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WJEC A2 Geography China Notes
 

WJEC A2 Geography China Notes

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    WJEC A2 Geography China Notes WJEC A2 Geography China Notes Document Transcript

    • Timeline •1 Oct 1949: Mao took over China •June 1950: Agrarian Reform Law: Land of landlords and wealthy farmers was redistributed between millions of peasants China •1953-1957: Five year plan was aimed at Soviet style heavy development, but failed •1958: All land was collectivised and farmers were organized into large People’s Communes •1958-1961: The “Great Leap Forward” triggered the largest famine in human history, est. 45 million deaths and caused the first negative growth Timeline Timeline•1961-1965: Increase in production and import of agricultural •1978-1979: Deng Xiapong introduced stepwise economicinputs reforms in the “Four Modernizations” in agriculture, industry,•1961-1965: Readjustment and recovery through the national defence and science and technology“Agriculture First” policy improved the food situation •1979: Introduction of the “Household Responsibility System”•1966-1976: Mao called for a cultural revolution to purge in agriculture greatly improved China’s food situationChina of the four olds: customs, culture, habits and ideas •1980: Special Economic Zones were established in Shenzhen,•9 Sept 1976: Mao died and Hua Guofeng took over Zhuhai, Xiamen and Hainan•1977: Guofeng starts the open door policy which is initially •1980-1990: Great improvements of China’s food security,rejected, but later included in the four modernizations significant reduction in rural poverty•1978-1990: Introduction of pragmatism in China’s economicand political system promoted market elements Timeline Timeline•1984: 14 coastal cities are completely opened to foreign •1995: Overheating of the economy caused 17% inflationinvestment •1998: The Asian Financial Crisis slowed down the Chinese•1986: Deng Xiaping boosts the open door policy to economy, but it avoided the worst of itencourage Foreign Direct Investment •2001: China became a member of the World Trade•1988: Excessive economic growth led to an 18.5% inflation Organization•Dec 1989: Stock markets were opened in Shanghai and •2006: CNOOC (A Chinese oil company) bought stakes inShenzhen Nigerian offshore oil and gas•1990-2004: The process of closing state owned enterprises •Nov 2008: The government announced a $586 billionand allowing private businesses was accelerated economic stimulus package•1992: Deng Xiaping accelerated market reforms to establish •Feb 2009: 20 million migrant workers lost jobs in China duea “Socialist Market Economy” to the global economic crisis Timeline Rural China•Feb 2009: Chinalco invested $19.5 billion into Rio Tinto (mining •Half of China’s population lives in rural areascompany) for metals and minerals•Nov 2009: China became the largest automobile market in the world •In the Southern and coastal rural areas, towns and•Dec 2009: New gas lines between China and Turkmenistan villages are becoming more developed•2011: China overtook Japan as the world’s 2nd largest economy •Of all rural towns, 85% had improved water sources in 2010 •In many places, houses are being knocked down and replaced with new cities (White Horse Village) •The Household Responsibility System gave farmers more responsibility over their land
    • Rural China Rural Urban inequalities – Income•Since 1978, the national poverty line dropped from 20 million • China’s income inequality is ranked 52nd in the worldto 14 million •The Rural-Urban gap reached it’s highest in 30 years in 2009•Since 1984, the Rural Household Survey collected data to •City residents earn 3.33 times as much as farmersdeliver aid to where it was needed most •Urban per capita net income was 17,175 yuan ($2,525) last•Rural population: 737,403,030 year while rural is 5,153 yuan ($829)•Birth Rate: 12.1 •Urban income growth is twice rural•Death Rate: 7.1 •The main cause of the widening gap is the low prices paid for•Number of rural poor: 18,435,075 agricultural goods•School enrollment: 111.1 per 1000 •The loss of income due to the global financial crisis•Literacy rate: 94 per 1000•Doctors: 1.4 per 1000 contributed•HIV rate: 0.1 per 1000 Rural Urban inequalities – Social Rural Urban inequalities – Economic•Farmers are offered ¼ the compensation that urban •Special Economic Zones only benefit urban areas and isresidents would receive for accidents disproportionate in comparison to rural areas•A family in Gangsu accepted $29,000 for the death of •The One Child Policy reduced the working populationa son due to tainted milk, an urban family wouldn’t of rural areas, decreased agricultural productivity andaccept that reduced rural living standards further•The Houko Registration System discriminates against •16% of the rural population will be over 60 in 2020rural migrants which will cause further problems for the rural•Lack of social security for ageing population in rural economyareas – 3.8% receive access, compared to 60% in urbanareas Rural Urban inequalities – Education Social Welfare – Education•Primary education in rural areas have been marginalised due to •The Chinese see education as a pathway to successmore attention placed on urban •All citizens must go to school for 9 years from age 6•Due to lack of public funding, parents of children who cannot •Many families don’t have connections to put theirpay have to pull their child out of education•1.1 million rural children were unable to attend school children through university•Urban youth are 3 times more likely to attend college and •Literacy jumped from 20% to 91% between 1949-2012,university than rural youth but this still leaves 85 million illiterate Chinese•The proportion of rural students dropped from 20.8% in 1998 •Adult literacy rate: Male – 95.1%, Female – 86.5%to 17.6% in 2000 •Communists reduced illiteracy by simplifying•There is a two track system – tertiary career based education charactersfor urban residents and labour for rural residents •In May 2010, 6 million students graduated university Social Welfare – Transport Social Welfare – Health•Bridges and tunnels were built along the Yangtze •A $68 billion project will take water from South•The G50 expressway covers 1200 miles between China to the drier NorthChangqing and Shanghai •Life Expectancy: Male – 71.1, Female 74.8•China has 53,000 miles of expressways •Infant mortality: 22 per 1000•6 of the top 10 shipping ports are in China •Newborns with defects are rising, supposedly due to•China has 46,235 miles of train track women giving birth later and environmental factors•In 2010, there were 60 subway projects in 20 cities •Obesity is a growing problem, with 120 million•There are half a billion bicycles – 1 per household •The domestic Chinese medicine market is valued at•$300 billion high speed trai more than $1 billion•ns are the heart of China’s “Leapfrog development”
    • Urban China – Shanghai Urban China – Shanghai – Issues•Population: 23 million •People and Space•75 million in the whole region -Housing shortages, overcrowding, 50% of population•Receives 50% of all Foreign Direct Investment to occupies 5% of land, of 1.3 million households 50% hadChina substandard living conditions •Transport issues•Produces ¼ of China’s GNP•1/3 of import and trade -Low capacity road system, 9 million bikes, 1 million•1% of China’s total land area cars, 400% increase between 1990-2000 •Flood Hazard -4m above sea level, sank 2.6m between 1921-1965, monsoons, tropical cyclones, rising sea levels Urban China – Shanghai – Issues Urban China – Beijing•Socio-economic problems •Population: 19.6 million-Growing income gap, average income £2,900 but ex- •Alpha and global cityrural income 1/5 that •Been China’s urban centre for 3,000 years•Problems with the Brown Agenda •Capital city for 850 years-Less than 60% of waste water and 40% of sewage •Has the largest public square in the worldwater are dealt with, Shanghai has the highest (Tiananmen)cancer mortality rate(* Urban China – Beijing Urban China – Beijing•Economic •Social issues-166 foreign embassies for trade -Air pollution-2008 Beijing Olympics -Non-emission standard cars were banned-GDP: $146 billion, $8000 per capita -2010: 500 electronic taxis were introduced-73% of buildings are in the service industry -Population were educated on recycling to combat the-People’s Bank of China HQ is in Beijing-2009 tourism revenue was 236 billion yuan 18,400 tonnes of domestic waste a day-2006: 33% of the world’s technology was exported from -Bad health implicationsBeijing’s “Silicone Valley” -70 establishments of higher education e.g. Peking-10 construction projects in 2009 provided infrastructure and -Good transport links: 9 expressways, 11 highwaysjobs -56 million passengers through Beijing airport in 2009 Urban China – Urban Sprawl Urban China – Urban Sprawl•Economic •Environmental-Lead to rural structures being economically and -Depleting resources quickly, high levels of pollutionsocially imbalanced, urban areas are expensive to from the rapid development has lead to China notlive in, had led to rural:urban income gap of 1:6 being self reliant on food as the soil is not nutritious•Social enough to grow crops, pollution will lead to 40% soil-People move to cities for work, reduces quality of erosion in 35 yearslife of cheap labourers, people have to move back torural areas as prices rise, uncontrolled constructionof informal housing and illegal migrants, high levelsof suicide
    • Urban Sprawl – Case Study – Shanghai Urban Sprawl – Case Study – Shenzhen•Population is recorded at 13 million, but more likely •Small border town next to Hong Kong18-20 •Huge urban area of almost 10 million people•Highest amount of cranes ever recorded in one city •Village of 30,000 grew by 325 times•Different rules for residents and migrants •70% of the town are migrants•Education rates are poor as migrants leave children •Between 1979-1996 sprawl reached 645sq km•The government had to create satellite towns •Current population is 8.62 million but only 2.12•Parks are expensive to develop e.g. Xujihui million are permanent residents•It must keep some traditions as such a historic town•Developing can decrease historic value Urban Sprawl – Case Study – Shenzhen Urban Sprawl – Case Study – Shenzhen•Economic impacts •Social impacts-Slowly running out of land -Rural workers quality of life is appaling, treated as 2nd-“Urban villages” and slums popped up overnight class citizens -Keeps the population density low 2001-2005 reduced-Rising household incomes-Transportation improvements 0.06% -Reduces risk of disaster wiping out the whole city-Good for short term economic growth -Reduces traffic congestion-Destroys cultural and historical sites -Ruins farmland which is currently of high demand-Increased cost for communities and taxpayers -Visual clutter may cause elevated blood pressure,-Cultivated land has fallen below 120 hectare limit increased muscle tension and impacts on mood Housing Reform in Urban China Housing Reform in Urban China – Issues•Aimed to change housing from a welfare provision to a •Increase in public sector housingmarket orientated industry •Insufficient housing for increasing number of refugees•By 1999, 66% of urban residents owned their own home •Lack of affordable housing•Average living space rose from 7.1sq m in 1990 to 30 sq •Commercial builders have too many unaffordable luxurym in 2005 houses•Expenditure on housing rose from 8.41 yuan in 1978 to •Housing reform still includes housing allocation through277.2 yuan in 1992 work units•In 1994 18% of housing was privatised •Some people see no incentive to buy houses when the•The lack of public housing has led to them being illegally mortgage is greater than subsidiesrented on the black market Social Welfare in Urban China Pollution in China●By 2009 there were 42,057 social welfare service ●The majority of airborne pollution comes from burninginstitutions in China coal to produce energy and another coal-powered plant is●Childcare, education, job placement, housing, opened every 7-10 dayssubsistence, health care and elder care will largely be the ●Domestically, people use coal-burning stoves in theirresponsibility of the work unit homes●The “Five Insurances” cover pension, medical, work- ●China has developed a ‘booming middle class’ whorelated injury, unemployment and maternity demand cars and other carbon-intensive luxuries●Access to welfare, health and education is better for ●Solid waste pollution is regularly dumped in the Yangtzethose with permanent Hokou status in urban areas river and 3 gorges dam area (approx. 16 million tonnes●The vast majority of migrants are not available for urban annually)residency so cannot claim on the welfare system either ●Discharge of sewage and industrial waste has reached 25 billion tonnes annually
    • Pollution in China – Social Issues Pollution in China – Economic Issues●750,000 people die prematurely annually from air ●It is estimated to cost 3.5-8% of the Gross Domesticpollution related respiratory illness Product●Preventable infectious diseases are increased by water ●By 2020, China will be paying $390 billion to treatpollution diseases cause by pollution●Chronic degenerative related diseases are often linked to ●Management schemes require vast amounts of money toair pollution initiate and maintain●In 2006, 32.8 million people had chronic obstructive ●The Three Gorges Environmental Protection Plan startedpulmonary disease in 2002 aiming to build waste water treatment plants●300 million people use contaminated water daily and within SEPA’s 10 year plan, but cost $4.8 million190 million people suffer annually because of thisPollution in China – Environmental Issues Eco-cities – Dongtan●China emits more SO2 than any other country, causing ●Social sustainibilityacid rain on more than 1/3 of the nation - First stage was due for completion in 2010 and would●PM10s are rapidly increasing, dust storms regularly cover allowed for 25,000 residents which will be 80,000 by 20201/8 of the country due to soil erosion and 500,000 by 2030●Another coal-powered power plant is opened every 7-10 -Food will be sourced locally, encouraging fishermen indays local wetlands●1/3 of all rivers, 75% of major lakes and 25% of coastal -Housing density of 75 people per hectare, lower thanrivers are now classed as highly polluted other Chinese cities●Excess chemicals can cause Harmful Algal Blooms, which -The high promotion of walking and cycling alsoremove oxygen from water and effects the whole coastal promotes fitnessecosystem, including human consumption and health,food supplies and recreation Eco-cities – Dongtan Eco-cities – Dongtan●Economic sustainibility ●Environmental sustainibility - 51,000 jobs generated -Network of cycling and footpaths to cut vehicle - Big tourist attraction – generates revenue emissions -New infrastructure and projects generate even more -Solar powered water taxis on canals and buses runningjobs on hydrogen cells emit no harmful emissions -An expressway connecting Dongtan to Shanghai helps -Power from wind turbines, photovoltiac cells andcommuters work in the city biofuel from domestic and agricultural waste -Only the Dongtan district of Chongming island has been developed, wetlands and other conversational areas have been separated Eco-cities – Chengdu Eco-cities – Chengdu●Social sustainibility ●Economic sustainibility -Houses were poor quality in the 1950s but more -Previously had many SOEs but the competitive marketemphasis is being put on making affordable accomadation put them out of business, bring employment to 13% onfor all the East side -New up market development in Jinguan New City -Poverty rose due to welfareprovides 2,000 apartments -New industrial zones expanding provide more jobs -Ring road built in 2001 reduces congestion -Unskilled rural workers are gaining skills while doing -Cycle lanes encourage cycling and reduce traffic building jobs - Metro and railway planned, bus and coach stations -SOEs are being sold of for more competitive biotechalready in place
    • Eco-cities – Chengdu Globalisation Impacts on China●Environmental sustainibility ●Cities- Fu Nan environmental rehabilitation project Major cities have embraced Western culture, brands-1000 polluting industries were moved away from the such as Marriott hotels are emerging and the Chinese areriver Min buying Western ideas and products-14 km river dykes were built to protect from flooding ●Countryside-25 hectares of green space created ●The rural areas are very isolated from development and-26 km sewage taken to treatment plant dont accept Western culture. They are exploited for- 2006 project was completed to supply the city with cheap labour and 6,037 houses were demolished to makeclean tapwater way for the 2008 Beijing Olympic village. ●Music New styles such as Hip Hop and R&B are emerging, as well as the use of some English words as lyrics. Globalisation Impacts on China Chinas relationship with Africa ●Government ●Trade between China and Africa increased by 700%Only some parts of Western culture have been welcomed, during the 1990swith the internet becoming more accessible, but still ●As of August 2007, it is estimated that there are morerestricted by guidelines with Google and Yahoo, as well as than 750,000 Chinese nationals working in different over 2,600 sites blocked, including Facebook, Youtube African countriesand Twitter. ●There are an estimated 800 Chinese corporations doing ●Food business in Africa More Western food is popping up in major towns and ●One-third of Chinas oil supplies comes from the Africancities, with 20% of the worlds KFC outlets located in continent, mainly from AngolaChina. 97% of the population eat fast food, with 41% ●In Nigeria and Angola, oil and gas exploration anddoing so on a weekly basis, but obesity has doubled from production deals reached more than $2 billion.3.5% to 7% between 1992 and 2002 Chinas relationship with Africa In 1980, the total Sino-African trade volume was US$1 ●billion. In 1999, it was US$6.5 billion and in 2000, US$10 billion ●During the year 2011, trade between Africa and Chinaincreased a staggering 33% from the previous year to US $166 billion ●Places dubbed Little Africa and Chocolate city areincreasingly receiving new immigrants, mostly Nigerians.● Most of the African immigrants are concentrated in the area of Guangzhou with an estimated number of 20,000. It is estimated that there are around 10,000 illegal African immigrants
    • Eco-cities – Chengdu Globalisation Impacts on China●Environmental sustainibility ●Cities- Fu Nan environmental rehabilitation project Major cities have embraced Western culture, brands-1000 polluting industries were moved away from the such as Marriott hotels are emerging and the Chinese areriver Min buying Western ideas and products-14 km river dykes were built to protect from flooding ●Countryside-25 hectares of green space created ●The rural areas are very isolated from development and-26 km sewage taken to treatment plant dont accept Western culture. They are exploited for- 2006 project was completed to supply the city with cheap labour and 6,037 houses were demolished to makeclean tapwater way for the 2008 Beijing Olympic village. ●Music New styles such as Hip Hop and R&B are emerging, as well as the use of some English words as lyrics. Globalisation Impacts on China Chinas relationship with Africa ●Government ●Trade between China and Africa increased by 700%Only some parts of Western culture have been welcomed, during the 1990swith the internet becoming more accessible, but still ●As of August 2007, it is estimated that there are morerestricted by guidelines with Google and Yahoo, as well as than 750,000 Chinese nationals working in different over 2,600 sites blocked, including Facebook, Youtube African countriesand Twitter. ●There are an estimated 800 Chinese corporations doing ●Food business in Africa More Western food is popping up in major towns and ●One-third of Chinas oil supplies comes from the Africancities, with 20% of the worlds KFC outlets located in continent, mainly from AngolaChina. 97% of the population eat fast food, with 41% ●In Nigeria and Angola, oil and gas exploration anddoing so on a weekly basis, but obesity has doubled from production deals reached more than $2 billion.3.5% to 7% between 1992 and 2002 Chinas relationship with Africa In 1980, the total Sino-African trade volume was US$1 ●billion. In 1999, it was US$6.5 billion and in 2000, US$10 billion ●During the year 2011, trade between Africa and Chinaincreased a staggering 33% from the previous year to US $166 billion ●Places dubbed Little Africa and Chocolate city areincreasingly receiving new immigrants, mostly Nigerians.● Most of the African immigrants are concentrated in the area of Guangzhou with an estimated number of 20,000. It is estimated that there are around 10,000 illegal African immigrants