Geography
The location of Rome was a key to its growth. <ul><li>The mountain ranges, the Alps and Apennines provide a strong natural...
The myth of Romulus and Remus tells of Rome’s start. <ul><li>A myth described the origins of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Accor...
The Roman Empire contained arable land. <ul><li>Crops were raised on latifundias or large estates. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman...
Establishment of colonies in distant lands was important. <ul><li>There was establishments in Gaul, Spain and even Africa....
Religion
Romans practiced Polytheism. <ul><li>Polytheism was the established official religion, with government officials as either...
The relationship of Romans to Jews was difficult. <ul><li>Romans occupied the Jewish territories including Jerusalem. </li...
Christianity began during the Roman Empire . <ul><li>Jesus a philosopher from occupied Galilee .He attracted a strong foll...
Christianity began during the Roman  Empire. (continued) <ul><li>Romans feared he would help lead a revolt,so he was cruci...
Christianity spread throughout the Empire after Jesus’s death <ul><li>The Roman roads helped make it easier for Jesus’s  a...
The spread of Christianity(continued) <ul><li>Christians suffered persecution by Romans  because of their refusal to the w...
Achievements
The Empire grew in part because of military force and diplomacy.  <ul><li>They used effective infantry tactics ,such as di...
The empire grew in part because of military  and diplomacy (continued) <ul><li>The Punic Wars and eventual victories gave ...
They had useful achievements in science and technology. <ul><li>Establishment of roads made of concrete and stone helped m...
The inventions in architecture are still being used today. <ul><li>Romans invented concrete which was much easier and fast...
The literature of the Roman Empire is still being read and studied today <ul><li>Emperor Augustus encouraged writers and p...
Politics
The Twelve Tables was a significant political changes at the beginning of the Roman Empire. <ul><li>Before this reform, th...
The Twelve Tables (continued) <ul><li>This was the first step to a more democratic system of government. </li></ul>
Social Class riots led to the downfall of the Republic. <ul><li>Caesar restored order after the fall of the Republic. </li...
Social class riots led to Republic’s downfall (continued) <ul><li>Caesar appointed himself Emperor for life. Those who wer...
Rome’s rule by Emperors was epic. <ul><li>Augustus was the first emperor after Caesar’s death. Romans benefitted from his ...
Rome’s long rule by Emperors (continued) <ul><li>Other Emperors ruled with a corrupt and harmful hand. This included Calig...
Many political ideas of the Roman Empire are still used today <ul><li>A Republic form of government was established. In th...
Political Ideas (continued) <ul><li>Romans invented the system of checks and balances. This guaranteed that no one part of...
Economy
Farming was crucial to the expansion of the economy. <ul><li>Grain was the key crop. </li></ul><ul><li>The farmers grew ri...
Farming crucial to expansion (continued) <ul><li>The city of Rome was a huge market for farm products. </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Along with agriculture, trade dominated Roman economy. <ul><li>Goods moved easily through sea trade routes because of Roma...
Trade dominated economy (continued) <ul><li>Roman roads, very advanced because of the invention of concrete, were another ...
Stable currency was an important factor . <ul><li>The barter system was still utilized but Romans also established a new c...
Currency (continued) <ul><li>The Augustus coins were called denarius and were accepted everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>The c...
Economic troubles helped cause the fall of the Empire <ul><li>To pay for the wars, higher taxes were imposed on the citize...
Economic troubles (continued) <ul><li>Inflation or the higher price for goods affected both the ordinary citizen and the a...
Social Structure
Two main social classes were present throughout the history of the Roman Empire <ul><li>Patricians represented the upper o...
Two main social classes (continued) <ul><li>Due to the reforms, Plebeians were eventually able to hold power and governmen...
Family Relationships were important in Roman Society <ul><li>The family centered around the man being the heads of househo...
Family relations (continued) <ul><li>The history of individual families were revered by specific rituals and artwork. </li...
The lives of the rich and poor were greatly different in many ways. <ul><li>Wealthy Romans lived in a domus, which is a ho...
The lives of the rich and poor (continued) <ul><li>The wealthy lived extravagant lifestyles with slaves doing all of the w...
The lives of the rich and the poor were similar in many ways. <ul><li>In all households, the male was the ultimate power. ...
The lives of the rich and poor were similar (continued) <ul><li>Both Plebeian and Patrician homes had little furniture. </...
Conclusion <ul><li>The great success of the Roman Empire was due to many factors. One important factor was the geography o...
Conclusion (continued) <ul><li>The eventual downfall of the Roman Empire could be blamed on various factors. Mostly, the e...
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610

  1. 1. Geography
  2. 2. The location of Rome was a key to its growth. <ul><li>The mountain ranges, the Alps and Apennines provide a strong natural defense. </li></ul><ul><li>Several navigable rivers, such as the Tiber river, were transportation routes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean climate with mild winters and warm dry summers was hospitable. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The myth of Romulus and Remus tells of Rome’s start. <ul><li>A myth described the origins of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the myth, Rome was founded on the Palatine hills by Romulus. </li></ul><ul><li>The myth glorified the founding of Rome, connecting the history to the gods. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Roman Empire contained arable land. <ul><li>Crops were raised on latifundias or large estates. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans employed crop rotation for farming as well as for fertilizer. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end, the Empire, suffered a decline in food production due to overuse of land. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Establishment of colonies in distant lands was important. <ul><li>There was establishments in Gaul, Spain and even Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>New colonies provided tax income for the Empire to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman culture was also introduced in these far-off places. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religion
  7. 7. Romans practiced Polytheism. <ul><li>Polytheism was the established official religion, with government officials as either priests and later emperors to be worshiped as gods. Worshiping was considered being loyal to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter,Juno,Mars, and Minerva were the main gods of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans feared the gods and made offerings to please them. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The relationship of Romans to Jews was difficult. <ul><li>Romans occupied the Jewish territories including Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews were divided on how they felt about Roman occupation. Most Jews resented them. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts between factions of Jews created unrest. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Christianity began during the Roman Empire . <ul><li>Jesus a philosopher from occupied Galilee .He attracted a strong following. </li></ul><ul><li>His teachings stressed worship of the one true God and loving your neighbor,including your enemies. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Christianity began during the Roman Empire. (continued) <ul><li>Romans feared he would help lead a revolt,so he was crucified under the rule of Governor Pontius Pilate. </li></ul><ul><li>The faith of his followers and the Christian religion spread and became much stronger after his death. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Christianity spread throughout the Empire after Jesus’s death <ul><li>The Roman roads helped make it easier for Jesus’s apostles to spread his teachings. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideas of Christianity was very popular to people because of the equality of all people in God’s eye and it was monotheistic. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The spread of Christianity(continued) <ul><li>Christians suffered persecution by Romans because of their refusal to the worship the emperors as gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, the Emperor Constantine became a Christian and then established Christianity as the religion of the Roman empire. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Achievements
  14. 14. The Empire grew in part because of military force and diplomacy. <ul><li>They used effective infantry tactics ,such as dividing legions into maniples, which made them flexible in battle. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a land was conquered, they tried to make the citizens happy by providing peace and assistance in exchange for loyalty and support. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The empire grew in part because of military and diplomacy (continued) <ul><li>The Punic Wars and eventual victories gave the Roman Empire control of the Western Mediterranean. During the Second Punic Wars, a Roman navy was created. </li></ul>
  16. 16. They had useful achievements in science and technology. <ul><li>Establishment of roads made of concrete and stone helped move armies quickly and assisted trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The unique aqueduct design supplied towns with clean water. </li></ul><ul><li>There were big steps made in medicine especially in wound care and basic knowledge of how the body worked. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The inventions in architecture are still being used today. <ul><li>Romans invented concrete which was much easier and faster than carving stone. </li></ul><ul><li>The rounded arch allowed for sturdier bridges and building structures . </li></ul><ul><li>They created new building designs including the stadium and the Coliseum. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The literature of the Roman Empire is still being read and studied today <ul><li>Emperor Augustus encouraged writers and poets. </li></ul><ul><li>The common theme of Roman literature was patriotism. </li></ul><ul><li>The famous poet Virgil wrote the long poem Aeneid at this time. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Politics
  20. 20. The Twelve Tables was a significant political changes at the beginning of the Roman Empire. <ul><li>Before this reform, there was no written law. A judge could do whatever he wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>The Plebeians, who now had power through the Tribal Assembly, demanded written laws, a code of rights and duties. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Twelve Tables (continued) <ul><li>This was the first step to a more democratic system of government. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Social Class riots led to the downfall of the Republic. <ul><li>Caesar restored order after the fall of the Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>He lowered taxes. This tax policy made him popular with the ordinary citizens. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social class riots led to Republic’s downfall (continued) <ul><li>Caesar appointed himself Emperor for life. Those who were loyal to the idea of a Republic eventually assassinated him. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Rome’s rule by Emperors was epic. <ul><li>Augustus was the first emperor after Caesar’s death. Romans benefitted from his peaceful and prosperous rule. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rome’s long rule by Emperors (continued) <ul><li>Other Emperors ruled with a corrupt and harmful hand. This included Caligula and Nero. </li></ul><ul><li>Succession of rulers was a problem. Final decision was often made they Roman military. Loyalty from the military was considered vital to an uneventful Emperor’s rule. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Many political ideas of the Roman Empire are still used today <ul><li>A Republic form of government was established. In this system, the citizens elect their lawmakers. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Political Ideas (continued) <ul><li>Romans invented the system of checks and balances. This guaranteed that no one part of government had more power than another. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of justice in the law code included the laws such as the idea of innocence until proven guilty. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Economy
  29. 29. Farming was crucial to the expansion of the economy. <ul><li>Grain was the key crop. </li></ul><ul><li>The farmers grew rich from their crops and used their wealth to improve their cities and areas. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Farming crucial to expansion (continued) <ul><li>The city of Rome was a huge market for farm products. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a slave based economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers could donated surplus crops to the government in lieu of taxes. In this way, the rulers were able to distribute grain free to the masses and greatly increase their popularity. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Along with agriculture, trade dominated Roman economy. <ul><li>Goods moved easily through sea trade routes because of Roman control of the Mediterean. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Trade dominated economy (continued) <ul><li>Roman roads, very advanced because of the invention of concrete, were another dependable trade route. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the expansion of trade, cities far away became important centers of commerce and a reliable source of tax revenue. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Stable currency was an important factor . <ul><li>The barter system was still utilized but Romans also established a new currency using coins. This was established under Augustus. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Currency (continued) <ul><li>The Augustus coins were called denarius and were accepted everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>The coins made it easier to trade in far away areas because they were accepted currency. </li></ul><ul><li>The coin’s popularity was so great they were found in places far away as India. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Economic troubles helped cause the fall of the Empire <ul><li>To pay for the wars, higher taxes were imposed on the citizens. Citizens were increasingly unable to pay these hikes in taxes. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Economic troubles (continued) <ul><li>Inflation or the higher price for goods affected both the ordinary citizen and the army. </li></ul><ul><li>Many farmers left their farms under Emperor Diocletian’s rule because of inability to pay the higher taxes and threat of becoming a slave if unable to pay. This further weakened the economy. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Social Structure
  38. 38. Two main social classes were present throughout the history of the Roman Empire <ul><li>Patricians represented the upper or wealthy class. </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeians were the “common” people. This was 90% of the population. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Two main social classes (continued) <ul><li>Due to the reforms, Plebeians were eventually able to hold power and government. There were opportunities for them to eventually become quite wealthy and influential. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Family Relationships were important in Roman Society <ul><li>The family centered around the man being the heads of households. </li></ul><ul><li>Women were able to own and control property. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Family relations (continued) <ul><li>The history of individual families were revered by specific rituals and artwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Children of Plebeians would follow in the career of their parents. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The lives of the rich and poor were greatly different in many ways. <ul><li>Wealthy Romans lived in a domus, which is a house built around an atrium. They were quite luxurious. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor were housed in structures called insulae, a three-four story, poorly built apartment. </li></ul>
  43. 43. The lives of the rich and poor (continued) <ul><li>The wealthy lived extravagant lifestyles with slaves doing all of the work. The children attended school with personal slaves to carry their books. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor often shared their single room home with another family. Their children received very little schooling if any. Slaves in Patrician families often lived in better conditions than most Plebeians. </li></ul>
  44. 44. The lives of the rich and the poor were similar in many ways. <ul><li>In all households, the male was the ultimate power. </li></ul><ul><li>All Roman citizens visited the baths after work every day. </li></ul>
  45. 45. The lives of the rich and poor were similar (continued) <ul><li>Both Plebeian and Patrician homes had little furniture. </li></ul><ul><li>Both social classes ate their food in similar ways, although Plebeians did not have kitchens so dinner would be picked up at local takeout restaurants. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Conclusion <ul><li>The great success of the Roman Empire was due to many factors. One important factor was the geography of the region. The enormous achievements in battle strategies and concept of diplomacy after conquest played a big role. Also crucial, was the technological advancements in concrete and road construction. The Empire benefitted from political ideas that allowed the common citizen economic opportunities and a voice in the government. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusion (continued) <ul><li>The eventual downfall of the Roman Empire could be blamed on various factors. Mostly, the economy, in the end, could no longer support all the wars being fought by the Empire. Social inequality and high taxes placed on ordinary citizens, especially farmers, also played a large factor. </li></ul>
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