Walsh power point_chapter 7

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Walsh power point_chapter 7

  1. 1. Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction Chapter 7 Civil and Administrative Law
  2. 2. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>designed to provide remedies for individuals harmed by others </li></ul><ul><li>designed to manage social conflict </li></ul><ul><li>designed to restore social harmony (Myren, 1988) </li></ul><ul><li>provides a means by which disputes between private parties can be resolved without the use of force </li></ul><ul><li>has its own substantive and procedural law as well as precedent </li></ul>
  3. 3. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>complaint is filed by plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>redress given in form of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monetary damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>injunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specific performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>defendant may appeal verdict or judgment to higher court </li></ul>
  4. 4. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>burden of proof in civil trial: </li></ul><ul><li>proof by a preponderance of the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the defendant committed the wrongful act </li></ul><ul><li>also: clear and convincing evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>punitive damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary commitment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>many rights provided in a criminal trial are not present in a civil trial: </li></ul><ul><li>no exclusionary rule </li></ul><ul><li>no right to remain silent </li></ul><ul><li>diminished right to cross-examine hostile witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>no legal obligation for the state to provide an attorney for indigent defendants </li></ul>
  6. 6. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>divided into four main categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Property </li></ul><ul><li>2. Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>3. Torts </li></ul><ul><li>4. Family law </li></ul><ul><li>juvenile law is also a category of civil law, covered in chapter 8 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>product of English common law </li></ul><ul><li>protection of ownership rights </li></ul><ul><li>property : the right of possession or ownership </li></ul><ul><li>includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pierson v. Post , 1804 </li></ul><ul><li>City of Oakland v. Oakland Raiders , 1980 </li></ul>Property Law
  8. 8. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>interests are rights </li></ul><ul><li>freehold estate : a person owns a piece of property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fee simple estate : possession ends at death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fee simple absolute state : possession does not revert to original owner at death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tenancy in common </li></ul></ul><ul><li>non-freehold estate : the right to use property </li></ul>Interests in Real Property
  9. 9. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>easement : limited right to use the property of another for a specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>adverse possession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generally affects only property abandoned by original owner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>nuisance doctrine : property owner may not use property in such a way that it has an unreasonable, adverse effect on other property owners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must keep property reasonably safe </li></ul></ul>Interests in Real Property (cont.)
  10. 10. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>bailment: when a person transfers possession of one item to another person for a particular purpose with the understanding that it will be returned </li></ul><ul><li>a transfer of possession, not ownership </li></ul>Interests in Personal Property
  11. 11. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>legally enforceable promises </li></ul><ul><li>elements of a valid contract: </li></ul><ul><li>1. At least two parties </li></ul><ul><li>2. Must be capable (have legal capacity) of signing a contract </li></ul><ul><li>3. Must agree to terms of the contract (assent) in good faith </li></ul><ul><li>4. Must have both a promise and consideration </li></ul><ul><li>5. Can be either written or verbal </li></ul>Contracts
  12. 12. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>breach of contract: when terms of contract are not met </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Commercial Code </li></ul><ul><li>Sullivan v. O’Conner , 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>National Labor Relations Board v. Bildisco & Bildisco, 1984 </li></ul>Contracts (cont.)
  13. 13. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>the body of law associated with harm caused to the plaintiff by the action/inaction of defendant(s) (the tortfeasor ) </li></ul><ul><li>exist to determine what harm has been done and how best to remedy such harm so that the plaintiff is in a position similar to the one prior to the harm </li></ul><ul><li>damages are awarded to the harmed; usually monetary </li></ul>Torts
  14. 14. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>intentional acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defendant deliberately caused harm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>negligent acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the defendant had a duty to act in a certain way; the defendant breached that duty; harm resulted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ordinary care standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lubitz v. Wells , 1955 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>strict liability </li></ul>Categories of Torts
  15. 15. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>challenge causal and duty issues </li></ul><ul><li>affirmative defenses: </li></ul><ul><li>contributory negligence : if an injured party is partially responsible for her injuries, she is barred from recovering from a tortfeasor </li></ul><ul><li>comparative negligence : apportions responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>consent and immunity (sovereign immunity) </li></ul>Defenses to Torts
  16. 16. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>focuses on dissolution of marriages </li></ul><ul><li>marriage is a legal contract </li></ul><ul><li>requirements for marriage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legal capacity (age, sound mind) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presence of someone legally permitted to acknowledge marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>witnessed marriage vows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>common law marriage </li></ul>Family Law
  17. 17. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>requires grounds </li></ul><ul><li>no-fault </li></ul><ul><li>major fault </li></ul><ul><li>annulment: legal declaration that not all requirements were met, ergo, marriage never existed </li></ul><ul><li>child custody: based on custodial status of parents </li></ul>Divorce
  18. 18. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>Reynolds v. United States , 1878 </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner v. Oklahoma , 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>Loving v. Virginia , 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Zablocki v. Redhail , 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Turner v. Sufley, 1987 </li></ul>Supreme Court and the Right to Marry
  19. 19. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>the role of women </li></ul><ul><li>increasing mobility </li></ul><ul><li>employment and education opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>technological changes in fertility science </li></ul>Forces Affecting Marriage and the Family
  20. 20. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>branch of public law involving governmental administrative agencies </li></ul><ul><li>includes the making, enforcement, and adjudication of regulatory agendas </li></ul><ul><li>investigates complaints, conducts on-site inspections, and requires annual reports </li></ul><ul><li>hearings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>represented by juries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no juries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appealed to civil courts </li></ul></ul>Administrative and Regulatory Law
  21. 21. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>appeals: </li></ul><ul><li>Chevron deference </li></ul>Administrative and Regulatory Law (cont.)
  22. 22. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>not reported by UCR </li></ul><ul><li>people who define crime and its seriousness are same people who have vested interests in businesses </li></ul><ul><li>administrative agencies often run by businesspeople who go in and out of government and business </li></ul><ul><li>agencies are not under USDOJ, although criminal charges can be pressed </li></ul>Administrative Law and Corporate Crime
  23. 23. Civil and Administrative Law <ul><li>Sarbanes-Oxley Act </li></ul><ul><li>White Collar Crime Penalty Enhancement Act </li></ul><ul><li>recent court cases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WorldCom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adelphia Communications Corp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enron </li></ul></ul>Changes to Administrative Laws
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