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  1. 1. ENV-2010-3208-Washington_1P.3D 04/15/10 6:41pm Page 1 ENV-2010-3208-Washington_1P Type: opinion ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE Volume 3, Number 2, 2010 Earth Day at the Crossroads ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089=env.2010.3208 of Sustainability and Justice Birth of a Sustainable Nation, The Environmental Justice and Environmental Health Movements in the United States Sylvia Hood Washington1 M y first memory of Earth Day is a childhood re- membrance of the first Earth Day (1970) celebration in Cleveland, Ohio in the African American community of environmental chemist and environmental engineer for private industry and for NASA. I had designed a STS (Science, Technology, and Society) curriculum for non- Lee Seville located on the southeast side of the city. The science majors at the school since many were intimidated adults in my community had organized a litterbug cam- by classical physics, chemistry, and biochemistry curric- paign and everyone was encouraged to come out and ulums. By that time I had also created the school’s first pick up the common areas. My mother, Sadie Hood, an Environment and Society Club as well as organized a active officer in the Lee-Seville Citizen’s Council and a yearly Earth Day celebration for the school that was open formally trained nurse, was involved in planning this to the public. My students’ curriculum included the sub- activity for the community. I mention her training in the mission of environmental and public health papers as part healthcare field only because her environmental activism of their final grade. The students’ papers changed how I like those of all the adults in the area were centered on perceived the role of environmental impact on commu- environmental health issues tied to environmental in- nities because although I grew up witnessing environ- equalities. Lee Seville’s efforts on Earth Day was focused mental inequalities I did not know that an environmental on eliminating at least in part the ramifications of routine justice movement had been formally created. When my illegal dumping in a middle class community that was students introduced me to the concept of environmental formally an independent suburban enclave. The adults in justice I was entering the last phases of my Ph.D. in the this community regardless of their educational level un- history of science, technology, and the environment at derstood even back then that pollution in all forms could Case Western Reserve University. Their introduction of and usually did have health impacts. The residents didn’t the topic completely changed my research interests and use the term environmental justice but their efforts and professional career. My dissertation, publications, and action emanated clearly from what they perceived to be research grants have all focused on the concepts of envi- environmental and environmental health disparities. ronmental justice and environmental health disparities. I still remember seeing items from abandoned cars to One of my most important efforts was the environmental refrigerators left on the side of the roads after having been health and justice project that was funded by the United tossed clandestinely onto the main thoroughfares at night; States Conference of Catholic Bishops’ (USCCB’s) En- or even carried deep into the wooded areas that sur- vironmental Justice Office that produced an environ- rounded the neighborhood. I also have clear memories of mental health=justice film about Chicago that has been chemicals leaking into creeks and ponds in these woods used to inform the lay public about issues which have a where children and pets frequented throughout the year. direct impact on their lives. The first Earth Day celebration in my community was My research over the years has consistently supported designed to minimize what is clearly recognized today as the fact that one of the most critical developments in environmental health risks. the last forty years in the environmental field has been Twenty-five years later the formal concept of ‘‘envi- the synergistic and mutual development of both the ronmental justice’’ was presented to me by my physical environmental justice movement and the modern en- science students when I was a tenured professor at a ju- vironmental health movement (i.e., the public health nior college in 1995 after having spent 15 years as an movement in the last half of the twentieth century as opposed to the sanitary health movement that began in the latter half of the nineteenth century with demise of the 1 Dr. Sylvia Hood Washington is a research associate professor miasma theory). Concern over environmental health is- at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, sues in the United States predated the modern environ- and the Editor-in-Chief of Environmental Justice. mental justice movement which will be described in 1
  2. 2. ENV-2010-3208-Washington_1P.3D 04/15/10 6:41pm Page 2 2 WASHINGTON greater detail later in this article. The environmental In his 2004 monograph, Chemical Consequences: En- health movement was catalyzed in the last decades of the vironmental Mutagens, Scientist Activism, and the Rise of twentieth century by the famous and actually controver- Genetic Toxicology, Scott Frickel pointed out that NIEHS sial 1962 publication of biologist Rachel Carson’s mono- was: graph Silent Spring which warned of both short term and one of several newly created research institutions estab- long term health effects to humans and nature from the lished to propel scientific research on the biological and industrial production and utilization of new types of ecological effects of chemical agents [and] was a key or- chemicals, particularly synthetic hydrocarbon pesticides ganizational component of an emerging environmental like DDT, especially after they were disposed of and re- state that also included the Environmental Protection leased as toxicants into the environment. Agency (EPA, est. 1969), the National Institute for Occu- Although many environmental scholars have focused pational Safety and Health (NIOSH, est. 1970), and the on Carson’s concern with the impact of environmental National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR, est. pollution on non-anthropogenic life forms she clearly and 1971) … [It] claimed a unique position. Whereas NIOSH consistently articulated in Silent Spring her concern over was concerned with ‘‘one subset of environmental health— occupational health, ’’ NIEHS took in the ‘‘total ‘‘human exposures to [uncontrolled and multiple] cancer- interaction between man and potentially toxic factors in producing chemicals.’’1 Citing an alarming rise in leuke- the environment.’’ Whereas the policy-oriented EPA fo- mia-based mortality in the United States between 1950 to cused on the specific media in which environmental pol- 1960 (from 11.1 to 14.1 per 100,000) and an increase in the lutants are found, NIEHS claimed to make no such international rate of 4 to 5 percent per year, Carson would distinctions because ‘‘to understand the nature of the ask her readers, ‘‘What does it mean? To what lethal agent compound and, subsequently, its toxicity, we study the or agents, new to our environment are people now ex- compound both by itself and in relation to other com- posed with increasing frequency?’’2 She would later an- pounds with which it might come into contact, whether in swer the question later in the text with the postulation water, food, or air.’’5 that ‘‘the road to cancer may be … an indirect one. A NIEHS’ mission, unlike the other federal health and or substance that is not a carcinogen in the ordinary sense environmental agencies, ‘‘… as stated in a 1965 report, may disturb the functioning of some part of the body in involved nothing less than mounting ‘a comprehensive such a way that malignancy results.’’3 attack on the environmental health problems of the na- Carson’s work is believed to have launched the modern tion’ (Research Triangle Institute 1965:xiii) [and its] re- environmental movement which emerged by the end of search was to ‘provide for the determination, study, and the 1960s, a movement that became firmly rooted in the evaluation of … the complex, inter-related phenomena minds of the American public by the first Earth Day, April underlying the human body’s reaction to the increasingly 22, 1970. Despite the persistent popular urban myth that wide range of chemical, physical, biological and social the environmental movement was a non or even anti- environmental influences imposed by modern living.’ ’’ anthropogenic movement of tree huggers and the ‘‘priv- The modern environmental justice movement from its ileged’’ white middle-class, the promulgation of federal inception both in the United States and now in communi- environmental legislation in the United States within the ties all over the world has had a public and environmental first ten years of its beginnings was driven by a ‘‘second health focus. It was and is still rooted in the idea of (in- wave of environmental concerns’’ primarily focused on tentional or planned) disparate and inequitable levels of public health. The new federal environmental legislation environmental pollution in poor, minority, indigenous, created as result of this movement included the 1970 and=or socially disenfranchised communities with con- Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act of 1972 pushed for- comitant deleterious environmental health impacts. Scho- ward by the June 22, 1969 burning of the Cuyahoga River lars across the environmental field do not have a consensus in Cleveland, Ohio’s industrial flats (subsequently refined among them on the exact moment of birth for the modern and refocused by the 1977 Clean Water Act Amendment), environmental justice movement. Many believe that the the 1974 Safe Water Drinking Act that passed ‘‘after a movement began with Dr. Martin Luther King’s 1968 move series of well-publicized stories about the number of po- toward a ‘‘poor people’’ campaign and his support of tential carcinogens in the Mississippi river water used as protesting black sanitary workers. Just as some scholars drinking water by the City of New Orleans,’’4 and the believe the modern environmental justice movement 1970 Resource Conservation Recovery Act (with amend- began at different points in the 1960s and 1970s, there are ments in 1976 and 1980 for stronger enforcement) to regulate the generation, handling, and disposal of haz- ardous waste. Concerns over human health and modern 1 industrial-based environmental pollution poignantly ar- Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, (1962), 237 2 Ibid., 227. ticulated by Carson was and still is the central thrust of 3 Ibid., 235. both the environmental justice movement (spearheaded 4 Barry S. Levy, David H. Wegman, Sherry L. Baron, and Ro- and driven in large part by non-profit grassroots activism) semary K. Sokas, Occupational and Environmental Health: Re- and the environmental health movement (primarily led cognizing and Preventing Disease and Injury, (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2006), 54. by government agencies like the Center for Disease 5 Scott Frickel, Chemical Consequences: Environmental Mutagens, Control but particularly the National Institute of En- Scientist Activism, and the Rise of Genetic Toxicology (New Bruns- vironmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)). wick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004).
  3. 3. ENV-2010-3208-Washington_1P.3D 04/15/10 6:41pm Page 3 BIRTH OF A SUSTAINABLE NATION 3 many scholars who believe the movement began in the Lois Gibbs’ successful environmental activism to re- United States on August 2, 1978. This was the day when solve environmental inequalities, particularly those tied to CBS and ABC television networks first carried news of the the environmental health of people living in her com- adverse effects of toxic waste on residents of Love Canal. munity, would eventually be imitated across the country The New York state health commissioner had recently with various levels of success by other female environ- announced that the landfill created by the Hooker mental justice leaders like Peggy Shepard, co-founder of Chemical Company had created a serious and extremely West Harlem Environmental Action, Inc. (WE ACT); dangerous public health threat to the residents of Love Dollie Burwell, lead member of Warren County Con- Canal, a predominantly white working class community in cerned Citizens; Hazel Johnson, founder of Chicago’s Buffalo, New York. Hooker had dumped thousands of People for Community Recovery (PCR); Emelda West, co- drums of toxic waste into an abandoned navigation canal founder of St. James Citizens for Jobs and the Environ- that had been filled in in 1952. The company then sold the ment; and Margaret Williams of Citizens Against Toxic land to the Niagara Falls Board of Education, who even- Exposure (CATE). All of these women created or partic- tually built schools and housing. Soon after residents ipated in the development of environmental justice or- moved into the area, alarming health problems and birth ganizations in poor and minority communities to address defects began to occur. Adults, children, and animals re- or combat environmental racism and environmental ceived chemical burns from the dirt in backyards and health disparities in their respective communities.7 school playgrounds. Citizens reported visual explosions. Most scholars, however, agree that the 1982 grassroots Hooker’s dumping practices resulted in the resurfacing of protests by African Americans in Warren County, North pesticide residues and other chemicals that were seen Carolina against toxic dumping in their communities was bubbling on the ground. The community had become so the pivotal and defining moment for the modern envi- poisoned that many of the residents’ lawns wouldn’t grow, ronmental justice movement. The national protest was and the few fruits and vegetables that residents were able over Warren County’s decision to bury more than 32,000 to grow made them sick. cubic yards of PCB contaminated soil in a landfill located The grassroots environmental activism that is now so in the predominantly (84%) African American community common and characteristic of the environmental justice of Afton, North Carolina. Afton’s citizens and their en- movement was critical to the successful resolution of the vironmental supporters were deeply concerned over the environmental dilemmas at Love Canal. This activism potential contamination of their primary water supply, was lead and personified by Lois Gibbs, a Love Canal well water, since the area’s water-table was located only resident whose three-year-old son Michael developed a five to ten feet below the surface of the selected landfill respiratory illness that was tied to the toxic waste in the site. The adverse reaction to the disposal decision was development. Moved by her own son’s illness as well as based upon community’s cogent understanding of the the illnesses of many of her neighbor’s children, Gibbs scientific and public health history of PCBs and a firm founded the Love Canal Homeowner’s Association and understanding of the interrelationships between the took their complaints to the state capital for resolution. technology of water supplies, its corruption, and human The activism of the Homeowner’s Association led to a health in the postmodern era. 1978 investigation by state epidemiologists. They found The protest resulted in study by the U.S. General Ac- abnormally high rates of birth defects, miscarriages, epi- counting Office (GAO) of hazardous waste landfill sitings lepsy, liver abnormalities, rectal bleeding, and headaches. in Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 that The continued activism by Gibbs and the Home- found that three of our commercial hazardous waste owner’s Association convinced the federal government facilities were in predominately African American com- that they should investigate as well. By 1980, federal in- munities and that the fourth was in a low-income com- vestigations had identified 248 chemicals in the dump munity.8 The GAO was then followed by the watershed site; and currently, more than 400 have been found at the report of the United Church of Christ Commission for original site. As a result of the state and federal investi- Racial Justice study that ‘‘found that race, not income, was gations, then President Jimmy Carter declared Love the major factor that was significantly related with resi- Canal, New York a disaster area. Residents were evacu- dence near a hazardous waste site.’’9 Regardless of these ated, the state of New York purchased more than 230 of the residents’ homes and financed some of the costs of their relocation, and many homes were torn down. As 6 Carolyn Merchant, The Columbia Guide to American Environ- well, the declaration of Love Canal as a disaster area mental History (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 185. 7 entitled residents to federal aid that could be used for Environmental Justice Resource Center, ‘‘Sheroes and Heroes relocation. ‘‘Lois Gibbs went on to found a magazine for Environmental Justice,’’ <http:==www.ejrc.cau.edu=(s)heros. html> (March 9, 2004). called Everyone’s Backyard, and to organize a major 8 U.S. General Accounting Office, Siting of Hazardous Waste coalition, the Citizen’s Clearinghouse for Hazardous Landfills and Their Correlation With Racial and Economic Status of Wastes. Operating out of Washington, D.C., the organi- Surrounding Communities (1983); David W. Allen, Kelly M. Hill, zation assisted local groups in moving beyond the Not in and James P. Lester, Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001), 2. My Back Yard (NIMBY) phenomenon, to Not in Anyone’s 9 United Church of Christ, Toxic Wastes and Race in the United Backyard, in a major effort to reduce the health effects of States: A National Report on the Racial and Socioeconomic Char- pollution and toxic waste dumping.’’6 acteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites (1987).
  4. 4. ENV-2010-3208-Washington_1P.3D 04/15/10 6:41pm Page 4 4 WASHINGTON contested inception dates for the movement what is clear sizes prevention of environmental hazards (through is that the environmental justice movement’s concerns elimination) to all human beings.14 over human health and environmental pollution for mi- The environmental justice movement and the scholars nority communities and the poor was historically con- and researchers who supported its aims effectively and comitant with the larger national interests and concerns clearly articulated the emergence and continued existence sparked by Rachel Carson in 1962.10 of environmental health disparities in the United States Almost a decade after the Warren County protest, the that had grown exponentially during and since the Cold concerns of the movement’s leaders culminated in a series War by the time of the creation of the 1992 USEPA En- of meetings by scholars, environmental activists, civil vironmental Equity Office. The strategic objectives of rights leaders, and eventually the Congressional Black government health agencies particularly NIEHS would Caucus in the early 1990s to ensure that it would become coalesce with those of the environmental justice move- a national priority. ‘‘In response to [their] concerns … and ments after their early 1990 meetings with the EPA and of the U.S. Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), the EPA with President Clinton’s Executive Order of 1994. formed the Environmental Equity Workgroup, whose On February 11, 1994, President Clinton signed Ex- findings were reported in a two volume report. … Shortly ecutive Order 12898 on environmental justice. The offi- thereafter, in November 1992, the Office of Environmental cial title of the order was ‘‘Federal Actions to Address Equity was established within the Environmental Pro- Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and tection Agency, and in February 1994 President Clinton Low-Income Populations.’’ The order focused on the signed Executive Order No. 12898, which requires every ‘‘environmental and human health conditions’’ in people federal agency to achieve the principle of environmental of color and low-income populations with the goal of justice by addressing and ameliorating the human health achieving equal environmental protection for all com- and environmental effects of the agency’s programs, munities, regardless of their race, income status, ethnicity, policies, and activities on minority and low-income pop- or culture. It directed all federal agencies with an envi- ulations in the United States. …’’11 ronmental and public health mission to make environ- Robert Bullard, the foremost environmental justice mental justice an integral part of their mission. The order scholar in the United States who has shaped the direc- also made federal agencies responsible for ensuring that tion of most of the research in this field, asserted in his states and organizations receiving federal monies for seminal monograph, Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class and environmental projects did not violate federal civil rights Environmental Quality, initially published in 1990 (and laws. Finally, the order established the Interagency reissued in 1994), that there are three equity issues which Working Group on Environmental Justice, with mem- are the foundations for environmental justice claims. bership comprised of the heads of such federal agencies as These issues are procedural equity, geographical equity, the Departments of Justice, Defense, Energy, Labor, In- and social equity. For Bullard and most environmental terior, Transportation, Agriculture, Housing and Urban justice scholars environmental injustice is a result of either Development, Commerce, Health and Human Services, ‘‘nonscientific and non-democratic decisions such as ex- and the EPA. clusionary practices … and public hearings held in remote Ten years after Clinton’s Executive Order, on Novem- locations at inconvenient times’’ (procedural inequity); the ber 7, 2004 NIEHS outgoing director, Dr. Kenneth Olden, inequitable ‘‘location and spatial configuration of com- would receive the American Public Health Association’s munities to environmental hazards, noxious facilities and (APHA) Sedgwick Medal, the highest award in public unwanted land uses’’ (geographical inequity); and ‘‘the health. The award was made to Olden for his ‘‘ex- role of sociological factors (race, ethnicity, class, culture, traordinary achievements in linking environmental political power, etc.) on environmental decision making’’ health sciences with public health.’’15 Bernard Goldstein (social equity).12 pointed out in his essay, NIEHS and Public Health Practice, One of the most critical assertions however that Bullard that it was under Olden’s leadership that NIEHS be- makes in this monograph (particularly for this essay) was came a leader in re-establishing the concept of the ‘‘unity that despite the formation of environmental agencies and of health and the environment’’ after ‘‘environmental the promulgation of environmental regulations, ‘‘The health … [was] divorced from its roots in public health dominant environmental protection paradigm reinforces which was mirrored in the emergence of separate na- the stratification of people, place and work … and that it tional, state, and local agencies responsible for the regu- [contributed to the trading of ] human health for prof- it … and legitimated human exposure to harmful expo- 10 sure to harmful chemicals, pesticides and hazardous Sylvia Hood Washington, Packing Them In (Lanham, MD: substances.’’13 Although Bullard and many other scholars Lexington Books, 2005). 11 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992a, 1992b Bullard, have discussed the trials, tribulations, and ultimate goals 1994a; Cushman, 1993, 1994,. Allen et al., Environmental Injustice b AU1 of the environmental justice movement activists it is clear in the United States: Myths and Realities, 2. 12 that for the last 25 years what has remained of utmost Robert D. Bullard, Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, And En- importance is their desire to have federal legislation and vironmental Quality (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994) 116. 13 Ibid., 114 support that ensures the ‘‘right of all individuals to be 14 Ibid., 119. protected from environmental degradation’’ and the im- 15 Bernard D. Goldstein, ‘‘NIEHS and Public Health Practice,’’ plementation of a public health paradigm that empha- Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug. 15, 2005.
  5. 5. ENV-2010-3208-Washington_1P.3D 04/15/10 6:41pm Page 5 BIRTH OF A SUSTAINABLE NATION 5 lation of chemicals and the natural environment.’’16 in their need to be integrated in what we [NIEHS] do. In Under Olden’s leadership NIEHS began to focus on try- fact I believe that these concepts form the core of our ing to make health researchers and the lay public alike mission. … It is our obligation to support research that understand the potential health impacts of chemical and produces findings that will inform environmental justice physical exposure with the goal of ultimately ‘‘facilitat- for all people.’’ Schwarz and Olden’s philosophies and ing the protection of the population as a whole, especially organizational response to the environmental justice groups sensitive to these agents, while increasing the movements through NIEHS has been and continues to be breadth of disciplines involved in environmental health.’’17 a boom for the environmental health movement for peo- It was also during this time that NIEHS’ Community ple everywhere since as Rachel Carson so eloquently ex- Outreach and Educational Programs (COEPS) were re- pressed 45 years ago in her Silent Spring chapter titled tooled and redirected to ensure that ‘‘environmental health ‘‘The Human Price,’’ ‘‘The new environmental health science is responsive to public need.’’18 problems are multiple—created by radiation in all forms, Kenneth Olden’s decision to redirect the NIEHS’ re- born of the never-ending stream of chemicals of which search mission to address environmental health dis- pesticides are a part, chemicals now pervading the world parities was undoubtedly influenced by Clinton’s 1994 in which we live, acting upon us directly and indirectly, Executive Order as well as by his own personal involve- separately and collectively.’’22 Ensuring environmental ment in the environmental justice conferences which were equity everywhere ultimately optimizes the chances for the impetus for the Order. During his tenure ‘‘NIEHS environmental health for everyone. funding in the area [of environmental justice] was notable It is indeed fortunate for the national social body and for an innovative series of research grant programs that the global social body that the leadership in both the required close collaboration with the community for modern environmental justice movement and the modern funding … resulting in the development of working rela- environmental health movement understood and contin- tions between community organizations and academic ues to synergize their efforts in dealing with environ- environmental research groups.’’19 mental health issues particularly those created by the In 2002 NIEHS and the National Human Genome Re- burden of inequitable environmental pollution manage- search Institute jointly began a grants program called ment practices and policies. ‘‘Partnerships to Address Ethical Challenges in Environ- The graduate students that I teach today in public mental Health,’’ whose primary objective is ‘‘to remedy health programs are indeed fortunate to be required to the unequal burden borne by socioeconomically disad- take environmental health courses that have curriculums vantaged persons in terms of residential exposure to that acknowledge and discuss this synergism between greater- than-acceptable levels of environmental pollu- environmental justice and environmental health dis- tion, occupational exposures to hazardous substances, parities. What I find shocking is that 40 years later stu- and fewer civic benefits such as sewage and water treat- dents from medical backgrounds and even environmental ment.’’ Researchers involved in the grant must ensure that science or environmental engineering backgrounds enter ‘‘research studies are designed and conducted with the into these courses with no knowledge of environmental involvement of those being studied rather than regarding health issues or environmental justice. It is my sincerest them simply as study subjects.’’20 The ‘‘Partnerships’’ is hope that by the 50th anniversary of Earth Day, envi- another NIEHS effort to directly address the problems of ronmental health courses will be mandatory for all stu- environmental inequities articulated by the environmen- dents since the problem of environmental inequalities and tal justice movement. The program awards researchers an environmental health disparities will not be disappearing annual sum of $200,000 for up to five years ‘‘to investigate but expanding and exacerbated with globalization and environmental ills in a community, survey residents atti- climate change. tudes about both local environmental problems and health studies in general, and develop educational cam- BIBLIOGRAPHY paigns to meet local needs.’’21 NIEHS came, saw, and attempted to conquer the en- 29 Years Ago in IDPH History. (n.d.). Retrieved July 23, 2008, vironmental health disparities painfully described by from Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH), leaders of the environmental justice movement during the <www.idph.state.il.us=webhistory4.htm>. early national conferences convened by them in the 1990s. ´ Alarcon, G. S., et al. (2002). Baseline characteristics of a Their research mission and strategic plan from that point multiethnic lupus cohort: PROFILE. Lupus, 11(2):95–101. forward was and still is focused on ameliorating envi- Ali, Y. M. (2007). Monoclonal gammopathy in Systemic lupus ronmental health disparities as it continues a dialogue erythematosus. Lupus, 16(6) 426–429. with environmental justice communities and scholars. As late as December 2006, current NIEHS Director 16 Ibid., 2. David A. Schwarz in an attempt to address concerns over 17 Ibid. 18 the organization’s continued commitment to environ- Ibid. 19 mental justice research issues stated in the organization’s Ibid. 20 Tina Adler, ‘‘Ethics in Environmental Health,’’ Environmental journal, Environmental Health Perspectives, for that month Health Perspectives, Dec. 2004, 112(17): A988–A990. that he strongly believed in the concepts of environmental 21 Ibid. 22 justice and community based participatory research ‘‘and Carson, Silent Spring, 188.
  6. 6. ENV-2010-3208-Washington_1P.3D 04/15/10 6:41pm Page 6 6 WASHINGTON Al-Jarallah, K., et al. (1998). SLE in Kuwait—hospital based Cooper, G. C. (2002). Differences by race, sex, and age in the study. Lupus, 7(7):434–438. clinical and immunologic features of recently diagnosed Aronson, R. E., et al. (2007). Neighborhood Mapping and SLE patients in the Southeastern United States. Lupus, 11: Evaluation: A methodology for participatory community 161–167. health initiatives. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Cooper, G. S., et al. (2002). Hormonal and Reproductive Risk 11(4):373–383. Factors for Development of Systemic lupus erythematosus: Askanase, A. D., et al. (2002). Reproductive Health in SLE. Best Results of a Population Based, Case Control Study. Ar- Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, 16(2):265–280. thritis Rheum., 46(7):1830–9. Bailey, A. J., et al. (1998). A Tale of Two Counties: Childhood Costenbader, K. H. & Karlson, E. W. (2006). Cigarette Lead Poisoning, Industrialization and Abatement in New Smoking and Autoimmune Disease: what can we learn Enlgand. Economic Geography, 74:96–111. from epidemiology. Lupus, 15(11):737–745. Bossingham, D. (2003). Systemic lupus erythematosus in the Lupus Foundation of America. (2008). Retrieved May 1, 2008, far north of Queensland. Lupus, 12(4):327–331. from <http:==www.lupus.org=webmodules=webarticlesnet= Campagna, M. (2006). GIS for Sustainable Development. Lon- templates=new_aboutintroduction.aspx?articleid¼71& don: Taylor & Francis. zoneid¼9s>. Caress, S. M. and Steinemann, A. C. (2003). A Review of a Two- Marketing of Lead Paint and the Effect on Children. (n.d.). Re- Phase Population Study of Multiple Chemical Sensitvities. trieved July 23, 2008, from Marketing of Lead Paint and the Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(12): 1490–1497. Effect on Children—History of Lead Paint, <http:==www. Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. Cambridge: Riverside Press. lead411.org=Templates=history=marketing_lead_paint.htm>. Centers for Disease Control. (2004). Retrieved July 24, 2008, National Medical Association. (n.d.). The Great Imitator: In- from Environmental Health Activities in Illinois, <www creasing Awareness and Treatment of Lupus in Communities of .cdc.gov=nceh=publications=statefacts=IL2004.pdf>. Color. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from <http:==nmanet.org= Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Retrieved images=uploads=Great_Imitator.pdf#search¼%22lupus% July 24, 2008, from About the Childhood Lead Poisoning 20great%20imitator%22>. Prevention Program (CLPPP), <www.cdc.gov=nceh=lead= about=program.htm>. Address correspondence to: Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program. (2004). Sylvia Hood Washington, Ph.D., N.D., M.S.E., M.P.H. Using GIS to Assess and Direct Childhood Lead Poisoning Research Associate Professor Prevention: Guidance for State and Local Childhood Lead Poi- University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health soning Prevention Programs. Washington, D.C.: CDC. Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (MC 922) Coleman, L., et al. (2005). Birth Weight and Systemic Lupus Institute for Environmental Science & Policy Erythematosus. Lupus, 14(7): 526–528. 2121 W. Taylor Street, Room 525 Conrad, K. M., et al. (1996). Systemic lupus erythematosus Chicago, IL 60612-7260 after heavy exposure to quartz dust in uranium mines: clinical and serological characteristics. Lupus, 5(1):62–69. E-mail: sewhood@uic.edu
  7. 7. ENV-2010-3208-Washington_1P.3D 04/15/10 6:41pm Page 7 AUTHOR QUERY FOR ENV-2010-3208-WASHINGTON_1P AU1: Please provide citations for these 5 references.