The Arab Spring and                     Management Theory                                               Samer Faraj       ...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Two questions       •  The interplay between technology innovation          and new forms of organizing during the Arab   ...
Is this true?This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Friedman s 10 Flatteners: how                many are IT?       •    Berlin Wall       •    The Internet                  ...
What does it mean?       •  emerging economies (e.g., India, China) are able          to compete for industries and work b...
Technological influences in the                     Arab World       •  Over the last two decades: over 1000 satellite    ...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
And vote they did       •  Voting for TV stars is highly participative and          egalitarian       •  leads to lots of ...
Explosive growth in Internet usageThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Un...
Then when the Arab Spring arrived,             governments were not ready       •  Focused on:              o  Foreign thr...
Internet Censorship    Most  advanced:  look  at  the  content  of                 Content      the  response  packet	    ...
People side--Workarounds    Encryption:  using  hLps	                                                                    C...
Online arms race                                                              •  Tor routes Internet traffic through       ...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Source:	                                                                Daily  Mail	                                      ...
How technology affords new ways               of interacting       •  Given the poverty, the social inequalities, the     ...
Trigger eventsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
“We are the People of Facebook”This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unpor...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Can new forms of organizing                      trump repression?       •  "Our revolution is like Wikipedia, okay?      ...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Is the internet a force for                           democracy?              Clay Shirky               Evgeny Morozov   •...
Network forms of organizing vs.                   bureaucracyThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No...
What does the network form or                organizing offer?       •  Weak ties: acquaintances, more of them       •  St...
What does the network form of                organizing offer?       •  Web 2.0 organizing is based on weak ties          ...
What about the dominant                          bureaucratic structure?       •  Jurisdiction and duties are clearly spec...
Limitation of bureaucracy       •  With time, bureaucracy becomes stodgy, unwieldy,          unable to respond to new thre...
First mutation: networks of                           interests       •  The mutation: networks of corruption, of ethnic/ ...
Second mutation: neopatriarchy       •  A mode of being that is more than          culture       •  It is both a macrostru...
How does a neopatriarchical                 bureaucracy manifest itself Mutation	                                         ...
Conclusion: can the Arab Spring     lead to organizational innovation?       •  New forms of technology-enabled organizing...
Reaction?	   Questions?	                                               Thank you!This work is licensed under a Creative Co...
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Samer faraj AUB arab spring talk cc mar 1-2012

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A talk about the role of technology innovation and forms of organizing as they relate to the Arab Spring

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Samer faraj AUB arab spring talk cc mar 1-2012

  1. 1. The Arab Spring and Management Theory Samer Faraj McGill University AUB Olayan School of Business Darwazah Center for Innovation Management & Entrepreneurship March 1, 2012This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  2. 2. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  3. 3. Two questions •  The interplay between technology innovation and new forms of organizing during the Arab Spring •  Given these changes, what can we say about the evolution of organizations in the Arab World?This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  4. 4. Is this true?This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  5. 5. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  6. 6. Friedman s 10 Flatteners: how many are IT? •  Berlin Wall •  The Internet IT Platform •  Workflow Software •  Open-Sourcing •  Outsourcing •  Off-shoring •  Supply Chaining IT-Enabled Processes •  In-sourcing •  In-Forming •  SteroidsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  7. 7. What does it mean? •  emerging economies (e.g., India, China) are able to compete for industries and work because they combine cost advantages, trained workforce, and entrepreneurial impulse •  Knowledge work is now fully global •  Technology is transforming our world in expected and unexpected ways This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  8. 8. Technological influences in the Arab World •  Over the last two decades: over 1000 satellite TV stations were launched o  Vast majority are supported by governments/families o  But the advertising driven business model is pushing them toward greater professionalism, creativity, and credibility •  Al-Jazeera is the best example of a successful news channel (35M viewers) •  Other channels are aiming at interactivity around entertainmentThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  9. 9. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  10. 10. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  11. 11. And vote they did •  Voting for TV stars is highly participative and egalitarian •  leads to lots of discussion and an awareness of “the gap” •  The diversity of news sources allows a whole ecosystem of news sharing to be available •  If you add the impact of the Internet and social media, never before had so many information sources been availableThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  12. 12. Explosive growth in Internet usageThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  13. 13. Then when the Arab Spring arrived, governments were not ready •  Focused on: o  Foreign threats o  Tracking membership-based secret organizations o  Known political/religious movements o  Known activists o  Monitoring traditional means of communication o  Street activitiesThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  14. 14. Internet Censorship Most  advanced:  look  at  the  content  of   Content   the  response  packet Filtering Spot  keywords  in  the  requested  URL,   example,  although  Google.com  is  not   URL   black  listed  this  request  will  be:   Filtering hLp://www.google.com/q=arab+spring Black  list  based  on  the  requested   domain  name.  E.g.,  reject  any  request   for  a  web  site  with  “brotherhood”  such   DNS  Filtering as  www.anywordbrotherhood.com Most  basic,  black  list  the  IPs  of  known   web  sites IP  Address   Blocking This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  15. 15. People side--Workarounds Encryption:  using  hLps Content   Filtering Proxy  or  VPN URL   Filtering Proxy  or  VPN,  use  alternative  DNS   servers  such  as  Google  DNS DNS  Filtering Proxy  or  VPN,  sending  the  request  to   another  machine  that  will  provide  the   response  back IP  Address  Blocking This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  16. 16. Online arms race •  Tor routes Internet traffic through a worldwide volunteer network of servers in order to conceal a ProxySG  provides  complete  control   users location or usage  over  all  your  web  traffic  with  robust   •  By using it you become a part of features  that  include  user   the network, helping in routing authentication,  web  filtering,  data  loss   other users requests prevention,  inspection  and  validation   of  SSL-­‐‑encrypted  traffic. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  17. 17. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  18. 18. Source:  Daily  Mail This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  19. 19. How technology affords new ways of interacting •  Given the poverty, the social inequalities, the political repression, the lack of chances for advancement, the corruption, etc. the conditions were ripe •  Technology, a revolution does not make •  But it is a powerful enabler for local-global linkage, for safe coordination and information exchangeThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  20. 20. Trigger eventsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  21. 21. “We are the People of Facebook”This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  22. 22. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  23. 23. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  24. 24. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  25. 25. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  26. 26. Can new forms of organizing trump repression? •  "Our revolution is like Wikipedia, okay? Everyone is contributing content, [but] you dont know the names of the people contributing the content. Revolution 2.0 in Egypt was exactly the same. Everyone contributing small pieces, bits and pieces.” Wael GhoneimThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  27. 27. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  28. 28. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  29. 29. Is the internet a force for democracy? Clay Shirky Evgeny Morozov •  The internet is inherently a •  The internet has the potential force for democracy. to both oppress and liberate. Which side dominates depends •  A networked population is on the social and political gaining greater access to context in which it is used information, more rather than on some internal "logic" that derives from its opportunities to engage in architecture or culture public speech, and an •  long-term impact of new enhanced ability to technologies on undertake collective action authoritarianism is to boost their attempts at surveillance, •  The internet empowers propaganda, censorship protestors to organize and   collaborate on a huge scaleThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  30. 30. Network forms of organizing vs. bureaucracyThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  31. 31. What does the network form or organizing offer? •  Weak ties: acquaintances, more of them •  Strong ties: family and friends, deeper connection •  Activism and political organizing require strong ties o  Closed group, hierarchical structure, tight discipline, centralized leadership, coordination via authority, dedicated core, high trust relations, face to face meetings •  Regimes know how to disrupt such organizations o  Informants, surveillance, target core members, disinformation campaigns, infiltration and disruptionThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  32. 32. What does the network form of organizing offer? •  Web 2.0 organizing is based on weak ties o  Diverse sources of information, information travels fast •  Networks increase participation o  increased motivation, lower cost of engagement •  But hard to agree o  equal say, loose ties, decentralized leadership, no clear lines of authority, difficulty in setting goals •  The local-global divide disappears: coordination via external sitesThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  33. 33. What about the dominant bureaucratic structure? •  Jurisdiction and duties are clearly specified •  organizational roles are held on the basis of technical competence. •  Each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one •  Rules and standard operating procedures govern behavior •  Administrative decisions, and rules are formulated in writing This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  34. 34. Limitation of bureaucracy •  With time, bureaucracy becomes stodgy, unwieldy, unable to respond to new threats and opportunities o  Centralized decision making – lower levels cannot deal with exceptions/novel situations o  Actors focus on internal power struggles -- paralysis o  Given the rational/egalitarian norm, rules are developed to cover all eventualities – difficult to implement o  Impersonal nature of decision making – lose touch with those affected •  Organization design is about matching organizational structure with the demands of the environment o  Knowledge work requires initiative, judgment and collaboration o  Learning organization, fast-response organizing, high reliability organizationThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  35. 35. First mutation: networks of interests •  The mutation: networks of corruption, of ethnic/ tribal/family ties, of interests, •  Resistant to change and with goals that are orthogonal to the organization/social good This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  36. 36. Second mutation: neopatriarchy •  A mode of being that is more than culture •  It is both a macrostructure (state, society, economy) and a microstructure (family and individual personality) •  Criticism, synthesis, creativity# vs. •  Tradition, dependency, imitationThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  37. 37. How does a neopatriarchical bureaucracy manifest itself Mutation Ideal  type • Modernized  “exterior”  projection • Takes  advantage  of  the  features  of   • Workplace  is  a  space  of  “sociability” bureaucracy:  wriLen  reports,  clear   • Espoused  but  not  followed  work   reporting,  precise  evaluation,  formal   routines coordination • Workarounds  are  the  norm  rather   • Hard  work  is  valued than  the  exception • Differentiation  between  work  and  after-­‐‑ • Things  done  via  an  elaborate  network   work of  patronage  and  personal  ties • Aim  to  achieve  repeatable  and   • Performance  goes  unrewarded measurable  work  routines • No  link  between  competence  and   • Processes  are  measured  with  goal  of   promotion improvement • Employees  self-­‐‑exert  only  toward   • Competence  is  valued  and  rewarded egoistical  goals  and  private  gain • Employee  self-­‐‑exertion  is  recognized   This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  38. 38. Conclusion: can the Arab Spring lead to organizational innovation? •  New forms of technology-enabled organizing have emerged •  There are no technologies of freedom or technologies of repression, they just mesh with broad social trends •  Innovation can help improve bureaucracy if coupled with a willingness to change This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
  39. 39. Reaction? Questions? Thank you!This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

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