and multilingual contents within Education Portals of Latin America and the Caribbean.