Susan M. Ferdon         Instructional Design Project Report       for EDTECH 503 (4172): Summer 2009          Submitted to...
TABLE OF CONTENTSSynthesis Reflection Paper                              3Part 1. Instructional Design Project Proposal   ...
Synthesis Reflection        While the instructional design process can be as simple as analyze, produce andevaluate, there...
and adopted curriculum materials (Spotlight on Music™). Next year, the focus will be onimplementation and the revision of ...
Part 1. Instructional Design Project ProposalMain category: SoftwareSubcategory: Creativity softwareSoftware: GarageBandAg...
Part 2. Front-end Analysis PlanPARTICIPANTSHow many people will you survey or interview to collect needs assessment data?I...
email they received containing the link. Those contacted by phone will have the optionof answering survey questions either...
Part 3. Front-End Analysis ReportSection 1: Characteristics of Participants     Instruction is being designed for general ...
3   More than         Primary      Beginning    Yes   Instruction in a        15 years           (K-2)         User       ...
Years of Experience     Deerfield teachers are an eclectic group in many ways. Our least experiencedteacher just completed...
Teaching Experience - General Music     Survey participants will teach grades preschool through grade 12 during the 2009-2...
community. In retrospect, had I worded the question a bit better,I would have gotten more complete information. It was not...
to know that how many learners (82% in all) have used a Mac in the past. While theinstruction that is being design assumes...
While that is 9% of all respondents, it represents 33% of Deerfield teachers. Thisdisparity is likely due, at least in par...
82% of survey participants indicated that they have used Macs in the past, so onething I looked at was the relative ease a...
The chart below indicates the total number of programs that participants arecomfortable using on Mac and PC. All participa...
than just general music, so audio examples should be varied to appeal to a somewhatdiverse group of learners.     While mo...
My second approach to determining learner needs was to include an open-endedquestion asking just that. While some responde...
Section 3: Explanation of learner preferences     Instruction will be in the form of self-paced instructional materials, b...
teachers who already use Macs have the greatest comfort with computers, the mostexperience with technology, and have alrea...
tremendously beneficial to have data from the 28 other teachers who took the survey.Instruction will not be limited to jus...
Part 4. Goal Analysis Document1: Goal statementGeneral Music teachers will record, edit and export audio files using Garag...
Part 5: Subskills Analysis & Entry Behaviors FlowchartEntry Behaviors:    •   Open GarageBand and iTunes.    •   Locate an...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Part 6: Learner and Context AnalysisLearner AnalysisEntry BehaviorsDATA SOURCE:Survey: Learner (online)CHARACTERISTIC:The ...
components must include the basics, with user-friendly directions, for the lessexperiences users. Selection of instruction...
General Learning PreferencesDATA SOURCE:Survey: Learner (online)CHARACTERISTIC:Most learners in the Deerfield group (5 of ...
Since online learners are accessing materials voluntarily, attitudes are expected to bepositive as well. However, learners...
Context Analysis: School EnvironmentsPERFORMANCECONTEXTSupport            NETS for Teachers:                   1. Facilita...
 Physical Aspects   Learners will access instructional materials online using a                   Mac computer. Physical a...
Part 7: Outline of Instructional ObjectivesGoal: General music teachers will record, edit and export audio filesusing Gara...
2.2. The learner will insert and edit bass loops, with contrasting pitch patterns, in the        A and B sections of the b...
3.3. The learner will evaluate recordings for musical accuracy and delete or re-record        as needed.4. Convert audio f...
Part 8: Learner Assessment Document     Instructional materials were designed for self-paced, independent study and arenot...
• Level 1: Students are unable to complete tasks. Progress has not yet been made.     • Level 2: Students are learning new...
II. Create an original composition using loops.    LEVEL                        WHAT IT LOOKS LIKELevel 1     I am not yet...
Level 4     I can connect any USB input device to my computer and use it to makeTransfer    recordings in classroom and pe...
Level 2     With step-by-step directions and visual aids, I am able to complete Lesson 4. IScaffolds   can burn a CD conta...
It is my hope that these Self-Assessment Rubrics will help learners select goalsfor further study. Descriptors will provid...
Part 9. Motivation Plan (ARCS)Project Goal Statement (Terminal Objective): General Music teachers willrecord, edit and exp...
instruction, Clusters may be skipped if students are already                        competent with those skills. Instructi...
C.3. Learners are using their own computers and software to                          interact with instructional materials...
Part 10. Sample Lesson PlansGarageBand Tutorial Lesson 1STATED OBJECTIVE: Use GarageBand software to import and edit an   ...
STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students may use the sample GarageBand file to practice the variousediting techniques...
GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 2STATED OBJECTIVE: Use GarageBand loops to create an original                    Objective #com...
Media selection:  1) Instructional materials will be housed on a website. Instructions will be included      on the webpag...
GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 3STATED OBJECTIVE: The learner will use content of A and B                      Objective #sect...
STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students may begin by using the sample GarageBand file to practiceadding to, and edit...
GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 4STATED OBJECTIVE: Export audio in a variety of formats for CD and               Objective #web...
STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students will open one of the GarageBand projects they have createdthus far and burn ...
GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 5STATED OBJECTIVE: Convert audio files for use with GarageBand.                      Objective ...
Feedback: While there will be no direct feedback, students will be capable of observingwhether or not each step has been c...
GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 6STATED OBJECTIVE: Import audio files, including MIDI, .ogg, and                     Objective ...
import a .ogg file, save it, use Switch to convert it, and drag it into a GarageBand project.Next, students will click on ...
GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 7STATED OBJECTIVE: Use GarageBand to record audio content with                  Objective #real...
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  1. 1. Susan M. Ferdon Instructional Design Project Report for EDTECH 503 (4172): Summer 2009 Submitted to: Dr. Ross A. Perkins August 2, 2009 Project Goal: General Music teachers will record, edit and export audio files using GarageBand software. 
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSSynthesis Reflection Paper 3Part 1. Instructional Design Project Proposal 5Part 2. Front-end Analysis Plan 6Part 3. Front-end Analysis Report 8Part 4: Goal Analysis 22Part 5: Subskills Analysis and Entry Behaviors 23Part 6: Learner and Context Analysis 34Part 7: Instructional Objectives 40Part 8: Learner Assessment 43Part 9. Motivation Plan (ARCS) 49Part 10. Sequence and Timing and Sample Lesson Plans 52Part 11. Instructional Materials 66Part 12. Formative Evaluation Plan 122Appendix 124 
  3. 3. Synthesis Reflection While the instructional design process can be as simple as analyze, produce andevaluate, there are a number of models that provide the instructional designer withguidelines and a means of assessing quality. Though models will differ in their approachto instructional design they will typically follow similar processes. The ADDIE process iscommonly used in the design of instruction: • Analyze the needs of learners and the institution providing the instruction. • Design instruction to meet the needs of stakeholders, particularly the client. • Develop instructional materials that meet stated goals and objectives. • Implement the instruction that has been designed. • Evaluate effectiveness of the instruction (formative and summative) and achievement of the learner as they relate to instructional objectives.The successful instructional designer will be familiar with a variety of approaches –systems theory, postmodern, rapid prototyping – and will use an eclectic approach thatmeets the specific needs of an instructional design project. Each instructional designcontext is different and no single approach can account for all variables. Though it is notthe only systems approach, Brown and Green (2006) note that “Dick and Carey’ssystems approach model is a classic example of performing an instructional design tasksystematically” (p. 10-11). A system is defined as interrelated parts that depend on eachother for success and in a systems approach to instructional design, “the instructor,learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning andperformance environments interact and work with each other to bring abut desiredstudent learning outcomes” (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009, p.1). A systems approach recognizes that the effectiveness of each part will affect thesuccess of the entire design. Within that process, however, the two components Ibelieve to be most important are analysis and evaluation. Analysis is the beginning ofthe design process and the goals and objectives that are identified will be the foundationupon which the rest of the design will be built. Instruction that based upon flawed goalswill not produce desired results. Once all other components are in place, the evaluationpiece, including a Subject Matter Expert review, will ensure that instruction is efficient,effective and appealing. As I completed coursework for this class, I found that work I have done whileserving on school district committees (report cards, assessment, curriculum, self-directed earning) aligns well with theories, models and methodologies presented by theauthors. I was not familiar with specific approaches and steps, but the processesseemed logical, and many procedures were much like those we have used in generalmusic over the years. One of the reasons I am attracted to instructional design is that Ilove when something that can be very amorphous is approached in a very systematicmanner. A task that could be huge and directionless is made manageable and orderly. As I learned more about instructional design, I have thought a great deal aboutthe Curriculum Renewal and Redesign process that the general music department inmy district is currently working through. We revised curriculum Outcomes for grades K-8!
  4. 4. and adopted curriculum materials (Spotlight on Music™). Next year, the focus will be onimplementation and the revision of district-wide assessments. Up to this point, thestrengths of our curriculum have been overshadowed by a lack of instructionalmaterials. Years ago, the district purchased Share the Music™ teacher editions andaudio CDs (1995 edition), but teachers did not use the materials consistently astextbooks and related materials had not been purchased. Though teachers liked thefreedom of using any materials they desired (and could obtain), lack of sufficientinstructional materials meant that teachers were designing the instruction for everyclass, every day, all year, every year. Evidently, I’ve been an instructional designer for26 years and didn’t even know it! The good news is that I have become adept at cranking out instructionalmaterials, but the bad news is that the systematic aspect that is so critical toinstructional design has been missing from my process. On a daily basis, I wasimmersed in the “DDI” portion of ADDIE, but rarely had any “A” or “E.” There was littletime to assess the needs of my 400+ students, collaborate with other teachers, or doany sort of formative or summative evaluations. As I considered this “Teacher asUntrained Designer” model of instruction, it occurred to me that ramifications forteaching and learning were monumental. Teachers that have been considered mosteffective are, on reflection, those whose approach has been sequential, methodical andorganized. It may be that those considered less effective are simply poor designers.Disassociating teaching ability from design ability is difficult, at best. With instructional materials now on hand, Deerfield music teachers will be able tofocus more on teaching and learning and less on designing and developing. Wheninstruction does need to be designed, however, I will be able to take a systematicapproach and incorporate all components of the ADDIE process, not just “DDI.” Asnoted by Dick, Carey and Carey, teachers benefit from the study of instructional designbecause “mastery of the full model establishes the experience and insight to properlyselect the right pieces of the instructional design process according to specificinstructional needs” (p. 10). With a degree in educational technology, and a growingunderstanding of instructional design, I will be in a good position to provide leadershipfor district music teachers as we continue to make program improvements. “‘One of the enduring difficulties about technology and education,’ according toDr. Martha Stone Wiske, … at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, ‘is that a lotof people think about the technology first and the education later’” (Schacter, 1999,p.10). Educational technologists are, however, in a unique position to positively affectboth education and technology. Teachers are frequently called upon to designcomponents of classroom instruction and develop instructional materials, but manyhave limited experience and few have adequate training. The educational technologistcan assist teachers in finding effective uses for technology tools and help keep thefocus on educational goals, rather than the technology itself. !!! !!
  5. 5. Part 1. Instructional Design Project ProposalMain category: SoftwareSubcategory: Creativity softwareSoftware: GarageBandAge Group of Participants: Adult learnersMeans of Delivery: Web-basedDescription of Purpose: The purpose of this instruction is to introduce adult learnersto GarageBand software and provide guided practice in completing basic tasks: creatingfiles, basics of recording, using loops and software instruments to create simplecompositions, editing, and exporting songs for web and CD. Though instruction isappropriate for any adult learner, my goal is for materials to be used by music teachersin my school district. For the 2010-11 school year, general music classrooms in ourdistrict will be equipped with five MacBooks and teacher training is needed on thesoftware that students will be using for composition.SME Name: Christine WellsSME Email address: cprintz80@yahoo.comRelationship to SME/His or her experience: Christine is a K-5 general music teacherin my school district. She is an experienced Mac-user and uses GarageBand for avariety of purposes. 
  6. 6. Part 2. Front-end Analysis PlanPARTICIPANTSHow many people will you survey or interview to collect needs assessment data?I will survey the six K-8 general music teachers who are the learners targeted for thisinstruction. Using an identical instrument, I will survey a minimum of four additionalgeneral music teachers. Keeping data from the targeted learners separate will ensurethat instruction will fit their needs. Data from additional teachers will help ensure that theinstruction will also be effective for a wider audience.Where will you find these potential participants?The survey for District 109 teachers will be linked in an email. Since it is summer andmost teachers don’t check email every day, I will call each of the six teachers, and askthem to complete the survey. For those teachers outside the district, I will send an emailwith that survey linked, asking them to complete the survey and forward the email toother music teachers friends. I will also post a link to the survey on the Music TechieTeachers Ning (http://musictechieteachers.ning.com/).What are the top three things you want to learn about the participants needs?1) Participants’ experience using software/hardware for personal and professional useas well as with students in class.2) Participants’ previous experience using GarageBand.3) Participants’ comfort level with computers and preferred learning style.LOGISTICSWhat kind of instrument(s)/tools /techniques will you use to collect data for theanalysis?I will create a web-based survey using SurveyMonkey. There will be 14 multiple-choicequestions and three open-ended questions. Four questions will relate to learnerbackground, four to hardware used, five to software, two questions will relate toGarageBand, and two will relate to learners’ comfort level using computers andpreferred learning style. Responses will be collected using two identical surveys; one forDeerfield general music teachers and another for any other music teachers whorespond.Where will the actual collection of data for the analysis take place?All participants will receive a link to the survey online. Learners who are part of thetarget audience will be contacted by phone, told about the survey, and informed of the 
  7. 7. email they received containing the link. Those contacted by phone will have the optionof answering survey questions either via phone interview or online. Survey questions,whether answered online or by phone, will be identical. The survey will be open fromJune 26th through July 1st, 2009. 
  8. 8. Part 3. Front-End Analysis ReportSection 1: Characteristics of Participants Instruction is being designed for general music teachers in School District 109, aK-8 district comprising four elementary schools and two middle schools in Deerfield,Illinois. There are currently seven general music teachers in the district, of which I amone. All six of the other Deerfield teachers took the survey, as did 28 other musicteachers. After the survey window closed, data from the six Deerfield respondents wasmanually added to that collected from non-109 respondents, 34 in all. For purposes of this report, respondent-specific data will be limited to the sixDeerfield teachers and survey data, in general, will reflect all 34 respondents. Completesurvey results may be viewed online:http://www.surveymonkey.com/sr.aspx?sm=FYrfNErZfSuazDt9mMbxPZLMvNGk_2b3kccWyapgOIpv0_3dParticipant Years of Grade GarageBand Used a Learning Preference Experience Levels Experience Mac Before? 1 More than Middle Beginning Yes Instruction in a 15 years School (6-8) User class or workshop with teacher present along with self-paced materials to complete on my own. 2 Less than Primary Experienced Yes Instruction in a 15 years (K-2) User class or workshop Intermediate with teacher (3-5) present. 
  9. 9. 3 More than Primary Beginning Yes Instruction in a 15 years (K-2) User class or workshop Intermediate with teacher (3-5) present along with self-paced materials to complete on my own. I need time to figure things out so they soak in. 4 11 – 15 Primary No previous No Instruction in a years (K-2) experience class or workshop Intermediate with teacher (3-5) present along with self-paced materials to complete on my own. 5 More than Middle No previous No Instruction in a 15 years School (6-8) experience class or workshop with teacher present. 6 5 - 10 years Primary Experienced Yes I like to figure it (K-2) User out by myself. As Intermediate a last resort, I will (3-5) read the manual or search for answers to my questions. 
  10. 10. Years of Experience Deerfield teachers are an eclectic group in many ways. Our least experiencedteacher just completed her first year of teaching and our most experienced teacher hasbeen eligible for retirement for a number of years. Of the four survey participants (12%of total) with more than 15 years of experience, three of them are from Deerfield. While50% of learners in the Deerfield group have 15 or more years of teaching experience,the majority of those who will likely use the materials are teachers with significantly lessexperience in the classroom. 
  11. 11. Teaching Experience - General Music Survey participants will teach grades preschool through grade 12 during the 2009-2010 school year, with the most common grades taught (70%) being grades 3 - 5.Deerfield percentages are comparable in that Intermediate is the largest sub-group,followed by Middle School. One Deerfield teacher will teach a preschool special needsclass and none will teach high school, as it is a K-8 district.Teaching Experience - Other On the survey, teachers were asked to list any teaching experience outside ofgeneral music. My purpose here was twofold: 1) Even though the survey was"anonymous" I wanted to be able to match Deerfield teachers with their responses.Knowing which information went with which learner will help me to address individualneeds more efficiently. 2) Since survey data will be shared on the MusicTechieTeachersblog, I wanted to provide information that would be of interested to the wider teacher 
  12. 12. community. In retrospect, had I worded the question a bit better,I would have gotten more complete information. It was not always clear whether otherteaching duties listed were in addition to, or in place of, general music and whether ornot duties were concurrent. Respondents listed a variety of instructional duties, most ofwhich could be enhancedby use of GarageBand to produce media for class use. Also, many of those respondinghave the capability of using GarageBand with their students.See chart:https://spreadsheets.google.com/a/u.boisestate.edu/ccc?key=0AraAQcsMu2HZclRsTGdDNkY2ZEZ5VTVFSDQ2eXdwMFE&hl=enNon-music teaching duties listed were childrens literature instructor (college level),dance, drama, elementary classroom teacher, Physical Education, preschool, schoollibrarian, substitute teacher and YMCA assistant site director.Computer Experience - Hardware Participants were asked what type of computers they currently use at school, athome, and in the past. Since GarageBand software is only available for Mac, it is helpful 
  13. 13. to know that how many learners (82% in all) have used a Mac in the past. While theinstruction that is being design assumes that the learner will have the hardware andsoftware required to complete all tasks, the amount of previous experience learnershave with the hardware and operating system will impact their progress. This area isone in which data for Deerfield teachers is less similar to the surveygroup. DEERFIELD Home - Current School - Current In the Past TEACHERS Mac Only 3 (50%) 0 0 PC Only 3 (50%) 5 (83%) 1 (17%) Mac and PC 0 1 (17%) 4 (67%) Other 0 0 1 (17%)OTHER TEACHERS Home - Current School - Current In the Past SURVEYED Mac Only 7 (25%) 9 (32%) 0 PC Only 13 (46%) 14 (50%) 4 (14%) Mac and PC 8 (29%) 5 (18%) 24 (86%) Other 0 0 0 The Deerfield teacher listed as "other" indicated that she currently uses PCs bothat home and at school. Computers she has used in the past are PC, Apple and IBMmainframe computers. It is interesting to note that while 29% of other teachers use bothMacs and PCs at home, Deerfield teachers seem to have stronger allegiance one wayor the other. None use both Mac and PC at home and they are evenly split between thetwo. Not only will these learners be new to GarageBand software, the potential is therefor them to be somewhat resistant to using a Mac. In regard to computer use in the classroom, 50% of Deerfield teachers and 65% ofall respondents, indicated that computers are used only by the teacher. One Deerfieldteacher (17%) and 26% of all respondents indicated that computers are used byteachers and students alike. Two of the three respondents, overall, that indicated thatcomputers are not used in their classrooms (by teacher or students) are from Deerfield. 
  14. 14. While that is 9% of all respondents, it represents 33% of Deerfield teachers. Thisdisparity is likely due, at least in part, to the fact that 76%-82% of all survey participants,members of the MusicTechieTeacher Ning where the survey link was posted, are self-proclaimed "techies."Computer Experience - Software Survey participants were asked to indicate which types of Mac and PC softwarethey felt comfortable using. While this information will not directly impact the nature ofthe instructional design, it does provide a general impression of the comfort levellearners will have toward learning new software. Those with more limited experiencemay find the task of learning new software to be more daunting, while those whoalready use a wider variety of software may feel quite at home with the task. A greaterawareness of learner experiences and attitudes will aid in the design create instructionthat will be more appealing. 
  15. 15. 82% of survey participants indicated that they have used Macs in the past, so onething I looked at was the relative ease at which both types of computers were used. Inlooking at the number of software programs each participant indicated comfort with, thetotal number for both Mac and PC was calculated. Although five of six Deerfieldteachers indicated past experience with both Mac and PC, data related to software useindicates greater experience with PCs. This is contrasted by data from other teachers inwhich those with more PC experience (43%) is very similar in number to those withmore Mac experience (46%). The table below indicates the relative difference betweenthe number of programs participants are comfortable using on PC and Mac. Same Difference Difference Difference More More Number of One of Two Greater PC Mac Than Two Deerfield 2 (33%) 2 (33%) 1 (17%) 1 (17%) 3 (50%) 1 (17%) Only Other 3 (11%) 8 (29%) 8 (29%) 9 (32%) 12 13 Teachers (43%) (46%) 
  16. 16. The chart below indicates the total number of programs that participants arecomfortable using on Mac and PC. All participants indicated that they are comfortableusing PC software for email and word processing. With PCs being more widely used, itis not surprising that a greater number of participants are comfortable using at least twotypes of PC software.See chart:https://spreadsheets.google.com/a/u.boisestate.edu/ccc?key=0AraAQcsMu2HZckFrMkh5OE1FZmtVVnpzaW5hSXRoLXc&hl=enSection 2: Explanation of learning needs discovered Data show that participants years of experience teaching and teaching duties arevaried. Although Deerfield teachers surveyed teach only K-8 general and vocal music,the wider audience must be considered. Designing more "generic" instruction will helpto ensure that it will be appealing to all who may want to learn how to use GarageBandsoftware. The largest sub-groups taught are grades 3-8, and many teachers teach more 
  17. 17. than just general music, so audio examples should be varied to appeal to a somewhatdiverse group of learners. While most respondents (82%) have used both, survey data show that learners willlikely have more experience and a greater comfort level with a PC than with a Mac.Instruction will be designed with the assumption that learners have the hardware andsoftware required, but their experience using Macs will vary greatly between those whoown a Mac and use it at home regularly, those who use Macs only at school, and thoselike the Deerfield teachers, who will be new to both Macs and GarageBand. Instructionis not intended to be a tutorial on how to find your way around a Mac, but cannot takefor granted that learners are experienced Mac users. While previous data help to create an overall impression of the learner, surveyquestions related specifically to GarageBand provide more concrete information uponwhich to base instruction. To help determining learner needs, I approached this fromtwo fronts. First, I asked what participants could already do. Knowing what people arealready comfortable with helped me prioritize tasks and guide the sequencing ofinstruction. Data show that32% of survey participants have never used GarageBand,50% consider themselves beginning users, and 17% consider themselves experiencedusers. The Deerfield group is evenly split with two teachers at each level. Thoseparticipants with experience using GarageBand (19 of 34) were asked to indicate tasksthat they felt comfortable completing: 74% felt comfortable importing files from iTunesand editing files/tracks. 68% felt comfortable using loops and exporting to iTunes, and58% felt comfortable recording with real and software instrument. The two participants(both from Deerfield) who indicated "other" said they did not feel comfortable completingany of the listed tasks. 
  18. 18. My second approach to determining learner needs was to include an open-endedquestion asking just that. While some responded "all of the above" or "lots," there werespecific tasks that can be addressed. Five of the tasks listed in the previous question(chart above) were listed as things survey participants wanted to learn and will beincluded in the instruction being designed. In addition, respondents listed five things thatthey wanted to learn that I had not previously considered: • Sync up loops better • Improving sound quality • I would like more unit ideas (and more computers) to get kids using Garageband in concrete ways • Good lesson plans for teaching students • Im not sure...maybe more complex projectsSyncing loops and improving sound quality can be easily incorporated into instruction.Unit ideas, lesson plans and more complex projects are outside the score of thisinstruction, but additional resources may be included as part of instructional materials. 
  19. 19. Section 3: Explanation of learner preferences Instruction will be in the form of self-paced instructional materials, but learnerpreferences can guide how those materials are developed. Participants were asked toselect one of five statements describing their comfort level using computers. While it isinteresting to know how all participants answered this question, I was particularlyinterested in the Deerfield group as this is my primary target audience. As expected,Deerfield teachers do not feel as comfortable as those who are associated with theMusicTechieTeachers site. Deerfield Only Survey TotalI do not feel comfortable 1 (17%) 3%using computers.I feel comfortable with the 2 (33%) 9%basics (email, wordprocessing).I feel comfortable using 1 (17%) 21%several types of software.I feel comfortable using 2 (33%) 69%software and online tools(blogging and Internet, forexample).I am a technological wiz – 0 6%the computer is my bestfriend. I expect that those who will access materials through the MusicTechieTeacherssite will be eager learners seeking out instruction. They have greater experience withcomputers in general, and Macs in particular. Because those learners are strewn aboutcyberspace, there is no chance that instruction would be anything other that self-pacedindependent work. They have more experience using a variety of software and most(69%) are comfortable using software and online tools. I would expect this group oflearners to have a very positive attitude toward the subject matter and instructionalmaterials. The Deerfield group is comprised of two very distinct sub-groups. The three 
  20. 20. teachers who already use Macs have the greatest comfort with computers, the mostexperience with technology, and have already used GarageBand. Based onobservational data, these three teachers are eager and excited for the newopportunities that the addition of Macs and GarageBand will have for their classrooms.They will be very willing learners. The three teachers who have little or no experiencewith Macs have the least comfort with computers, the least experience with technology,and dont use computers in their classrooms. They will likely be a captive audience,taking part in mandated instruction. While I hope they will also be willing learners, thereis every chance that they may feel overwhelmed and less than eager to tackle thisunfamiliar task. Despite these facts, no one checked "I would rather not learn newsoftware," so I am hopeful that all learners will have some degree of openness to theinstructional tasks. For the Deerfield group, it would be my recommendation to the school district thatface-to-face instruction occur. The self-paced instructional materials being developedcould provide the bulk of the instruction and an instructor could be on hand to assistlearners and answer questions. This is in keeping with the learning preferences thatDeerfield teachers indicated on their surveys. Five of the six said they preferred thatteacher-led instruction be part of learning new software. Three of those five, preferredself-paced instructional materials along with teacher-led instruction. One teacherindicated that her preference was to figure it out on her own and, as a last resort, readthe manual. If Deerfield teachers are able to work their way through instructionalmaterials during common meeting time, it would be beneficial to arrange seating so thathome PC users were in close proximity to home Mac users so that help would be nearat hand.Section 4: Influence on general goals or approach The tasks, and their sequence, that will comprise instruction were modified frommy original plan based in large part on survey data from teachers with previousexperience using GarageBand. Data from survey participants originally targeted forinstruction (Deerfield) is limited due to the small size of that group, so it was 
  21. 21. tremendously beneficial to have data from the 28 other teachers who took the survey.Instruction will not be limited to just those tasks that more experienced users arealready comfortable with, however. In order for instruction to meet the needs of alllearners, tasks involving more advanced skills must also be included. One respondentwants to learn how to sync loops better, which can be incorporated into Task II: Createan original composition using loops. Another survey participant wants to learn how toimprove sound quality, which can be addressed in Task IV: Convert files for use withGarageBand. The challenge will be to design instruction that meets the needs of noviceusers and provides a bit of challenge for more experiences users, while remainingwithin the constraints of the required time frame. Because learners have a wide variety of experiences and comfort levels, I wouldexpect the pace at which they move through instructional materials to vary greatly.Learners with some previous experience are likely to be comfortable with the first threetasks already (see below), whereas novice users would benefit from taking extra timeon just the first two tasks. I decided to order tasks in such a way that, at any point,learners are able to skip to Task VI and thus complete the final step necessary forcompleting a GarageBand project - exporting audio.Tasks for GarageBand Instruction:I. Import and edit existing audio file from iTunes.II. Create an original composition using loops.III. Record using read and software instruments.IV. Convert files for use with GarageBand.V. Import audio files, including MIDI, .ogg and loops, from online sources.VI. Export audio in a variety of file formats for CD and web. Regardless of previous experience or learner attitudes, it is my hope that alllearners can come away from instruction with specific skills they are able to use tocomplete a GarageBand project from beginning to end. 
  22. 22. Part 4. Goal Analysis Document1: Goal statementGeneral Music teachers will record, edit and export audio files using GarageBandsoftware.2: Outline of major goal tasksI. Import and edit existing audio file from iTunes.II. Create an original composition using loops.III. Record using real and software instruments.IV. Convert files for use with GarageBand.V. Import audio files, including MIDI, .ogg and loops, from online sources.VI. Export audio in a variety of file formats for CD and web.3: SME Review I have been in frequent contact with Mrs. Christine Wells, the Subject MatterExpert, regarding the Instructional Design Project and she was supplied with a copy ofthis goal analysis document. She was satisfied with the goal statement and commentedthat it was clear and concise. She believes that this task will capitalize on the mainfeatures of GarageBand that music teachers would want/need to use. In addition, shebelieves those tasks to be ones teachers would focus on with their students. Mrs. Wellsrecommended that I use the most recent version of GarageBand so that instructionwould be reflective of the most current of available technology. 
  23. 23. Part 5: Subskills Analysis & Entry Behaviors FlowchartEntry Behaviors: • Open GarageBand and iTunes. • Locate and use basic navigation buttons in GarageBand: play, stop, forward one measure, back one measure, go to beginning of song. • Knows basic terminology: region, timeline, loop (noun), loop (verb). • Switch between LCD modes: measures, time, key/tempo/signature, chord. • Connect audio input devices: USB microphone, USB keyboard. • Drag and drop files from one window to another. • Use mouse and keyboard arrows to set cursor location. • Learner has basic GarageBand loops only (no JamPacks). • As new skills are learned, they can be applied to new tracks/regions/loops without repeating step-by-step instructions. 
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  34. 34. Part 6: Learner and Context AnalysisLearner AnalysisEntry BehaviorsDATA SOURCE:Survey: Learner (online)CHARACTERISTIC:The Deerfield group is comprised of six adult learners who are general music teachers.Three are comfortable with both PC and Mac and use a variety of technologies on aregular basis. Three have little or no experience with Macs and have not usedcomputers in their classrooms. All have prior experience with mouse and keyboardcontrols, data entry, opening/closing and moving files. All learners are able to operateon-screen controls in GarageBand.The online group is comprised of music teachers who are members of theMusicTechieTeacher Ning. 3% of survey participants (compared to 17% of Deerfieldgroup) indicated that they are not comfortable using computers, and 69% (compared to33%) are comfortable using software and online tools.IMPLICATION:Those learners with less experience will benefit from having information presentedusing a variety of formats (text, graphics, multimedia). Video tutorials will provide lessexperienced learners with a greater level of support than would be possible using printmaterials alone. Learners with more experience will benefit from print overviews thatcan be skimmed or used as a resource as needed.Prior Knowledge of Subject AreaDATA SOURCE:Observation and online Learner SurveyCHARACTERISTIC:All learners in the Deerfield group are Illinois teachers, and meet state requirements for“Highly Qualified” status, including a minimum of 30 hours of content-specific collegecoursework. Two learners are experienced GarageBand users, two are beginningusers, and two have never used GarageBand, or a Mac, before. In the online group14% are experienced GarageBand users, 54% are beginning users and 32% havenever used GarageBand before.IMPLICATION:Though the Deerfield group of learners is small, their needs are diverse. Instructional 
  35. 35. components must include the basics, with user-friendly directions, for the lessexperiences users. Selection of instructional components should be such that alllearners have the opportunity to acquire new skills.Academic MotivationDATA SOURCE:Observation and online Learner SurveyCHARACTERISTIC:For those learners in the Deerfield group, the school district will be acquiringMacs/GarageBand and general music teachers will be required to use the software withtheir students for compositional tasks. Survey comments indicate that four of sixlearners in the Deerfield group are eager to participate in the instruction. Learners in theonline group will be accessing materials voluntarily for personal or professional use.IMPLICATION:For the Deerfield group instruction will be mandated, so learner attitudes may vary.While it may be assumed that learners in the online group are willing volunteers, theremay be some who are required to use GarageBand software and are seeking trainingopportunities. Creation of attractive, user-friendly instructional materials will help toestablish a positive learning environment for all.Educational and Ability LevelsDATA SOURCE:Document Research and online Learner SurveyCHARACTERISTIC:All learners are college graduates. In the Deerfield group, four have completed master’sdegrees and the other two are currently enrolled in masters programs. Whileeducational levels are advanced, experience and ability with technology varies greatly.IMPLICATION:Use of professional adult language is appropriate and should be reflective of thelearner’s understanding of musical concepts and demonstration of productive workhabits. Software-specific language should be geared towards those with the no priorGarageBand experience. 
  36. 36. General Learning PreferencesDATA SOURCE:Survey: Learner (online)CHARACTERISTIC:Most learners in the Deerfield group (5 of 6) prefer instruction in a class or workshopsetting with an instructor present. Three of those five (50% of total) indicated that theywould like self-paced instructional materials as a continuation of initial face-to-faceinstruction. The Deerfield learner with the greatest comfort-level with computers ingeneral, and the most experience with GarageBand in particular, was the only one whoprefers to figure out new software on her own.In the online group, 43% of learners (compared to 17% of Deerfield group) prefer tofigure out new software by themselves and will, as a last resort, read the manual. 39%(compared to 83%) prefer instruction in a class or workshop setting, with an instructorpresent. 18% (compared to 50%) prefer self-paced materials completed on their own.IMPLICATION:While face-to-face instruction is not within project guidelines, offering suggestions foradapting use of materials should be included. In Deerfield, the possibility of usingmaterials in conjunction with in-district professional development is worth investigatingand would address the strong preferences of those learners. Many learners in the onlinegroup prefer to figure things out on their own and may choose to use materials as asupplement their own learning processes. Accordingly, materials should be organized insuch a way that learner can easily access portions of interest. Learners accessingmaterials online, who prefer face-to-face instruction, may benefit from working throughmaterials with a colleague.Attitudes towards Person(s) or Organizations Providing Training or EducationDATA SOURCE:Deerfield Group - ObservationCHARACTERISTIC:Historically, professional development in the Deerfield Public Schools has been plannedand delivered by district administrators, with outside speakers and experts sometimesincluded. General music teachers have been permitted to plan and deliver staffdevelopment within their small department, once or twice each year, for the last severalyears. Music teachers are extremely pleased with how directly these staff developmentopportunities have applied to their teaching positions. The Deerfield teachers surveyedare among the group that recently revised the district’s General Music Curriculum.IMPLICATION:For this instruction, Deerfield learners will likely view the General Music Department –themselves – as the organization providing instruction. Because they wrote thecurriculum that necessitates learning this software, attitudes are expected to be positive. 
  37. 37. Since online learners are accessing materials voluntarily, attitudes are expected to bepositive as well. However, learners from either group may have previous experienceswith online instructional materials that may color their attitudes.Group CharacteristicsDATA SOURCE:Survey: Learner (online)CHARACTERISTIC:All learners are English language proficient music teachers. 96% of those surveyedteach in vocal music, general music, and instrumental music settings in K-12 publicschools. Most of the 34 teachers surveyed have 10 or fewer years of teachingexperience. The learners in the Deerfield group teach in neighboring schools, are wellknown to each other, and maintain communication throughout the school year. Learnersin the online group may or may not have personal contact with someone who is familiarwith GarageBand.IMPLICATION:Designing instruction to meet the needs of those with the least access to technicalsupport will help ensure that instruction will meet needs of a more diverse group oflearners. It will be possible to observe the Deerfield group using the materials soinformal usability testing will be possible. Based on that information, instructionalmaterials can be revised. 
  38. 38. Context Analysis: School EnvironmentsPERFORMANCECONTEXTSupport NETS for Teachers: 1. Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity Teachers use their knowledge of subject matter, teaching and learning, and technology to facilitate experiences that advance student learning, creativity, and innovation in both face-to-face and virtual environments. Teachers: a. promote, support, and model creative and innovative thinking and inventiveness. b. engage students in exploring real-world issues and solving authentic problems using digital tools and resources. 2. Design and Develop Digital-Age Learning Experiences and Assessments Teachers design, develop, and evaluate authentic learning experiences and assessments incorporating contemporary tools and resources to maximize content learning in context and to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes identified in the NETS•S. Teachers: a. design or adapt relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools and resources to promote student learning and creativity. 3. Model Digital-Age Work and Learning Teachers exhibit knowledge, skills, and work processes representative of an innovative professional in a global and digital society. Teachers: a. demonstrate fluency in technology systems and the transfer of current knowledge to new technologies and situations. 
  39. 39.  Physical Aspects Learners will access instructional materials online using a Mac computer. Physical aspects of the learning environment will be dependent upon the location the learner chooses for completing the instructional tasks.Social Aspects Learners are expected to complete instruction independently. The Deerfield group is a close-knit network and those in the online group communicate via the MusicTechieTeacher blog.Relevance Instruction is being provided to the Deerfield group so they can use the software for professional use and with students. Learners in the online group will be able to use GarageBand software for personal use, professional use, and/or with their students.LEARNINGCONTEXTCompatibility Learners using personal computers may configure the learning environment in any way they choose. Learners using employer-owned equipment may have the ability to set up the room to suit their needs. If a shared space is used, learners are advised to use headphones instead of speakers.Adaptability for No changes to the physical environment are needed.simulation Conditions for assessment are the same as for instruction and practice.Delivery Instructional materials will be accessed online. Materials mayaccommodations be downloaded, so Internet access is required only at the onset of instruction. Members of the Deerfield group will be able to access materials via the Internet, a shared network folder, and/or a district SharePoint site.Learning-site Availability of electricity and Internet connectivity at individualconstraints learning-site locations may impact the learner’s ability to access instructional materials.  
  40. 40. Part 7: Outline of Instructional ObjectivesGoal: General music teachers will record, edit and export audio filesusing GarageBand software.With 100% accuracy, music teachers will:1. Use GarageBand software to import and edit an audio file from iTunes. 1.1. The learner will modify track settings (tracks, metronome, on-screen keyboard) in a new GarageBand project. 1.2. The learner will use the “drag and drop” method to move an audio file from iTunes into GarageBand. 1.3. The learner will edit track regions by splitting, moving, deleting, copying and pasting content. 1.3.1. The learner will place cursor at precise location where split is desired. 1.3.2. The learner will use “drag and drop” method to move regions. 1.3.3. The learner will use keyboard and menu commands to delete, copy and paste selected regions. 1.4. The learner will apply “loop” function to repeat a track region.2. Use GarageBand loops to create an original composition in ABA form, with eight- measure phrases, for drums, bass and piano. 2.1. The learner will select and use GarageBand drum loops to create two eight- measure phrases (A and B) with contrasting rhythms. 2.1.1. The learner will open loop browser and sort loops so that only drum loops in the preferred style are visible. 2.1.2. The learner will listen to loops then drag and drop desired drum loops into the timeline. 2.1.3. The learner will edit drum loops, as needed, to create two eight-measure phrases (A and B) with contrasting rhythms. 
  41. 41. 2.2. The learner will insert and edit bass loops, with contrasting pitch patterns, in the A and B sections of the bass track. 2.2.1. The learner will click on “reset” then sort loops so that only bass loops in the preferred style are visible. 2.2.2. The learner will insert desired bass loops and edit, as needed, to create two eight-measure phrases (A and B) with contrasting pitches, which align with drum loops previously selected. 2.3. The learner will insert and edit piano loops, with contrasting pitch patterns, in the A and B sections of the piano track. 2.3.1. The learner will sort loops so that only piano loops in the preferred style are visible. 2.3.2. The learner will insert desired piano loops and edit, as needed, to create two eight-measure phrases (A and B) with contrasting pitches, which align with drum and bass loops previously selected. 2.4. The learner will use content of A and B sections to create a GarageBand composition in ABA form that has sections labeled. 2.4.1. Using the Arrangement Track, the learner will add a label, eight measures in length, above the “A” section of the song. The learner will click on text that reads “untitled” and change to “A section.” 2.4.2. Using the Arrangement Track, the learner will add a label, eight measures in length and titled correctly, to the “B” section of the song. 2.4.3. The learner will copy regions from all three tracks of the “A” section, paste them at the end of the “B” section, and label them correctly in the Arrangement Track.3. Use GarageBand to record audio content with real and software instruments. 3.1. The learner will use a USB microphone to record audio content played on a real instrument. 3.2. The learner will use musical typing, the on-screen keyboard, and an external MIDI keyboard to record audio content for a software instrument. 
  42. 42. 3.3. The learner will evaluate recordings for musical accuracy and delete or re-record as needed.4. Convert audio files for use with GarageBand. 4.1. The learner will determine which audio files are compatible with GarageBand and iTunes. 4.2. Using iTunes and Switch software, the learner will convert non-compatible audio files to mp3.5. Import audio files, including MIDI, .ogg and loops, from online sources. 5.1. The learner will locate public domain and/or Creative Commons audio files on two or more websites. 5.2. The learner will download a minimum of one MIDI and one .ogg file from online sources. 5.3. The learner will download a free, public domain loop from the Internet then add it to a GarageBand project and their Loop Library.6. Export audio in a variety of formats for CD and web. 6.1. The learner will use GarageBand to burn a single project to disc. 6.2. The learner will share a GarageBand project with iTunes. 6.3. The learner will use iTunes to burn a playlist containing multiple songs. 
  43. 43. Part 8: Learner Assessment Document Instructional materials were designed for self-paced, independent study and arenot part of a graded course. Most learners who complete instructional tasks are doingso voluntarily and will not expect to have their learning formally assessed. Learners inthe Deerfield group will complete instruction as part of in-service training on the useApple computers and GarageBand software, which will be new to their classrooms. Twoinstruments are included in this instruction to allow learners to self-assess the quantityof tasks completed as well as the quality of understanding that has been achieved. For all lessons, learners may download the corresponding Practice Items PDF anduse it to track progress and jot down information. For those learners who wish to gobeyond a checklist, the Self-Assessment Rubric may be used to measure skilldevelopment related to each goal. In the Deerfield group, the Self-Assessment Rubricswill also be used as diagnostic tools. Those in leadership will observe students’ skilllevel, track progress, and adjust training and support to ensure learner success in usingGarageBand software to meet curricular objectives. When considering ways to measure progress and achievement, the learning ofGarageBand creativity software can be thought of as a continuum. At one end of thecontinuum, we will see students moving cautiously through new tasks with scaffolds inplace to ensure success. As students progress, they become increasingly independentand the intensity and duration of scaffolds are reduced. At the other end of thecontinuum, we will see students transfer skills to new situations and achieve a depthand breadth of understanding that goes well beyond original instruction. For GarageBand instruction, more intensive scaffolds are in the form of screencasttutorials and visuals to augment text-based information. Once learners have gainedfoundational knowledge, they may discontinue use of more intensive supports andinstead use the Reference Guides on an as-needed basis. To assess learnerachievement of GarageBand goals, our learning continuum will be divided into fivelevels: 
  44. 44. • Level 1: Students are unable to complete tasks. Progress has not yet been made. • Level 2: Students are learning new skills and make use of all scaffolds to ensure success. • Level 3: Students are becoming increasingly confident with new learning. Use of scaffolds has been reduced in intensity and/or frequency of use. • Level 4: Without the use of scaffolds, students are able to transfer skills and understandings from GarageBand lessons to comparable tasks that are novel. • Level 5: Students are able to complete tasks that go well beyond the scope of original instruction.For each goal task, descriptors specific to each level are provided. It is expected thatlearners will reach Level 2 for all lessons, and will reach Level 3 on two or morelessons.I. Import and edit existing audio file from iTunes. LEVEL WHAT IT LOOKS LIKELevel 1 I am not yet able to operate the software well enough to drag a song into GarageBand or make edits to a song that is already loaded in.Level 2 With step-by-step directions and visual aids, I am able to complete Lesson 1. IScaffolds can drag a song into GarageBand and make simple edits (split track, cut, copy, paste).Level 3 With a Reference Guide and a list of Practice Items, I am able complete LessonReduced 1. I can drag a song into GarageBand and make edits of every type listed onSupports the page.Level 4 If I ever want to edit a song, I can import it from iTunes and make all the edits ITransfer desire without the use of reference documents.Level 5 I am able to successfully complete more complicated editing tasks that includeExtend editing multiple tracks within a single project, changing Master Track volume, solo/mute tracks, and adjusting track pan and volume.!
  45. 45. II. Create an original composition using loops. LEVEL WHAT IT LOOKS LIKELevel 1 I am not yet able to operate the software well enough to locate loops and move them into the timeline.Level 2 With step-by-step directions and visual aids, I am able to complete Lessons 2Scaffolds and 3. I can sort loops, add loops to the timeline, and insert an Arrangement Track.Level 3 With a Reference Guide and a list of Practice Items, I am able to complete allReduced tasks in Lessons 2 and 3. I can sort loops, add loops to the timeline, and insertSupports an Arrangement Track.Level 4 I can create songs at will, using loops that meet my own criteria for instrumentTransfer selection, musical style, length and form. I can use the Arrange Track to identify sections of my song.Level 5 I am able to successfully complete more complicated compositional tasks thatExtend include: projects with six or more tracks, track pan and volume, judicious loop placement (tracks that are a combination of notes and rests), altering of form by making changes in the Arrange Track, and create/record my own loops and add them to my loop library.III. Record using real and software instruments. LEVEL WHAT IT LOOKS LIKELevel 1 I am not yet able to connect equipment and operate software well enough to make recordings.Level 2 With step-by-step directions and visual aids, I am able to complete Lesson 7. IScaffolds can connect a USB microphone and keyboard to my computer and use them to make a recording. I can use the on-screen keyboard and musical typing to enter notes for simple melodies.Level 3 With a Reference Guide and a list of Practice Items, I am able to complete allReduced tasks in Lesson 7. I can connect a USB microphone and keyboard and useSupports them to make a recording. I can use the on-screen keyboard and musical typing to enter notes for simple songs.  
  46. 46. Level 4 I can connect any USB input device to my computer and use it to makeTransfer recordings in classroom and performance situations. I can record rehearsals and performances, and make recordings that can be used in instruction.Level 5 I am able to successfully complete more complicated recording tasks thatExtend include: connecting electric instruments via 1/8” jack, recording multiple tracks with the metronome on, using a combination of real instruments, software instruments, and loops within a single composition, and recording podcasts in Podcast Studio.IV. Convert files for use with GarageBand. LEVEL WHAT IT LOOKS LIKELevel 1 I am not yet able to operate the software well enough to convert files in iTunes or Switch.Level 2 With step-by-step directions and visual aids, I am able to complete Lesson 5. IScaffolds can to use “Find Info” to determine file format and use iTunes and Switch to convert files to mp3.Level 3 With a Reference Guide and a list of Practice Items, I am able to complete allReduced tasks in Lesson 5. I can use “Find Info” to determine audio file format and useSupports iTunes and Switch to convert files to mp3.Level 4 I am able to convert files whenever I want to. I can figure out whether to useTransfer iTunes or Switch and can save the converted file to any location on my computer.Level 5 I am able to convert to and from any supported file type using iTunes andExtend Switch and can figure out which file format is best suited for my purpose.V. Export audio in a variety of file formats for CD and web. LEVEL WHAT IT LOOKS LIKELevel 1 I am not yet able to operate the software well enough to export GarageBand projects. 
  47. 47. Level 2 With step-by-step directions and visual aids, I am able to complete Lesson 4. IScaffolds can burn a CD containing my GarageBand project and can share it with iTunes.Level 3 With a Reference Guide and a list of Practice Items, I am able to complete allReduced tasks listed in Lesson 4. I can burn a CD containing my GarageBand projectSupports and can share it with iTunes.Level 4 If I ever want to export a song, I can burn it in GarageBand or an iTunes playlistTransfer without the use of reference documents.Level 5 I am able to share GarageBand projects with iTunes and can share them asExtend ringtones, podcasts or movies. I can burn them to CD or upload them to the Internet.VI. Import audio files, including MIDI, .ogg and loops, from onlinesources. LEVEL WHAT IT LOOKS LIKELevel 1 I am not yet able to import audio files.Level 2 With step-by-step directions and visual aids, I am able to complete Lesson 6. IScaffolds can download songs linked on the lesson page and convert them to mp3 using iTunes or Switch. I can download a loop linked on the lesson page and add it to the loop library.Level 3 With a Reference Guide and a list of Practice Items, I am able to complete allReduced tasks in Lesson 6. I can download songs linked on the lesson page and convertSupports them to mp3 using iTunes or Switch. I can download a loop linked on the lesson page and add it to the loop library.Level 4 I can download songs from Wikimedia and Internet Archives and can figure outTransfer which software to use to convert them to mp3. I can download loops for a variety of instruments from Macloops and add them to the loop library in GarageBand.Level 5 I can search the Internet to find audio files to download and am able toExtend determine copyright restrictions. I can download a song in the file format that bests suits my purpose or, if unavailable, download in a different format and convert the file. I can search the Internet for loops and add them to my loop library. I can also create my own loops (4, 8 or 16 beat phrases) and add them to my library.!
  48. 48. It is my hope that these Self-Assessment Rubrics will help learners select goalsfor further study. Descriptors will provide a means of measuring progress towards thosegoals. For skills used only rarely, being able to complete tasks with the help of step-by-step instructions (Level 2) is sufficient. For skills that are used on a regular basis,learners may progress to Level 3 in a relatively short time, even without intentionalpractice. Regular use of GarageBand software would likely be needed for thedevelopment of skills to progress beyond Level 3.!
  49. 49. Part 9. Motivation Plan (ARCS)Project Goal Statement (Terminal Objective): General Music teachers willrecord, edit and export audio files using GarageBand software. CATEGORIES & STRATEGIES SUBCATEGORIES A.1. Creation of a webpage, where instructional materialsATTENTION will be accessed, that is visually attractive and easy toA.1. Perceptual arousal navigate will help to capture viewer interest. Creating aA.2. Inquiry arousal positive first impression will increase the likelihood thatA.3. Variability students will be interested in continuing. A.2. Including a brief recorded introduction with background music created using GarageBand will give learners who are new to GarageBand a taste of what is possible with the software. Including an overview of the instruction and possible applications to the classroom will also help to spark interest. A.3. The average adult attention span is 20 minutes and brain-compatible learning tells us that lessons should include a variety of components. With that in mind, objectives were grouped in clusters of 15, 20, 10, 10, 15, 20, and 20 minutes in length. Within each cluster, instruction will be followed by time for students to practice and apply skills. Varying tasks and providing opportunities for direct application of learning, along with careful scripting and expressive narration of tutorials, will help maintain learner attention. R.1. Learners took part in a Needs Assessment Survey.RELEVANCE Data collected was used to guide planning of instructionalR.1. Goal orientation goals and objectives. The four tasks that experiencedR.2. Motive matching GarageBand users were most comfortable with were theR.3. Familiarity ones selected to be the focus of this instruction, and are geared toward beginning GarageBand users. The three tasks that experienced GarageBand users were least comfortable with have also been included so that those with more experience will still have something new they can learn. While Clusters 1-8 will be the primary focus of this 
  50. 50. instruction, Clusters may be skipped if students are already competent with those skills. Instructional materials for Clusters 9 and 10 are beyond the scope of this project but will be added as time allows. R.2. The bulk of instruction relates to composing a song using loops. Types of instruments are suggested, but not required, though the use of those instruments will provide the learner with the greatest variety of styles and loops from which to choose. If learners choose to substitute different instruments, instructions would not need to be otherwise altered. Regardless of instruments used, learners are able to choose the key, time signature and tempo of their song and will have many loops (musical phrases 4 to 16 beats long) from which to choose. While the framework will be the same for all learners, ABA form with eight-measure phrases, the actual compositions learners will create will vary greatly. R.3. For each task, potential application to the classroom will be included. Learners in the online group are vocal music, general music and instrumental music teachers so including examples from each would be most appropriate. C.1. Breaking larger tasks into small pieces will make eachCONFIDENCE learning task manageable and learners may feel a sense ofC.1. Learning accomplishment as each task is completed. Providing arequirements library of audio files, sample GarageBand projects, andC.2. Success direct links to online sources will help to eliminate potentialopportunities frustrations. Some students may become sidetracked andC.3. Personal control eliminating tasks that are not essential to learning the software (like searching the Internet for a file to import) will help keep things positive. C.2. Those students with previous GarageBand experience will move through the first few tasks quickly and may choose to skip those they are already comfortable with, which will reinforce their confidence level. Those students who are new to GarageBand, but have experience with other music software, are expected to move through instruction at a steady pace and feel confident completing the steps along the way. Others however, will begin instruction with little or no feeling of competence with computers in general, or GarageBand in particular. Supports in the form of video tutorials, print materials, and a library of sample GarageBand and audio files will enable all students, regardless of previous experience or confidence, to progress successfully through instructional materials and positively impact their feelings of competence. 
  51. 51. C.3. Learners are using their own computers and software to interact with instructional materials independently. Learners are completing 100% of the work themselves and will not have the opportunity to observe others working through instructional tasks. S.1. GarageBand software is commonly used by musicSATISFACTION teachers for personal and professional use and is widelyS.1. Natural used in music classes for audio editing and composition.consequences Learners in the Deerfield group will use newly acquiredS.2. Positive knowledge/skills as they implement the newly revisedconsequences general music curriculum in their classrooms.S.3. Equity S.2. Instruction provides the opportunity for learners to create a tangible product. Instruction takes them through each step from starting the new project to sharing it with iTunes or burning it to a disc. Taking away a product that is complete will provide a sense of accomplishment and closure. Students will have the opportunity to post completed compositions online for others to hear and comment on. S.3. Sample GarageBand projects included in the instructional materials will be comparable to what learners create and will provide a model that is attainable. Students will be encouraged to play/show their compositions to family and friends which will provide a personal touch.The above table is based on Keller (1987). 
  52. 52. Part 10. Sample Lesson PlansGarageBand Tutorial Lesson 1STATED OBJECTIVE: Use GarageBand software to import and edit an Objective #audio file from iTunes. 1.0PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIESMotivational strategies:A.1 Perceptual Arousal - This lesson will be students’ first exposure to the GarageBandinstruction that has been designed. Housing materials on a webpage that is visuallyattractive and easy to navigate will help create a positive first impression.R.1 Goal Orientation - Based on the survey, this is the task that experiencedGarageBand users felt most comfortable with. Audio editing is a main function of thissoftware and one that will be directly applicable to music teachers’ professionalresponsibilities.Pre-Assessment: A brief description of the task will be provided. Students who haveprevious experience editing audio files in GarageBand may complete this lesson as areview or may choose to opt out of the instruction and/or practice segments. Studentswith no previous experience using GarageBand will complete both the instruction andpractice portions of this lesson.CONTENT PRESENTATIONContent: Students will learn to open a new GarageBand file, modify settings, then nameand save the project. Students will learn to import a song from their iTunes library andplace the cursor at desired locations for editing. Students will be provided instruction incursor placement and splitting, copying, pasting, deleting, moving, and looping ofregions.Examples: A video tutorial will provide step-by-step instructions for completing all editingtasks. A sample GarageBand file, containing a brief one-track song, will be provided forpractice purposes.Groups: Students will work independently.Media selection: 1) Instructional materials will be housed on a website. Instructions will be included on the webpage, files and documents will be linked, and the video tutorial will be linked. 2) A video tutorial (five minutes) will provide step-by-step instructions for completing lesson tasks. 3) Lesson tasks will listed on the webpage and may be downloaded and printed, for those who prefer a hard copy.!
  53. 53. STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students may use the sample GarageBand file to practice the variousediting techniques. Students will also open a new GarageBand project then drag anddrop a song into it from their own iTunes library. Students will play the song and choosein/out points for editing. Students will then edit the song, as desired, to practice specifictechniques: splitting, copying, pasting, deleting, moving, and looping of regions.Feedback: While there will be no direct feedback, students will be capable of observingwhether or not each step has been completed. Students may review the tutorial andinstructions as needed to successfully complete editing tasks.Assessment: A checklist, with lesson tasks, will be provided. Students will beencouraged to download and print the checklist and use it to track progress. The Self-Assessment Rubric can be downloaded and used to help learners set goals andevaluate progress.FOLLOW-THROUGH ACTIVITIESMemory aids: A downloadable PDF will provide step-by-step instructions for those taskscompleted within this lesson. A reference guide, with reminders for common tasks, canalso be downloaded.Transfer: A brief list of possible applications of editing tasks applicable to vocal music,general music, and instrumental music situations will be included. 
  54. 54. GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 2STATED OBJECTIVE: Use GarageBand loops to create an original Objective #composition in ABA form, with eight-measure phrases, for drums, 2.0bass and piano.PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIESMotivational strategies:A.3 Variability - The average adult attention span is 20 minutes and brain-compatiblelearning tells us that lessons should include a variety of components. This larger task,creating an original composition, is broken down into lesson segments not exceeding 15minutes. Careful scripting and expressive narration of tutorials will also help to maintainstudent attention.R.1 Goal Orientation - Based on the survey, experienced GarageBand users felt verycomfortable with this type of task, second only to editing. Composition is a function ofthis software that music teachers most often use with students.R.2 Motive Matching - Types of instruments are suggested, but not required, though theuse of those instruments will provide the learner with the greatest variety of styles andloops from which to choose. While the framework will be the same for all learners, ABAform with eight-measure phrases, the actual compositions learners will create will varygreatly.Pre-Assessment: A brief description of the task will be provided. All students will beencouraged to view the tutorial as there are new features in GarageBand ’09 that usersof previous versions may not be familiar with. Once they have viewed the tutorialstudents with a great deal of previous experience using GarageBand may choose to skipthe practice segment and move on to the next lesson. Those with less prior experienceusing GarageBand will complete both the instruction and practice portions of this lesson.CONTENT PRESENTATIONContent: In this lesson, students will learn to modify the tempo, key, and time signaturein a GarageBand project. Students will learn to sort and reset loops in the loop browserwill apply editing skills from the previous lesson to move, edit or repeat selected loops.Examples: A video tutorial will provide step-by-step instructions for completing allcompositional tasks. A sample GarageBand file, containing a sixteen-measure song withdrum, bass and piano tracks, will be provided as a model.Groups: Students will work independently.!!!!!!
  55. 55. Media selection: 1) Instructional materials will be housed on a website. Instructions will be included on the webpage, files and documents will be linked, and the video tutorial will be linked. 2) A video tutorial (10 minutes) will provide step-by-step instructions for completing lesson tasks. 3) A sample GarageBand project containing a 16-measure song with drum, bass and piano tracks will be provided as a model. An image of the project file, a list of loops used, and an audio player will be included. 4) Lesson tasks will listed on the webpage and may be downloaded and printed, for those who prefer a hard copy.STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students will open a new GarageBand project and modify the tempo,key, and time signature of the song. Next students will sort loops and will select drumloops to use in the “A” section of their composition. They will use editing skills from theprevious lesson to move, edit or repeat selected loops. Next, students will selectcontrasting drum loops and create the “B” section of their composition. Once the drumtrack is set – 8 measures for A, eight measures for B - students will reset the loopbrowser and select bass loops. Students will insert and edit bass loops, in contrastingstyles, to align with drum loops in the A and B sections of the composition. Students willrepeat this process as they add a third track, with piano loops, to their composition.Feedback: While there will be no direct feedback, students will be capable of observingwhether or not each step has been completed. Students may review the tutorial andinstructions as needed to successfully complete compositional tasks.Assessment: A checklist, with lesson tasks, will be provided. Students will beencouraged to download and print the checklist and use it to track progress. The Self-Assessment Rubric can be downloaded and used to help learners set goals andevaluate progress.FOLLOW-THROUGH ACTIVITIESMemory aids: A downloadable PDF will provide step-by-step instructions for those taskscompleted within this lesson, as well as a list of helpful hints. A reference guide, withreminders for common tasks, can also be downloaded.Transfer: A brief list of possible applications of compositional tasks that are applicable tovocal music, general music, and instrumental music situations will be included as well aslinks to additional GarageBand composition resources. 
  56. 56. GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 3STATED OBJECTIVE: The learner will use content of A and B Objective #sections to create a GarageBand composition that has sections 2.4labeled.PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIESMotivational strategies:R.1 Goal Orientation - Most of the experienced GarageBand users who completed theNeeds Assessment Survey indicated that they feel comfortable with the tasks and skillsthat have been the focus of previous lessons. Arrangement Track is new forGarageBand ’09 so it is likely that all students will have the opportunity to learnsomething new in this lesson.S.2 Positive Consequences - Instruction provides the opportunity for learners to create atangible product. In this lesson, students complete the final steps in the compositionalprocess, bringing the project to completion.Pre-Assessment: A brief description of the task will be provided. In this lesson, studentswill work with the Arrangement Track, which is new to this version of GarageBand, so allstudents, regardless of prior GarageBand experience, will be encouraged to completeboth the instruction and practice portions of this lesson.CONTENT PRESENTATIONContent: In this lesson, students will learn to copy/paste contents of multiple tracks tomake a new arrangement of previously composed song material. Students will learn touse the Arrangement Track to identify and label A and B sections of their songs.Examples: A video tutorial will provide step-by-step instructions for completing allarrangement tasks. A sample GarageBand file, containing a sixteen-measure song withdrum, bass and piano tracks with sections labeled, will be provided as a model.Groups: Students will work independently.Media selection: 1) Instructional materials will be housed on a website. Instructions will be included on the webpage, files and documents will be linked, and the video tutorial will be linked. 2) A video tutorial (four minutes) will provide step-by-step instructions for completing lesson tasks. 3) Lesson tasks will listed on the webpage and may be downloaded and printed, for those who prefer a hard copy.!
  57. 57. STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students may begin by using the sample GarageBand file to practiceadding to, and editing, content in the Arrangement Track. Using the project created inthe previous lesson, students will copy the first eight measures (A section, all tracks) oftheir composition and paste them at the end (after B section). Students will then use theArrangement Track to insert an arrange region, change the border to align with the firsteight measures, and label it “A section.” Students will repeat the process as they insertand label arrange regions for the remaining sections of their compositions.Feedback: While there will be no direct feedback, students will be capable of observingwhether or not each step has been completed. Students may review the tutorial andinstructions, as needed, to successfully complete arrangement tasks.Assessment: A checklist, with lesson tasks, will be provided. Students will beencouraged to download and print the checklist and use it to track progress. The Self-Assessment Rubric can be downloaded and used to help learners set goals andevaluate progress.FOLLOW-THROUGH ACTIVITIESMemory aids: A downloadable PDF will provide step-by-step instructions for those taskscompleted within this lesson, as well as directions for sharing compositions on thewebsite that houses the instructional materials. A reference guide, with reminders forcommon tasks, can also be downloaded.Transfer: A brief list of possible applications of arrangement tasks that are applicable tovocal music, general music, and instrumental music situations will be included. 
  58. 58. GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 4STATED OBJECTIVE: Export audio in a variety of formats for CD and Objective #web. 6.0PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIESMotivational strategies:A.3 Variability – This will be one of the shorter lessons and, unlike the previous lessons,does not require creativity on the part of the student.S.2 Positive Consequences – Learning to export audio is the final step to bringing thecomposition project to completion. Taking away a product that is complete will provide asense of accomplishment and closure. Students will have the opportunity to postcompleted compositions online for others to hear and comment on.Pre-Assessment: A brief description of the task will be provided. Students who haveprevious experience burning CDs using GarageBand and iTunes may complete thislesson as a review or may choose to opt out of the instruction and/or practice segments.Students with no previous experience using GarageBand and iTunes to burn CDs willcomplete both the instruction and practice portions of this lesson.CONTENT PRESENTATIONContent: Students will learn to burn a single GarageBand project to CD usingGarageBand software. Students will learn to share a GarageBand project with iTunes,create a playlist, and burn the songs in that playlist to CD.Examples: A video tutorial will provide step-by-step instructions for completing all tasksrelated to burning a GarageBand project to CD.Groups: Students will work independently.Media selection: 1) Instructional materials will be housed on a website. Instructions will be included on the webpage, files and documents will be linked, and the video tutorial will be linked. 2) A video tutorial (five minutes) will provide step-by-step instructions for completing lesson tasks. 3) Lesson tasks will listed on the webpage and may be downloaded and printed, for those who prefer a hard copy.!
  59. 59. STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students will open one of the GarageBand projects they have createdthus far and burn it to CD using GarageBand. Next, students will share that project withiTunes. Students will move the GarageBand song, and any others of their choice, into aplaylist for burning.Feedback: While there will be no direct feedback, students will be capable of observingwhether or not each step has been completed. Students may review the tutorial andinstructions, as needed, to successfully complete exporting tasks.Assessment: A checklist, with lesson tasks, will be provided. Students will beencouraged to download and print the checklist and use it to track progress. The Self-Assessment Rubric can be downloaded and used to help learners set goals andevaluate progress.FOLLOW-THROUGH ACTIVITIESMemory aids: A downloadable PDF will provide step-by-step instructions for those taskscompleted within this lesson. A reference guide, with reminders for common tasks, canalso be downloaded.Transfer: Music teachers will likely be aware of situations that would require burningmusic to a CD. Including information about types of audio files will help learners/musicteachers select appropriate file types for new situations that arise and develop greaterunderstanding of file types they may come across. 
  60. 60. GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 5STATED OBJECTIVE: Convert audio files for use with GarageBand. Objective # 4.0PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIESMotivational strategy:A.3 Variability – This will be one of the shorter lessons and, once software isdownloaded, is not technically demanding.R.1 Goal Orientation – On the Needs Assessment Survey, respondents felt lesscomfortable with this type of task than most others. Experienced GarageBand users willlikely be quite interested in this lesson as it will be one of the few that will not be review.Pre-Assessment: A brief description of the task will be provided. Students who haveprevious experience converting files with Switch software may complete this lesson as areview or may choose to opt out of the instruction and/or practice segments. Studentswith no previous experience with Switch will complete both the instruction and practiceportions of this lesson.CONTENT PRESENTATIONContent: In this lesson, students will learn to identify different types of audio files andwill learn to use Switch software to convert an audio file from one type to another.Examples: A video tutorial will provide step-by-step instructions for completing all tasksrelated to converting audio files. Examples of mp3, .ogg, and MIDI files will be includedfor student reference.Groups: Students will work independently.Media selection: 1) Instructional materials will be housed on a website. Instructions will be included on the webpage, files and documents will be linked, and the video tutorial will be linked. 2) A video tutorial (seven minutes) will provide step-by-step instructions for completing lesson tasks. 3) Lesson tasks will listed on the webpage and may be downloaded and printed, for those who prefer a hard copy.STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students will download four audio files, of varying formats, and dragthem into a GarageBand project and iTunes to see if they “go.” Students will use Switchsoftware (http://www.nch.com.au/switch/index.html) to convert files that are notcompatible with GarageBand.!
  61. 61. Feedback: While there will be no direct feedback, students will be capable of observingwhether or not each step has been completed. Students may review the tutorial andinstructions, as needed, to successfully complete conversion tasks.Assessment: A checklist, with lesson tasks, will be provided. Students will beencouraged to download and print the checklist and use it to track progress. The Self-Assessment Rubric can be downloaded and used to help learners set goals andevaluate progress.FOLLOW-THROUGH ACTIVITIESMemory aids: A downloadable PDF will provide step-by-step instructions for those taskscompleted within this lesson, along with links to sample audio files and information aboutaudio file formats. A reference guide, with reminders for common tasks, can also bedownloaded.Transfer: Including information about types of audio files will help learners/musicteachers select appropriate file types for new situations that arise and develop greaterunderstanding of file types they may come across. 
  62. 62. GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 6STATED OBJECTIVE: Import audio files, including MIDI, .ogg, and Objective #loops, from online sources. 5.0PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIESMotivational strategy:R.1 Goal Orientation – On the Needs Assessment Survey, respondents felt lesscomfortable with this type of task than most others. Experienced GarageBand users willlikely be quite interested in this lesson as it will be one of the few that will not be review.C.1 Learning Requirements - Providing direct links to online sources will help toeliminate potential frustrations, particularly for students who are less experienced withGarageBand and the Internet. Some students may become sidetracked and eliminatingtasks that are not essential (like searching the Internet for a file to import) will help keepthings positive.Pre-Assessment: A brief description of the task will be provided. Though some learnersmay have experience importing audio files from online sources, all will be encouraged toview the brief instructional video and investigate the linked websites. Students with noprevious experience importing audio will complete both the instruction and practiceportions of this lesson.CONTENT PRESENTATIONContent: In this lesson, students will learn to import one MIDI file, one .ogg file and oneloop from linked online sources.Examples: A video tutorial will provide step-by-step instructions for importing all threefiles. Links to online sources, with songs pre-selected, will be provided.Groups: Students will work independently.Media selection: 1) Instructional materials will be housed on a website. Instructions will be included on the webpage, files and documents will be linked, and the video tutorial will be linked. 2) A video tutorial (eight minutes) will provide step-by-step instructions for completing lesson tasks. 3) Lesson tasks will listed on the webpage and may be downloaded and printed, for those who prefer a hard copy.STUDENT PARTICIPATIONPractice Items: Students will click on a link to Internet Archive, select a MIDI file, andsave it as a QuickTime movie. They will use iTunes to convert the file to .mp3 then dragit into a GarageBand project. Students will click on a link to Wikimedia Commons to!
  63. 63. import a .ogg file, save it, use Switch to convert it, and drag it into a GarageBand project.Next, students will click on a link to MacLoops and select a loop. Students will learn toset tempo of GarageBand project to match the tempo of the loop and will drag the loopinto the GarageBand timeline. Students will learn to name the loop, add descriptors, andadd the loop to the Loop Library.Feedback: While there will be no direct feedback, students will be capable of observingwhether or not each step has been completed. Students may review the tutorial andinstructions as needed to successfully complete editing tasks. Students will be warnedthat this is one of the more technically demanding lessons and that new users may wantto become more familiar with other tasks before giving this lesson a try.Assessment: A checklist, with lesson tasks, will be provided. Students will beencouraged to download and print the checklist and use it to track progress. The Self-Assessment Rubric can be downloaded and used to help learners set goals andevaluate progress.FOLLOW-THROUGH ACTIVITIESMemory aids: A downloadable PDF will provide step-by-step instructions for those taskscompleted within this lesson. A reference guide, with reminders for common tasks, canalso be downloaded.Transfer: A brief list of online resources for public domain and Creative Commons audiofiles will be included, which teachers may find helpful with other projects. 
  64. 64. GarageBand Tutorial Lesson 7STATED OBJECTIVE: Use GarageBand to record audio content with Objective #real and software instruments. 3.0PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIESMotivational strategy:R.2 Motive Matching – All other GarageBand lessons require students to work withcontent that someone else has created in whole (imported and sample audio files) or inpart (loops). Recording with real or software instruments will allow students to have agreater degree of creative control over their work.S.1 Natural Consequences - GarageBand software is commonly used by music teachersfor personal and professional use and is widely used in music classes for audio editingand composition. Learners in the Deerfield group will use newly acquiredknowledge/skills as they implement the newly revised general music curriculum in theirclassrooms. Recording student performances and original compositions are tasks thatare typical of GarageBand in school music classes.Pre-Assessment: A brief description of the task will be provided. All students will beencouraged to view the tutorial as there are new features in GarageBand ’09 that usersof previous versions may not be familiar with. Once they have viewed the tutorialstudents with a great deal of previous experience using GarageBand may choose to skipthe practice segment and move on to the next lesson. Those with less prior experienceusing GarageBand will complete both the instruction and practice portions of this lesson.CONTENT PRESENTATIONContent: In this lesson, students will learn to connect a USB microphone and USBkeyboard to their computers and will learn to set preferences for input and outputdevices and set the tempo. Students will learn to record from a USB microphone, andUSB keyboard, musical typing, and the on-screen keyboard.Examples: A video tutorial will provide step-by-step instructions for completing allrecording tasks. Digital images, depicting common microphone and keyboardconnections will be included.Groups: Students will work independently.Media selection: 1) Instructional materials will be housed on a website. Instructions will be included on the webpage, files and documents will be linked, and the video tutorial will be linked. 2) A video tutorial (eight minutes) will provide step-by-step instructions for completing lesson tasks. 3) Lesson tasks will listed on the webpage and may be downloaded and printed, for those who prefer a hard copy.!

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