E TO THE AGE OF NATURALISM OF EDUCATIONMary Grace M. CabiliPh.D. – Dev. Ed. – StudentJanuary 09, 2010
Modern education and modern theories of education began with this movementIt was a general awakening of brought about by several factors: a. the thought process developed by scholasticism b. the broadening of universities c. changes brought about by the increased supply of books due to the invention of printing press
d. the findings of exploration and scientific discoverye. the degeneration of the church, and; f. the rise of free cities as well as middle class.The entire movement dad three main lines of growth: a. the intellectual to which education belong b. the aesthetic c. scientific
INDIVIDUALISTIC HUMANISMRenaissance in humanism began inItaly. It was characterized by: a. freedom of thought b. self-expression c. creative activity
AIMS to develop individual personality through nature, music, art, literature and architectureThe aim of humanistic education was for the humanist to get possible out of life was expected to live a full excellent and rich existence.Italian humanism was patterned after Greek ideal of liberal education, the harmonious development of mind and morals.
TYPESIndividualistic humanism education was literary and aesthetic. It was practical since it developed the young noble for his position in life. Aesthetic education aimed at the appreciation of art, music and draw which became the most outstanding characteristic of humanistic education. Physical education, social training in manners and deportment and moral; education was also emphasized.
CONTENTThe curriculum of humanistic school was varied. Students were exposed to extensive classical art and literature. The student also studied the subjective world of emotions to inculcate an appreciation of beautiful and interest in introspective observation and analysis. Nature was another must for the humanistic student. These fields were supplemented by physical training, grammar, rhetoric and mathematics.
ORGANIZATIONIt was the establishment of new school, a secondary school type, founded by the nobility for the nobility, thus the name COURT SCHOOLS.One of the greatest school master at this time was VITTORINO de FELTRE who had a school at MANTUA. DA FELTRE ‘ s purpose was to educate the complete citizen.He included in his curriculum a wide range of subjects.
The aim of da Feltre’s school was good knowledge of reading, a broad background of manners and graces and training in loyalty to Christian principles. One of the triumphs of humanistic education was the establishment of classical secondary schools; the Lycess of France; the Gymnasium in Germany; the Latin Grammar School in England.
METHODSHumanism can be cited for its newteaching methods, a text replacingmuch of the lectures written themes,displacing oral doiscourse. Da Feltrewas credited for the followingcontirbutions to modern educationalpractice: Adapting the work of individual to his needs and capacities
Developing a balance between his mental and physical abilityDeveloping the power to thinkThe inclusion of play in the curriculaThere was sufficient motivation for students so that the punishment was not need as motive for learning.
SOCIAL HUMANISMRenaissance Movement intoNorthern Europe was facilitated bythe Hieronymians or Brethren of theCommon Life. Northern Humanismhad a characteristic combining thesocial piety of the Brethren and thebroad literary spirit of ItalianHumanism.
The invention of printing , the fall of Constantinople and the geographical explorations and discoveries of the English and Ditch adventurers gave a momentum to the Renaissance of the Northern countries. The implications of the printing press in all aspects of civilization and education were enormous.
AIMS The aims were social. Rather than aiming for individual happiness, education aimed at social reform and the improvement of human relationships.It aimed at eliminating the ignorance of the common people and the hyprocrisy of social leaders.These social minded humanists stressed piety ahead of learning and moral duty ahead of manners.
TYPESSocial humanistic education stressed religious, moral and social education. Religious instruction was taken seriously and it attacked moral evils in the church. Literary education was encouraged as a means for social ends.It also stressed secondary and higher education and attempted to improve the elementary school.
Secondary school was intended for ther youth of the upper classes and to prepare scholars and clergy for future leaderships in the church and courts..CONTENTThe curricula of social humanism consisted of classical and biblical literature. One social humanists is ERASMUS of Rotterdam.
He edited many of the Greek and Latin authors including the New Testament which latter became the basic of KING JAMES Version of English. He also denounced CECIRONIANISM and wanted the study of classical for the purpose of braodening knowledge and refining taste and for gaining the ability to make decisions. Cecironianism was narrow and formal practice of putting emphasis upon style and construction rather upon ideas
ORGANIZATIONTo carry out their educational aims, the Court Schools became models of humanistic influence. Other secondary school the French Lycess and the German Gymnasium became popular. Universities were encourage by nobility to introduce humanistic studies. The educational institutions, though were open only to boys and men; tuition was arranged into nine or ten classes and the school year’s beginning was set.
METHODSHumanistic education was concerned with methods and the humanists advocated methods quite advanced from those in use. Erasmus pounded on the following:a. the need to study the child carefully for individualized instruction.b.Keeping education in close and touch with the social needs and life of the times
c. Value repitition and mastery of small units of work at a timed. Motivation and the use of praise and rewardse. Emphasis on the gentleness as opposed to physical punishmentAside from Erasmus other humanists contributed methods: Juan Luis Vives urged the use of the vernacular, the broadening of the curricula and the education of
Roger Ascham advocated double translation in teaching language. Johan Strumm stressed imitation and memorization, the use of the vernacular in the lower grade, the use of pupil monitors and careful grading of instructionHumanistic education became a narrow and became so formalized that in the sixteen century, the realists reacted against this stylized Humanism.
REFORMATIONDuring the 16th century the RomanCatholic Church was the prevailingEuropean institution. Before, therewere many attempts to break awayfrom the church and establish reforms,but these were successfully suppressedby the church and the military. Becauseof the arise of national states and theeconomic power of the growing middleclass, some reforms were successful.
The reformation was not merely a reform in religious doctrine. It involved political, economic, moral, philosophical and institutional changes. There was overemphasis on the religious and ecclesiastical aspects of these revolution which leads directly to the breaking apart of the church. From the Protestant viewpoint, the reformation was intended to correct abuses in the church and from the Catholic viewpoint such a correction was justified on the moral grounds.
The man who was given credit for the first successful break from the church was Martin Luther, a member of a Catholic Clergy and a university professor. He tried several times to achieve reform from within the church but was not successful. In 1517 he nailed on the doors of the church a set of 95 theses denouncing the malpractices of the church such as concentration of wealth in the churches, monasteries and ecclesiastical courts.
These concentration was based on a doctrine that the salvations came from good works, donations and sale of indulgences. He was threatened with excommunication by the Pope if he did withdraw his attacks. He did not withdraw them and he left the Catholic church and founded an independent church organization. Other Protestant reformers who followed and established their own denominations were Calvinists, Puritans, Presbyterians, Baptists and others.
While they had doctinal diversities, they agreed upon the following fundamental concepts:1. The interpretation of the Bible was substituted for the authority of the church as basis of faith2. Individual salvations was substituted for collective responsibility3. God’s mercy was the means to salvation4. Penance and works of charity as deliverance from sin could be dispensed with (Ebby and Arrowod)
AIMS The aim of education of Protestants reformers was religious moralism- living a worthy life on earth will guarantee for a glorious life hereafter.Luther narrowed this aimed by directing it into religion. It was Luther established the idea that the head of the state or ruler might decide for himself and for his subject what the established religion should be.
These gave the ruler of the state the right o determine the religion of his subjectsJohn Calvin, subordinated the state and the church when he said that the state should considered the political and social arm of the church and should carry out its injunctions. This theory is called THEOCRACY. It says that since God cannot be present to rule the Earth, the church must rule according to God’s law. In practice the church strictly controlled all the affairs of man- economic, political, social, religious, and educational.
TYPESTo attain the aims character education was emphasized. It stressed the value of work over play – the Protestant work ethic.They advocated universal, compulsory and free educationLuther not only insisted state founded compulsory education for both sexes especially in the elementary level but also compelled the parents to send their children to school for the sake of church and state.
CONTENTThe study of Bible and all skills required to understand it was the basic subject in Protestant elementary schools. Singing, physical education and vocational training wer important subjects in the curriculum. These were imposed upon all by church and state.The curricula of the Protestant secondary school and universities were largely a continuation of humanistic subjects such history, mathematics natural science, music and gymnastic. Later scholastic theology, Jurisprudence, literature and culture became important subjects.
ORGANIZATIONThe Protestants considered home as thebasic educational agencies andconsidered good home training, parentaldiscipline, and sound family life as thefoundations of good government andsocial welfareACalvinistic home, the church authoritiessupervised the parents who were obligatedto see at their children attended schooland properly learned church catechismand habits of Christian living.
Realizingthat the Protestant used education to further their ends,During reformation both hurch and school were under the state. Teachers should fully educated and sufficiently compensated.The Protestant school system was organized into three types: A. common vernacular school B. classical secondary school C. the universityThe school were not ladder type but dual
METHODS Reading was usually taught by routine pronunciation of words, memorization of answers to questions from the Gospel, hymns and psalms. Secondary level had learn rules and passages by memory. Luther had advanced ideas regarding a pleasant school atmosphere but because of formalism and severe. Calvinistic theology, the Protestant classroom became rather severe. Methods of teaching was rigid, discipline was strict and religious indoctrination became the chief method.
CATHOLIC COUNTER- REFORMATIONThe Protestants revolts were notsuccessful in all countries of Europe.Southern Europe reamined loyal toRoman Catholicism, and this loyaltybrought about a movement within thechurch itself, called catholic counterreformation. This movement correctedthe abuses of the church. Realizing thatthe Protestant used education to
Realizing that the Protestant used education to further their ends, the Cathollics used education also to win back dissenters. Teaching orders and teaching congregations were founded; parish schools were reorganized and seminiaries were opened to train leaders. The most important were the SOCIETY OF JESUS (JESUITS) founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534; the BRETHREN of the christian schools by Jean Baptists de l Salle in 1684; the LITTLE SCHOOLS of Port Ryal byAbbe de ST. Ctran in 1637 and the JANSENISTS by Cornelis Jansen in 1598.
AIMS moralism but they are not like it aimed religious in that Protestant education aimed to develop a moral life through the individual’s own interpretation of the Bible. It aim to develop unquestioning obedience to the authority of the church. The different orders stressed different aims. The Jesuits school were designated to train leaders; the Christian brothers to teach the poor; Jansenists to emphasize spiritual salvation. Convent school was to prepare young women to perform their duties as Christian members of society; establish and maintain chastity and piety; to refine taste and gentle manners
TYPESThe catholic placed religious ad moral education above everything else.. Domestic and vocational training were largely in hands of parents,Teaching order was realm of professional education, graduate schools of law and medicine and in the field of teachingJesuits became noted for careful selection and training of their leaders while Christian brothers normal school with attached schools
CONTENTSchools taught 4 R’s with emphasis on religion. The Jesuits had the broadest curricula n secondary and higher education. The lower college gave a humanistic-religious education and emphasized the study of Latin classics. Textbooks were prescribed and the works of pagan authors were edited for adoption to Christian education. All subjects correlated to moral training and exercises and activities were geared towards religious worship. Girls were taught the same subjects but their activities were adapted their needs
ORGANIZATION TheCatholic teaching orders had three levels; the elementary which was for the poor (Christian Brothers confined their efforts) Jesuits and Jansenists handled secondary and higher education and were concerned with the education of leaders. All level were church supported and church controlled. The Catholic showed a genius for oragnization their schools were effective insttitutions of learning.
In 1599, Jesuits published “Ratio Studiorum” which contained the plan for the administration of schools, programs and courses of study, selection and training of teachers, methods of teaching and supervision of instruction and methods of discipline.
METHODS JesuitsMethods: Doing a small amount of work at a time making sure it is retained; Two steps in teaching method, prelection and repition Adapting the lesson to the abilities and interest of the children Participation of pupils questions and answers Review Motivation by rivalry and emulation
ChristianBrothers methods: Grading pupil according to the ability Adopt the method to which pupil recited not to the teacher but to the class Jansenists methods: Teaching vernacular by phonetic method Nothing is to be memorized unless understood Use of textbooks