Rome was built on seven hills: Valentine, Caelian, Capitoline, Esquiline, Palatine, Quirinal, Viminal.
Rome is part of a boot shaped peninsula.
This peninsula sticks out into the Mediterranean Sea.
Rome, Italy is part of current day Europe.
Roman armies would conquer lands during and after wars.
Rome expanded all the way to Gaul in the north and northern Africa in the south.
One city Rome conquered (more or less destroyed) was Carthage.
The First Punic war
This war was sparked by fights in Sicily.
Sicilian soldiers asked a Carthaginian fleet to help it secure Roman land on the toe of Italy.
Carthage was accused by Rome for breaking a treaty they both signed to stay out of each others lands.
When the war ended, Carthage agreed to turn Sicily over to Rome .
Romans traded with Egypt and the Greek islands.
As trade increased so did town and city sizes.
Many towns and cities became harbors if they were on the coast.
Many Romans disagreed with Christian beliefs.
Christians were not seen as a problem in the earlier years of Christianity. This was until many rumors throughout the Roman Empire.
Nero, a very bad emperor, was the first emperor to persecute the Christians.
Christianity spread throughout the empire because when the Christians were being Romans saw how brave they were and wanted to convert.
Romans believed in polytheism or many gods.
Romans made animal sacrifices at temples to please their gods.
Romans believed that bad weather, sickness, bad crops, and many other bad things were caused by angry gods.
Romans had several beliefs of how their city was founded.
One was that a defeated Trojan escaped from war to Latium and married a princess and their children founded Rome.
Another belief was that two half-blood twins,Romulus and Remus, one human parent the other a god, were thrown into a river by a jealous uncle and saved by a she wolf. These twins had a dispute over where the best place to start a city was and Romulus killed Remus and founded Rome on Palatine Hill.
Much of Jewish art was for religious purposes only.
Jewish people didn’t believe killing was right in any way.
Jewish people held their religious ceremonies in Synagogs where there was enough space to worship and pray.
Many Jews were torched and killed by cruel Roman Emperors .
Development of Dome
The dome was used in many Roman buildings.
The dome was mainly used for a roof. The dome looked spectacular on Roman buildings.
In a certain Roman building with a dome roof u can whisper at one side and hear it on the other side.
Development of Aqueducts
Aqueducts could carry water very long distances.
These concrete structures could carry water through mountains and across valleys.
This invention was a great idea and made life in mid-land cities a lot easier.
System of Laws
Romans laws were carved on 12 tablets ad hung in the forum for all to see.
In Roman law any person is innocent until proven guilty.
The tenth tablet contained laws on religion.
A system of laws helped keep many citizens in line.
Network of Roads
In Rome there were over 250,000 miles of roads.
These roads were made of concrete bricks.
These roads made trade and travel throughout the empire a lot easier.
Julius Caesar’s a great intellect and a forceful personality got him great loyalty from his troops.
Sulla, a ruling dictator, disliked Caesar, in this position Caesar left for Asia Minor to serve in military campaigns.
When Sulla died Caesar returned and after a while became a consul and took steps for the common people.
After many years an many accomplishments Caesar was murdered by his enemies because they feared he would declare himself king.
Early Roman Republic was Oligarchy.
This oligarchy had two head officials, called consuls, which took over jobs once done by kings.
The patricians had a lot of power and influence while the plebeians had very little of each.
Eventually the plebeian soldiers rebelled and the patricians agreed to give plebeians more influence in the government.
Tiberius Gracchus tried to settle some Roman growing pains but was murdered along with 300 of his followers.
Gaius Gracchus tried to carry out the rest of his brothers plans but he too was murdered.
There was a period of time were emperors were murdered by their guards if some one paid them enough money.
This series of emperors was called the barracks emperors.
The idea of the twelve tables was the result of a plebeian reform.
The laws before this reform weren’t written down so judges could choose which laws they wanted to follow.
These twelve tablets were hung in the forum for all to see.
Trade with in the Roman Empire was great because of its great network of roads.Great trade meant a lot of money.
Much of luxury items were imported so they cost more.
Many items were also exported to other countries.
Luxury travel was for rich people only.
Much travel was done on boats of wagons.
Traveling on water was expensive.
People traveled mostly for trade.
Excessive Military Spending
Military spending drained the government of a lot of its money, constantly.
This made it very hard to maintain the empire.
Eventually the government had to hire unemployed people to keep them off the streets.
This new army was expensive and unreliable. The army being expensive made the government need to raise taxes.
The Punic Wars were a series of intense wars between forces of Rome and Carthage.
Since the two places weren’t directly connected by land so many ships had to be built by Rome.
The second Punic War took the most devastating toll on the Roman economy and army.
At the end of the third Punic war the power that was Carthage was destroyed.This gave the Romans the western half of the Mediterranean and many more trade routes.
The Patricians were wealthy and influential Romans.
Towards the beginning of the republic the held lots of power.
The Patricians also held high jobs in government.
Towards the mid to end of the republic the patricians held less the half of republic influence.
Plebeian comes from the word plebs meaning common.
Plebeians mad e up 90% of the population of Rome.
In the early republic they held little influence.
Plebeians gained more influence by going on strikes and rebelling.
The father was treated as a king in a household.
These “kings” had right to all property owned by the family.
A father could sell his children into slavery. He could also kill them if he wanted.
Though the father was “king”his power was limited by custom because an unfair father was not admired in custom.
Women had the right to own property.
Women could have jobs and take up their interests in business and other occupations.
A woman’s main job was to bear and raise children.
When Rome grew into wealth women could relax a bit when they hired slaves.
I think that Roman Emperors was the the most important idea we learned about ancient Rome. This idea was important because Roman Emperors could affect the entire roman race. They could change laws, declare war, and they could use government money for outrageous purposes. Obviously, learning about Roman Emperors was very important.