Sustainability: FoodEnvironment – produce foodwithout:Undue degradation of the soilOveruse of waterUnacceptable levels ...
Obesity in the USA60 million adults and 9 million children areobeseCaused by an imbalance between eating toocalories and...
HinderPromotePhysicalEconomic4 new outlets and 200 employees hiredevery working day – high demandBrazil and Vietnam are ...
HinderPromoteTechnologicalPoliticalSyngenta and the Royal Society ofChemistry set up the Pan-Africanchemistry network to ...
The relationship between supermarkets and farmersThe supermarket Code of Practicewas introduced in Mar 2002 to redressthe ...
Food production and technologyNew technology canprovide additionalRural employment,but there are alwaysCounteractingpressu...
Soil Degredation in ZimbabweThe climate of Zimbabwe (hot dryseason followed by wet season)means it is vulnerable to fluvia...
Rice production in LaosRice production in the Lao PDRincreased by 75% from 1.4 miltonnes in 1986 to 2.5 mil in 2004Polic...
GM CropsFor AgainstLess pesticides are needed as the plantsthemselves are resistantHigher crop yieldsDecrease in food p...
Additional factors that hinder food productionChanges in the European consumption of fishUK, Germany and France consume m...
Sustainable food management: Hydroponics and aeroponicsHydroponics AeroponicsMethod:Crops are grown with water containing ...
Sustainable food management: Blue revolution and Green revolutionBlue revolution Green revolutionMethod:Man made establish...
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Food revision sheets

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Food revision sheets

  1. 1. Sustainability: FoodEnvironment – produce foodwithout:Undue degradation of the soilOveruse of waterUnacceptable levels ofpollutionDegradation/destruction ofhabitatSocio-cultural sustainibility:Rural communities ability toretain traditionRetain cohesiveness andculturalvalueProduce sufficient food forthe local areaEconomic sustainability:Agricultural system providesacceptable economic returnFor the employedSupply enough food for thenon-agricultural populationWeekly food consumption in US$Chad : $1.24Bhutan : $5.03Ecuador : $31.55Egypt : $68.53Poland : $151.27Mexico : $189.09Italy : $260.11USA : $348.98Where are the hungry people:A lack of food is most common inCountries across South East Asia,India, the Middle East, Africa andSouth America. Half of the worldshungry people live in India,Pakistan,Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria.1/3 of sub-Saharan children areThe effects of malnutrition:Kwashiorkor – caused by alackof protein and leads to swollenhands, legs and stomach.Marasmus – caused by aseverelack of food, results indiarrhoea,wasting and low immunityAnaemia – caused by a lack ofiron, makes people extremelytired. Farmers with this willproduce even lessBlindness – caused by a lackof vitamin A, effects at least250,000 children a year.
  2. 2. Obesity in the USA60 million adults and 9 million children areobeseCaused by an imbalance between eating toocalories and not getting enough exerciseBeing overweight/obese increases the riskof heart disease, hypertension, diabetes,dysliptemia, stroke, asteothretis, gall bladderdisease, sleep apnea, respiratory problemsand cancerObesity is measured by the body mass index(BMI)In 1991, there were 4 states with an obesityrate of 14-19% and no states over 20%In 2004, there were 7 states with 15-19%, 33states with 20-24% and 9 states over 25%Health costs reach $395 per person annuallyCosts society $117 billionDue to fast food and fizzy drinks being readilyavailableThere is a need to prevent obesity and engagein physical activityCauses 100-400,000 deaths yearlyIn 2008, 58 million were pre-diabetic,236 million were diabetic, 90-95% of whichweretype 2Famine in KenyaDroughts stretching back from 2000, 1997,1992 and 19872 years without rain (since 2004)Human fatalities counted in dozensHundreds of rotting animal carcassesChildren admitted to hospital suffering frommalnutrition rose from 2 a week to 4 a day90% of Wajir districts 407,000 populationare in a near catostrophic situation3.5-4 million people are facing starvation11 million people were effected across EastAfricaHalf of all the cows and sheep in Wajir diedAnimals were left too weak to produce milkand too emaciated to be slaughtered for meatAppealed for $150 million in aidBritain provided £12.7 million ($19.2 mil)
  3. 3. HinderPromotePhysicalEconomic4 new outlets and 200 employees hiredevery working day – high demandBrazil and Vietnam are the highestproducers of Arabia and Robusta coffeeBags of coffee bean bring in $800/kgand can be $50 a cup in New YorkLarge amount of money availablefor research and development infisheries = better equipment = increasedproductivityHigh demand means more shops areopened, means more jobs are availableand reduces the unemployment rate106,000 km² used for coffee beans-Not enough land to sustain demand- Demand outweighs production- Price increasesTop consumers e.g. coffee shops in theUS make the largest profit, producersmake the leastLow technology, labour intensive cheapfisheriesLow yield, low revenue, cant survive85% artisinal vessels catch a smallfraction of the worlds fish15% of the worlds vessels areindustrialand catch 80% of all the fishRelief – gentle sloping or flat relief isthemost efficient, less water run off and soilerosionSoil – fertility depends on the amountof air, water and nutrients. Increasedfertility increases productionClimate – Increased rainfall andtemperature promote growth to adegree,hot, wet conditions are the bestFactors influencing food productionRelief – steep land increases run offanderosionSoil – dry soils with a small humus layer(aridisol) or frozen soils (cryosol) cantsupport growth and hinder productionClimate – low temperatures have lowerproduction. Low rainfall climates e.g.deserts also hinder production
  4. 4. HinderPromoteTechnologicalPoliticalSyngenta and the Royal Society ofChemistry set up the Pan-Africanchemistry network to improve farmingin AfricaTax incentives and research anddevelopment from the government canencourage farmersGovernments build roads, dams andinfrastructure and this encouragesfarmers to increase food productionGovernment subsidies for growingcertain crops make it more profitableto farmersEU is aiming to replace 5% of alltransportation fuel with biofuel by 2010,less land for farming food and less to eatIn the 1960s and 70s, policies ingovernment (Malaysia) encouragedfarmers to grow “cash crops” e.g. rubberIn the 1980s, high tech equipment inSingapore actually destroyed crops dueto the wrong climateGovernments are focused on industryand development may forget aboutagricultureGovernments can enforce limits andquotasNew equipement and technologicaldevelopments increase productivityand yield which leads to lower foodprices, allowing poorer people to eatCan provide additional employmentFood pricers are lower from lowerproduction costsFactors influencing food productionCan cost people unskilled jobs ifmachines are capable insteadCrops are grown to be used as biofuelswith new capacity for them instead ofto be eaten
  5. 5. The relationship between supermarkets and farmersThe supermarket Code of Practicewas introduced in Mar 2002 to redressthe balance between supermarketsand farmers. It involved 4supermarkets(ASDA, Safeway, Tesco andSainsbury)who had all been highlighted as beingof concern.Friends of the Earth with the supportof farming and public interestorganizations carried out a surveyof farmers in 2003 to find out howfarmers were faring under the code.Twenty eight farmers (17%) had to wait longer than 30 days for aninvoice to be paidMore than half the farmers (58%) did not think the code ofpractice made any difference to the way supermarkets did business52% of dairy farmers said they were getting paid the same or lessthan the price of production43% said they received “just over” the cost of production37% of fruit and veg growers said they received the same or lessthanthe cost of productionAbout 1/3 of all farmers did not complain about problems for fearof delisting and not being able to sell their produceOnly 44% were aware that a code was even in place58% of those who knew there was a code believed that it had madeno differenceFarmers may produce less so that pay is driven up, forcing bothsupermarkets and consumers to pay more. Those who feelseverely disadvantaged may even leave agriculture for a different job.
  6. 6. Food production and technologyNew technology canprovide additionalRural employment,but there are alwaysCounteractingpressuresto reduceLabour input andlower its costs.Agriculturaltechnologyis a primaryFactor contributing toincreases in Foodproductivity indevelopingcountries.The lowering of food prices allowsthe poor to eat more and possiblybetter which has a positive impactonnutrition, health and food security.But cheaper food also releasesincome which can be spent onothergoods and services with immediatepositive benefits to the poor suchasimproved shelter or access to keyservices such as healthcare orHowever, where productivity increasesDue to technology match or overtakeThe equivalent fall in prices, bothnet consumers and net producers canbenefit. Between1980 and 2000,production of wheat and rice inBangladeshincreased from below 15 to 25.7 milliontonnes, increasing per capita availabilityin the same time from 425 to 510grams per day.CombineharvestersTractorsPesticidesFertilisersMore outputIncreasingYield makesUp for theLoss inPrice.Food prices aredemonstrablylowerbecause oftechnology, butthesharing ofbenefitsbetweenconsumersand producersdepends onthe nature of thelocal economy.Employment onthefarms of othersis important for thelivelihood of thepoor, main sourceof income andwork.
  7. 7. Soil Degredation in ZimbabweThe climate of Zimbabwe (hot dryseason followed by wet season)means it is vulnerable to fluvialerosion. The rate of soil productionis 0.4 tonnes per hectare per yearwhile the soil erosion is in excessof 30 tonnes per year.The two main factorsIn soil degradation arePopulation density and soilType. The higher thedensity,The higher the erosion,henceCommunal lands havingSuch a high rate. (50t ph py)Soil has a carryingcapacity dependant onsoil type, climate andvegetation cover. Itscapacity is the numberof people and animalsit can sustain withoutdegredation.In Zimbabwe, there are two typesOf land tenure. Traditionally, landWas owned communally with noWritten contracts but now morePeople are beginning to privatelyOwn land with written ownershipthatCan be sold or bought with money.The private owners cause lessLand degredation as they havemoreIncentive to look after the land andGenerally, communal land hashigherErosion rates. 4.2 million peopleIn Zimbabwe live on communalland.Impacts:Siltation of riversDams are filled with sediment within 15 years ofconstructionDecline of soil fertilityIn some areas, cultivation of maize will only bepossiblefor the next 15 yearsIt is predicted that Sorghum cultivation will beimpossible in 30 years.
  8. 8. Rice production in LaosRice production in the Lao PDRincreased by 75% from 1.4 miltonnes in 1986 to 2.5 mil in 2004Policy chances in agriculturalsector have contributed to theeconomic growth andimprovements in welfareThe current strategic objectivesfor agricultural development areto improve rural livelihoods,reduce vulnerability of poorhouseholds, create opportunitiesfor diversifying livelihoods andmaintain environmental quality.Lao people consume 171kg percapita of milled rice per annum,which constitutes 70% of theircalorie and protein intakeChampasack and Saravane aretwo major rice producingprovincesin the southern region. Thenorthern region is mountainousand contributes 22% if output.Strategy 1 – Improve the marketaccess of rural communitiesthrough investment ininfrastructureStrategy 2 – Raise productivityso that farmers needs are metRice yield increased at anannual rate of 2.6% whilearea expanded 1.8%.Many factors influenced yield.The adoption of modernvarietiesUse of inorganic fertilizersAvailability of irrigation facilities.Government commitment tosupport rice productionAlthough food availibility at anational level has improved,household food security has notbeen achieved fully. Farmers withlimited incomes and those inremote areas are still unable tomeet their rice needs fullyTo maintain self-sufficiency inrice,Laos PDR will need to producean additional 1 mil tonnesannually by 2020 to meet theincreasing demand from pop.growthAt the current rate ofpop.growth,as assuming the current rate ofrice consumption per capita,demand will rise by 3.6 miltonnesRice area has increasedfromapprox. 642,000 ha in 1986To 770,000 ha, more than20%Rice production averagedaround 1.3 mil tonnes perannum until the 1990s, withno clear trend in production.A significant breakthroughoccurred during the mid 90swith production rising steeplyto 2.5 mil t in 2004.The rice area cultivated intheuplands decreased by 52%and its contribution to thetotalrice area declined from 41%in 1991 to 15% in 2004.
  9. 9. GM CropsFor AgainstLess pesticides are needed as the plantsthemselves are resistantHigher crop yieldsDecrease in food prices due to lower costsand higher yield. As people in poor countriesspend over half of their income on food alone,lower food prices mean an automatic reductionof poverty.Less deforestation needed to feed the worldsgrowing population (UN projections saythat the world population will reach 8.15 billioncompared to 6.18 billion in year 2000). Thisdecreases carbon dioxide in the atmosphere,which in turn slows global warming.Rigorous testing of ALL GMOcrops and products. This makes GMOsmuch safer than organic crops.Crops can be altered to taste better or holdmore nutrientsCrops can be made drought resistant andsurvive in harsher environments, also openingup more land such as deserts to be agriculturallandAccidental cross-contamination betweenGM and non-GM cropsCreation of pest of herbicide resistantcrops could result in superweeds that evolveNeed to adopt precautionary principleon all new technology and the impact on humanhealth, food safety and the environment cannotbe accurately predictedGM crops have additional proteins and alteredgenetic compositions which may result inallergic reactionsGM crops will result in increased dependency ontransnational biotech companies to supplyseeds and chemicals, resulting in monocultures.This will prove costly and damaging to smallscale farmers in the developing worldGM is not the key to global food security as allthose developed to date have largely benefitedNorthern countries and markets, not smallscale farmers. Food security lies as much indistribution as in quantity.In 2012, a test on rats in France resulted inGM maize being linked with tumours andmultiple organ failureSuccessful alteration is marked with an antibiotic,if consumed to much, people develop resistance
  10. 10. Additional factors that hinder food productionChanges in the European consumption of fishUK, Germany and France consume more than70% of all fish sold in supermarketsConvenient, easy to prepare food is risingMore fish is sold in restaurantsGreater consideration of health benefitsGreater concern for food safety, environment,welfare – increased demand for organicRejection of intensive methods has increaseddemand for higher qualityFishing vesselsLarge ships owned by companies haveincreased in numberThey have powerful sonar to locate wholeshoals of fishFine mesh nets reach greater depthsTheyre unselective and extract baby fishEUCountries bordering the North Sea all claim12 nautical miles of territory which they canfish inCommon fisheries policy assists in disputesQuotas for how many of each species canbe caughtEach member state polices its own quotaSeveral different systems: different fish,different areas, how long fishermen can be atseaFactoriesLarge numbers of coastal people andindustryHigh pollutionSeaMostly <200m deep and shallower in SouthSupports a diverse ecosystemPlankton provide food for 200 species of fishRising temperature reduces the amount ofplanktonLand reclamation declines fish stocks due tosilting and pollution (UK and Netherlands)
  11. 11. Sustainable food management: Hydroponics and aeroponicsHydroponics AeroponicsMethod:Crops are grown with water containing theNecessary nutrients without the use of soil.Case Study: Thanet Earth, KentIt contains 3 greenhouses, each the size of 10football pitches4 more are under constructionEach will be mono-crop and grow just onetype of crop, however may have many varietiesIt increased UK salad crop supplies by 15%Positives:Costs less as no soil is needed and water staysin the system so less soil erosionComplete control – no weedsStable and high yields95% of light is kept inside the greenhouse,preventing light pollutionCan grow crops out of season and fasterNegatives:Maintenance required is very highAny failure leads to mass plant deathTechnical knowledge is necessaryCan cost $3,000 for each systemConditions must be kept constant, slightalterationto heat or pH can cause disasterNot all crops can be grown this wayMethod:Crops are grown in air or mist containing nutrientsRather than soil or water.Case Study: Lim Chu Kang, SingaporeAerogreen Technology is a $12 mil companyThe Kampong Bugis development plan proposedthat all rooftops and 60% of vertical surfacesshould have aeroponics to create sustainibilityIn Singapore, 1,500 hectares are used for 6agrotechnological parksSingapore is the world leader in rooftopproduction of fresh foodPositives:It reduces the cost and energy demand requiredto transport food from out of the city39,000 tonnes of vegetables could be grown in212 hectaresSubstantial savings in water and landIdeal for countries with scarce water and landNegatives:Not all countries have access to cutting edgetechnologyMay go against certain cultures or traditionsAir around the plant must be pure and it isnecessary to have as little contact with humansare possibleThe cooling of the nutrient solution is expensive
  12. 12. Sustainable food management: Blue revolution and Green revolutionBlue revolution Green revolutionMethod:Man made establishments such as ponds areusedTo rear aquatic lifeforms with the aim of improvingFish farming techniques and increase yields.Case Study: MalawiIn Zomba West, the WorldFish centre haveassisteddigging 10x15m pondsChambo and mlamba are the main fish bredManure from farms used to fertilize ponds, siltfromponds fertilizes crops (linked agri/aquaculture)Fish provide locals with Vitamin A, expanding thelife expectancy of 1,200 HIV sufferersPositives:Increases yield85% of shrimp in Asia are farmed this wayIncreased from 26,000 tonnes in 1970 to 700,000in 1990Retail value over £20 bil – increased economyandsustainable incomeRelatively cheap – tool for feeding the poorNegatives:Rapid expansion has caused degredation and lossof natural resourcesMethod:Research, development and technology transferinitiatives change the way agricultural productionhappenedCase Study: IndiaFirst country to benefit, used high-yielding varietyseed program (HPV) in 1966HPV introducted new hybrid varieties of fivecereals which were drought resistantAll responsive to fertilizersAll had shorter growing seasons than traditionalvarietiesPositives:Targets all aspects of modern agricultureYields of new varieties are 2-4 times higherDiet of rural areas becomes more variesFarming incomes increased allowing purchase ofmachinary and technologyShorter growing season allows growth of extraNegatives:Contrly in both economic and environmental termsRural debt due to farmers borrowing money forchemicalsMiddle and high income farmers benefited – widerincome gapIncreased rural-urban migrationSalinization increasedDependence on transnationals for supplies
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