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  1. 1. GEOGRAPHY Location Punic Wars Expansion Recourses
  2. 2. Location <ul><li>Ancient Rome was located near the center of the Italian Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome was founded on the banks of the Tiber River in a low area of hills. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Rome was founded of 7 hills called the Palatine, Capitoline, Quirral, Viminal, Esquirline, Caeline, and the Aventine hill. </li></ul><ul><li>On Rome's east side is the Adriatic Sea and to Rome's South is the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Expansion <ul><li>Rome gained Italy in 264 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>During the second Punic war Rome conquered the Po Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming helped Rome expand because of the money Rome was getting form trading and selling crops. </li></ul><ul><li>In 600 B.C the Etruscans expanded to Latuim. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Punic Wars <ul><li>The first Punic War started in 264 B.C.E because the Romans were accusing the Carthagians of violating an agreement between Carthage and Rome about not entering each others territories. </li></ul><ul><li>The second Punic War started when Hannibal attacked Saguntim, a city in Spain that was Rome's Ally, because he felt the need for revenge against Rome for how they treated Carthage. </li></ul><ul><li>The third Punic War when Carthage fought back against the Numidians and went against the treaty with Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Punic Wars ended, Rome had gained control of the Mediterranean area and Carthage. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Recourses <ul><li>The Tiber River stretches 250 miles making it a good transportation system. </li></ul><ul><li>The Italian peninsula is surrounded by neighboring lands such as the Tyrrenian, Adriatic, and Ionian Sea making Rome easier for exporting and importing goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome’s climate is mild winters and warm dry summers making Rome suitable for farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome's land is a Natural harbor. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religion Christianity Romulus and Remus Etruscan Mysticism Greek Mythology and Philosophy
  7. 7. Christianity <ul><li>In the early days of Rome Christianity was a very unpopular religion because many Romans believed in many gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians were persucuted or forced to battle a loin in the Circus Maximus. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians do not believe in the killing of anyone or anything and refused to leave their baby to die out in the cold under any circumstances because it goes against Christianities strict rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians did not please their god by killing animals like normal Romans. They would hold Passover meals that included eating, drinking and blessing. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Romulus and Remus <ul><li>Romulus and Remus were twins that were born by a human mother, saved by a she wolf and raised by a Shepherd. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the legend, Romulus and Remus are Aeheas descendants. </li></ul><ul><li>Romulus and Remus couldn’t agree on the best location for their new city. </li></ul><ul><li>Romulus killed Remus and founded his new city on Palatine Hill and named it after himself. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Etruscan Mysticism <ul><li>The Etruscans believed that the god gave them signs in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscans diviners used the stars to plan the layouts of their town. </li></ul><ul><li>Diviners read the ingestions of animals before conducting burials. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that by studying the bird flocks they could predict harvests. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Greek Mythology and philosophy <ul><li>Greeks conducted elaborate rituals to ensure the favor of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Greek gods and goddesses controlled every aspect of roman life including founding cities, healing the sick and winning battles. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Tutors and students would gather together and talk about the natural world or philosophies. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy began as a branch of science but then was developed into a system of orderly thinking by a Greek philosopher named Aristotle. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Achievements Art and Literature Monumental Building Greater Freedom for Women Architecture
  12. 12. Art and Literature <ul><li>Language traveled throughout the Roman Empire in many forms such as poetry, literature, and theater arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Comedies and dramas were both forms of theater arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek theater was held in the middle of the city honoring the god and asking for a successful harvest. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Romans built statues and temples to glorify the empire and honor the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The reign on Augustus began the golden age of literature! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Monumental Buildings <ul><li>Ancient Greeks built beautiful marble buildings to honor Greek gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The Parthenon is a temple that was built to honor the Greek goddess Athena </li></ul><ul><li>The Circus Maximus was built as a sporting range where boys and girls could sit next to each other and enjoy a show of gladiators. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Greater Freedom for Women <ul><li>Women in Rome could own property unlike women that lived in Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>The women of Rome’s most important role was to bear children and raise them to honor traditional values. </li></ul><ul><li>When Rome grew, the role of women changed and wealthy women gained more freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Women could not vote or hold a public office . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Architecture <ul><li>Romans built concrete roads to unify the distant parts of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans created the dome out of Greek arches and columns that they learned form the Greeks and Etruscans. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans created a canal like structure or aqueduct that brought water from springs, wells,and distant lakes to people in the city. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Political Development of The Roman Republic Political Corruption Julius Caesar 12 Tables
  17. 17. Development of the Roman Republic <ul><li>The Republic was a tripartite government; magistrates, senate, and the assembly reflected three types of rule; monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>The magistrates represented the monarchy and was elected in one year terms </li></ul><ul><li>Two assemblies made up one third of the government; the ceneriate assembly and the tribal assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>The senate represented an oligarchy and controlled state finances and passed laws. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Political Corruption <ul><li>Rome’s system of laws of choosing a new emperor was a debate between the old emperor, the senate, praetorian guard, and the army. </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning of 186 B.C the practice of selling the throne to the highest bidder started. </li></ul><ul><li>When the practice of selling the throne started, the politician would lie to his people and buy the throne. </li></ul><ul><li>It was common in Rome for the emperor to be assassinated because the people didn’t like his decisions as an emperor. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Julius Caesar <ul><li>Julius Caesar was a daring and a popular patrician. </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar took command of the Roman Forces fighting Gaul and launched a eight year campaign of conquest in Gaul. </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar restored the government of the empire by lowering taxes, reorganizing the calendar and giving farmland to retired poor soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>On March 15 44 B.C several senators stabbed Julius Caesar to death because the Senate thought he was gaining too much power. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 12 tables <ul><li>In 450 B.C the Roman government wrote the Republican first written law code; 12 tables. </li></ul><ul><li>The 12 tables listed the rights and duties of the Roman Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Republic still concentrated governing powers in the hands of the Patricians </li></ul><ul><li>The 12 Tables consisted of </li></ul><ul><li>Courts and trails </li></ul><ul><li>Trails (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Debt </li></ul><ul><li>Family Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Legal guardians and inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining and possessing land </li></ul><ul><li>Land rights </li></ul><ul><li>Unlawful rights </li></ul><ul><li>Laws on government </li></ul><ul><li>Laws on religion </li></ul><ul><li>Additional laws </li></ul><ul><li>Additional laws </li></ul>
  21. 21. Economy Trade Farming Excessive Military Spending Stable Currency
  22. 22. Trade <ul><li>Rome received wine, olive oil, and pottery when they traded wheat with Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans linked their empire together wit ha vast network of paved roads so military legions could move faster </li></ul><ul><li>Red pottery was exported west to Britain and east to India. </li></ul><ul><li>Silver bowls and bronze ware was shipped to Russia and Northern Europe. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Farming <ul><li>Farming was the foundation of the Roman economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important crop to Rome was the grain that was grown by the farmers in Italy and in the Provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>Olive oil, grain, and other farm products was huge in in the Roman economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers could pay taxes with grain if they didn’t have enough money. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome shipped goods such as wood, linen, cloth , glass, pottery, metalwork, wine, and olive oil. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Excessive Military Spending <ul><li>When Rome’s government spent most of their money on the military, soldiers lost their desire to defend the empire’s borders which needed to be defended at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome's government was spending so much money on the military that there was no money left for public housing and maintaining the quality of public roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Since soldiers recruited form foreign countries and unemployment mobs was so unreliable, the government had to pay for soldiers causing them to increase taxes frequently. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stable Currency <ul><li>When Augustus ruled, a stable currency in the from of coins that made trade and commerce easier. </li></ul><ul><li>A silver denarius was worth 12 times less than the amount of the gold coin </li></ul><ul><li>Roman coins often pictured the emperor himself or his building projects so people that would never visit Rome could see pictures of its great buildings and its money. </li></ul><ul><li>The value of a denarius remained stable as it still contained the same amount of a gold or silver coin as time passed. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Social Structure Patricians and Plebeians Housing Education Family Life
  27. 27. Patricians and Plebeians <ul><li>The Ancient Roman society was divided up into two major groups; patricians and the Plebeians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Patricians ran the government through their control in the senate while the plebeians had little power and influence on the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage between the two classes was prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the Plebeians had no power they realized that the Roman army couldn’t defend Rome without the help of the plebeians. </li></ul><ul><li>In 494 B.C the plebeians soldiers went on strike and refused to sever until they had a say in the government. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Housing <ul><li>Two different types of houses existed in Ancient Rome; large airy houses filled with elegant furniture and an indoor pool and dark cramped houses that carried rats. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy Romans lived in a splendid marble or stone house that had think walls to keep out the noise of the busy city streets and usually a fountain was located in the middle of Trinclinium to refresh guests with cool fresh water. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Romans lived in apartment buildings with 2 rooms that were located above their shops. </li></ul><ul><li>The houses the poor lived in were flammable and had a lack of proper water pipes. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Family Life <ul><li>Roman weddings were held in temples and the bride wore a white toga wit ha long orange veil while the groom also wore a white toga and black leather shoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman men were expected to provide for his family. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman couples were expected to have two or more children. </li></ul><ul><li>The father inspected the newborn baby to see if it was unhealthy, crippled, or weak and if it was one of those three things then the baby was left out in the cold air to die. </li></ul><ul><li>If the baby was found healthy by the father, then the parents place a Bulla necklace around the newborn for good luck. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Education <ul><li>Children in Rome were not required to go to school but many wanted to go and get a good education but couldn’t afford it. </li></ul><ul><li>At school children learned Greek,math, science, literature and public speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Children that couldn’t afford school learned trades such as leatherworking and metalworking. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys used their educations to become soldiers physicians or lawyers. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls used their educations to become real state agents, tutors, mid wives, or dentists </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusion <ul><li>The most important idea I have learned about Ancient Rome on “G.R.A.P.E.S” is “P” political. I chose this because the development of the Roman republic was important to Rome. The Roman republic gave structure and stability to the Roman government. Julius Caesar was an important Emperor that ruled Rome and restored the government. He lowered taxes and and reorganized the calendar. </li></ul>