Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Ch3 to 6 ecology
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ch3 to 6 ecology

926

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
926
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Carrying capacity-when the ave. growth = zero; when the largest # of people (or whatever pop) can be supported is reached
  • X-axis represents the percent population
  • Limiting factors are things that control a process. A factor present in an environment that controls a process, particularly the growth of a population in an ecosystem.
  • A density dependent factor is a limiting factor that depends on population size. A Density-independent limiting factor affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of the population size.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Unit 2 Ecology Chapters 3-6
    • 2. What to study <ul><li>Chapter 3: </li></ul><ul><li>What is ecology? p.63 </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of organization p.64 </li></ul><ul><li>Energy flow – sec.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cycles of matter – sec.3 </li></ul>
    • 3. What to study <ul><li>Chapter 4: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>& Greenhouse effect - sec.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Biomes - sec.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Water ecosystems - sec.3 </li></ul>
    • 4. What to study <ul><li>Chapter 5: </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth p.120 </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to growth p.125-127 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 6: </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities affect on biosphere- sec.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Resources – sec.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity – sec.3 </li></ul>
    • 5. Ch 3 The Biosphere <ul><li>What is Ecology? </li></ul><ul><li>Study of interactions btwn organisms and organisms and btwn organisms and their surroundings. </li></ul>
    • 6. The Biosphere <ul><li>The entire planet! </li></ul><ul><li>Incl: </li></ul><ul><li>-8 kilometers above surface to </li></ul><ul><li>11 kilometers below ocean’s surface </li></ul>
    • 7. Abiotic vs. Biotic factors <ul><li>Abiotic = </li></ul><ul><li>Non-living factors organisms interact with in environment </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic = </li></ul><ul><li>Living factors </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways are non-living things essential to organisms? </li></ul>
    • 8. Levels of organization <ul><li>Individual organism </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Biome </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul>
    • 9. Energy Flow <ul><li>Producers = </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Use sun, other inorganic nutrients to make organic material – food. </li></ul><ul><li>Make their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers = </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Must get energy from other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot make their own food. </li></ul>
    • 10. Types of consumers <ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores </li></ul><ul><li>Detritivores </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul>
    • 11. Light vs. no light <ul><li>Photosynthesis - </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs use light energy to power chemical rxns that turn CO 2 & H 2 O into carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Chemosynthesis – </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs use energy from chemical bonds not light </li></ul>
    • 12. Food chains & webs <ul><li>Food Chain - </li></ul><ul><li>Energy stored by producers passing through an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Energy flows one way in ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Food web – </li></ul><ul><li>More complex than chain </li></ul><ul><li>Links all food chains together in ecosystem – can be confusing </li></ul>
    • 13. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Amount of energy, mass in ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Three pyramids </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Amount available at each level </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Grams of matter per unit area </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>How many are there? </li></ul>
    • 14. Cycles of matter <ul><li>Water cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus cycle </li></ul>
    • 15. The Water Cycle <ul><li>Energy flows one-way in ecosystems but matter is recycled. </li></ul><ul><li>Water cycle includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Seepage </li></ul><ul><li>Root uptake </li></ul>
    • 16. Nutrient Cycles <ul><li>The carbon cycle (see p. 77) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon found many places </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere – CO 2 gas </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans – dissolved CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Land – organisms, rocks, soil </li></ul><ul><li>Underground – coal, petroleum, CaCO 3 </li></ul>
    • 17. Nutrient Cycles <ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle (see p.78) </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms need N – make amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Cycles through soil, tissues </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 gas =78% of atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>In wastes as nitrates(NO 3 - ) & nitrites(NO 2 - ), ammonia(NH 3 ) </li></ul>
    • 18. Nitrogen Fixation <ul><li>Bacteria convert N 2 gas into ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>This bacteria lives in soil & on roots of plants such as legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Plants use from soil </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers eat, reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers return it to soil </li></ul>
    • 19. Nutrient Cycles <ul><li>The Phosphorus Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for DNA, RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Not as common </li></ul><ul><li>Not in atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>In rock, soil minerals, ocean sediment </li></ul><ul><li>Cycles btwn soil-organisms </li></ul>
    • 20. Chapter 4 Ecosystems & Communities <ul><li>Climate vs. Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Weather: </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday condition of the Earth’s atmosphere at a given place/time </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: </li></ul><ul><li>Average year after year conditions of temp. & precip. </li></ul>
    • 21. The Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Heat retained in the Earth’s atmosphere by a layer of gasses </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of CO 2 , methane, water vapor & other gasses </li></ul><ul><li>Named for a “greenhouse” </li></ul>
    • 22. Latitude & Climate <ul><li>The sun’s heat hits the Earth’s surface at different angles throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>Earth has three climate zones </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Zone: </li></ul><ul><li>Result of the differences in latitude and angle of heat from sun </li></ul>
    • 23. Earth’s Climate Zones <ul><li>Polar </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul>
    • 24. Ecosystem Characteristics <ul><li>Biotic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Abiotic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Give you: </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat – area where organism lives </li></ul><ul><li>Niche – </li></ul><ul><li>Total use of organisms’ biotic, abiotic factors how it fits in an ecosytem </li></ul>
    • 25. Community interactions <ul><li>1. Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Use resources to survive in same place, at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>No 2 species in same niche at same time </li></ul>
    • 26. Community interactions <ul><li>2. Predation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Symbiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul>
    • 27. Ecological Succession <ul><li>Changes in a community over time </li></ul><ul><li>Changes occur due to disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbances can be natural or man-made </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs on bare land </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer plants (lichens, mosses) </li></ul>
    • 28. Ecological Succession <ul><li>Secondary Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in established communities after disturbances </li></ul>
    • 29. Biomes <ul><li>Communites covering large area </li></ul><ul><li>certain soil, climate conditions </li></ul><ul><li>certain animals, plants </li></ul><ul><li>Several across the world </li></ul>
    • 30. Ch 5 Populations <ul><li>Population Density </li></ul><ul><li># of organisms in a unit area </li></ul><ul><li>Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by 3 things </li></ul><ul><li>-births </li></ul><ul><li>-deaths </li></ul><ul><li>-# of organisms leaving, entering pop. </li></ul>
    • 31. Population Growth <ul><li>Exponential Growth </li></ul><ul><li>-Reproduction constant </li></ul><ul><li>-unlimited recourses </li></ul><ul><li>-has j-shaped curve </li></ul><ul><li>Logistic Growth </li></ul><ul><li>-pop. Grows or stops depending on resources </li></ul><ul><li>-has s-shaped curve </li></ul>
    • 32.  
    • 33.  
    • 34.  
    • 35. Carrying Capacity <ul><li># of organisms a given environment can support </li></ul><ul><li>Logistic growth will level off at carrying capacity </li></ul>
    • 36. Limits to growth <ul><li>What’s a limiting factor? </li></ul><ul><li>Something which affects a population in some way. May cause the population to decrease/increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul>
    • 37. Factors Affecting Growth <ul><li>Density Dependent Factors </li></ul><ul><li>A limiting factor that depends on population size </li></ul><ul><li>Density Independent Factors </li></ul><ul><li>A limiting factor affecting all populations regardless of size </li></ul>
    • 38. <ul><li>Disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><li>Man-Made </li></ul>
    • 39.  

    ×