Walsh power point_chapter 5


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Walsh power point_chapter 5

  1. 1. Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction Chapter 5 Crime and Criminal Law
  2. 2. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>criminal law, aka substantive law, is the law of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>defined by statute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prescriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proscriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>enforced by the state </li></ul><ul><li>primary purpose is to protect the public from harm by punishing harmful acts that have occurred and seeking to avoid harm by forbidding conduct that may lead to it </li></ul>
  3. 3. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>“ . . . an intentional act in violation of the criminal law committed without defense or excuse, and penalized by the state ” (Tappan, 1947:100) </li></ul><ul><li>1. An act in violation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Of a criminal law for which </li></ul><ul><li>3. A punishment is prescribed; </li></ul><ul><li>4. The person committing this action must have intended to do so </li></ul><ul><li>5. And to have done so without any legally acceptable defenses or justifications </li></ul>What Is Crime?
  4. 4. Crime and Criminal Law Crime as a Subset of Harmful Acts Core offenses All crimes All social harm All harms
  5. 5. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>state and federal constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>state and federal statutes </li></ul><ul><li>common law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>codified in most states mid-1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>federal law is growing source of criminal law </li></ul><ul><li>statutes define elements (various parts) of a crime more specifically than common law </li></ul>Sources of Criminal Law
  6. 6. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>substantive due process : there are limits to what conduct the law may seek to prohibit </li></ul><ul><li>forbids passage of laws that infringe on the rights of individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>overbreadth doctrine : laws are unconstitutional when they fail to narrowly define the specific behavior to be restricted </li></ul>Limitations on the Criminal Law
  7. 7. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>void for vagueness : laws are unconstitutional if they fail to clearly define the prohibited act and the punishment in advance </li></ul><ul><li>fair notice : letting people know what is and is not permitted </li></ul><ul><li>must not restrict due process: laws must be enforced fairly and non-arbitrarily </li></ul><ul><li>must not restrict equal protection: laws cannot restrict the rights of members of suspect classifications </li></ul>Limitations on the Criminal Law (cont.)
  8. 8. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>cruel and unusual punishment : punishments must be proportional to the crime </li></ul><ul><li>ex post facto laws : people cannot be penalized for behavior that was not illegal at the time they acted; penalties cannot be increased after the crime has been committed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex post facto laws do apply retroactively if they are beneficial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>bills of attainder : laws that impose punishment without trial </li></ul>Limitations on the Criminal Law (cont.)
  9. 9. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>elements must be present for criminal liability to attach </li></ul><ul><li>actus reus </li></ul><ul><li>mens rea </li></ul><ul><li>concurrence </li></ul><ul><li>causation </li></ul><ul><li>harm </li></ul><ul><li>make up the corpus delecti </li></ul>Elements of Criminal Offenses
  10. 10. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>the guilty act; three forms: </li></ul><ul><li>voluntary bodily movements </li></ul><ul><li>an omission in the face of a duty to act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>failure to perform a legal duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>failure to prevent serious harm when a special relationship exists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>possession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if the person has some knowledge that his or her possession is illegal </li></ul></ul>Actus Reus (Criminal Act)
  11. 11. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>guilty mind; inferred from circumstances surrounding the criminal act </li></ul><ul><li>four levels: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Purposeful </li></ul><ul><li>2. Knowing </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reckless </li></ul><ul><li>4. Negligent </li></ul><ul><li>doctrine of transferred intent </li></ul>Mens Rea (Criminal Intent)
  12. 12. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>the union of the criminal act and the criminal intent ( actus reus and mens rea ) </li></ul>Concurrence
  13. 13. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>the criminal act is the act that is the cause of the harm </li></ul><ul><li>two types: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Factual cause: “but for” the actor’s conduct the harm would not have occurred </li></ul><ul><li>2. Legal cause: consequences of an act that are not reasonably foreseeable to the actor (intervening causes) relieve the actor of some degree of criminal liability </li></ul>Causation
  14. 14. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>the result of the act, the injury to another or to society </li></ul>Harm
  15. 15. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>strict liability : imposes accountability without proof of criminal intent in situations where society deems it fair to do so </li></ul><ul><li>statutory rape </li></ul><ul><li>vicarious liability : (only civil law) the imputation of accountability from one person to another </li></ul>Liability Without Fault
  16. 16. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>crimes that occur in preparation for an offense </li></ul><ul><li>three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attempt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solicitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conspiracy </li></ul></ul>Inchoate Crimes
  17. 17. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>doctrine of complicity: more than one person may be held liable for criminal activity </li></ul><ul><li>requires that all criminal elements be present </li></ul><ul><li>common law recognizes four parties to a crime: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Principles in the first degree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Principles in the second degree </li></ul><ul><li>3. Accessories before the fact </li></ul><ul><li>4. Accessories after the fact </li></ul>Parties to Crime
  18. 18. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>defense: a response by the defendant that allows him or her to avoid criminal liability </li></ul><ul><li>alibi: defendant asserts that he or she did not commit the crime </li></ul><ul><li>affirmative defenses: defendant admits that he or she committed the act but denies criminal liability </li></ul><ul><li>shifts both the burden of production and persuasion to the defense (preponderance of the evidence) </li></ul>Defenses to Criminal Liability
  19. 19. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>defenses in which the defendant admits he or she is responsible for the act but claims that under the circumstances the act was not criminal </li></ul><ul><li>self-defense </li></ul><ul><li>consent </li></ul><ul><li>execution of public duties </li></ul>Justification Defenses
  20. 20. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>use of force to repel an imminent, unprovoked attack in which a person reasonably believed that he or she was about to be seriously injured </li></ul><ul><li>may use only as much force as is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>retreat doctrine: a person must retreat rather than use deadly force if doing so is possible </li></ul><ul><li>castle doctrine: persons attacked in their home need not retreat </li></ul><ul><li>can also apply to the defense of others and property </li></ul>Self-defense
  21. 21. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>persons may consent to suffer what otherwise would be an objectionable injury </li></ul><ul><li>consent must be voluntary, knowing, and intelligent </li></ul>Consent
  22. 22. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>agents of the state are permitted to use reasonable force in the lawful execution of their duties </li></ul>Execution of Public Duties
  23. 23. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>ones in which the defendant admits that what he or she did was wrong but claims that under the circumstances he or she is not responsible for improper conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>duress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intoxication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insanity </li></ul></ul>Excuse Defenses
  24. 24. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>situations involving the threat of serious, imminent harm to oneself, where the act is less serious than the threatened harm </li></ul><ul><li>those forced to commit a crime in such circumstances do not act voluntarily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminates actus reus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminates mens rea </li></ul></ul>Duress
  25. 25. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>voluntary and involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>voluntary never leads to acquittal; may only mitigate </li></ul><ul><li>involuntary may work as a defense as the person is not responsible for his or her actions </li></ul>Intoxication
  26. 26. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>persons below a certain age lack the capability to form mens rea </li></ul>Age
  27. 27. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>impairs mens rea </li></ul><ul><li>mental illness and legal insanity are not the same </li></ul><ul><li>M’Naghten rule--right wrong rule </li></ul><ul><li>Durham test--product test </li></ul><ul><li>irresistible impulse test </li></ul><ul><li>substantial capacity test </li></ul><ul><li>GBMI </li></ul>Insanity
  28. 28. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>it is claimed that the defendant’s due process rights were violated </li></ul><ul><li>double jeopardy, denial of speedy trial, use of illegally seized evidence </li></ul><ul><li>entrapment in one of two scenarios ( Sherman v. U.S. , 1958): </li></ul><ul><li>1. The crime is the result of the “creative activity” of law enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>2. The prosecutor cannot prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant was “independently predisposed” to commit the crime </li></ul>Procedural Defenses
  29. 29. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>crimes against the person </li></ul><ul><li>crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>crimes against society </li></ul><ul><li>crimes against morality </li></ul>Categories of Crime
  30. 30. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>homicide is the killing of another human being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what is a human being? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when is someone alive or dead? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what types of homicide deserve punishment? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>three forms of criminal homicide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negligent homicide </li></ul></ul>Homicide and Manslaughter
  31. 31. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>common law: the killing of another person with malice aforethought </li></ul><ul><li>Model Penal Code: murder is a killing that occurs (1) purposefully, (2) knowingly, or (3) recklessly </li></ul><ul><li>first-degree murder: deliberate and premeditated </li></ul><ul><li>second-degree murder: any killing that is intentional but not premeditated or planned </li></ul>Murder
  32. 32. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>voluntary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an intentional killing that occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>under a mistaken belief that self-defense is needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or in response to adequate persuasion while in the sudden heat of passion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>involuntary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an unintentional killing that occurs as a result of a reckless act </li></ul></ul>Manslaughter
  33. 33. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>an unintentional killing in which the defendant should have known that he was creating a substantial risk of death by his conduct </li></ul><ul><li>such conduct deviated from the ordinary level of care owed to others </li></ul>Negligent Homicide
  34. 34. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>an individual is held liable for an unintended killing that occurs during the commission of a dangerous felony </li></ul><ul><li>no requirement of intent to either kill or inflict serious harm </li></ul>Felony Murder
  35. 35. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>direct harm to a person inflicted by the actor </li></ul><ul><li>include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assault and battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>robbery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual offenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child sexual abuse </li></ul></ul>Assaultive Offenses
  36. 36. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>common law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assault: an attempt or a threat to inflict immediate harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>battery: an unjustified, offensive physical contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>modern assault and battery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assault and battery have been merged as “assault” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>aggravated assault: serious injury or assault with an item </li></ul><ul><li>assault accounts for 62.5 percent of all UCR Part I violent crimes </li></ul>Assault and Battery
  37. 37. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>rape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common law: carnal knowledge by a man of a woman who is not his wife, forcibly and without her consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modern day: eliminated marital rape exception, neutralized gender specificity, relaxed resistance requirements, and created rape shield laws during criminal court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>child sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>death penalty cannot be used in rape cases, except in some states where capital punishment for raping children is allowed </li></ul>Sexual Offenses
  38. 38. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>burglary </li></ul><ul><li>trespass </li></ul><ul><li>arson </li></ul><ul><li>theft </li></ul><ul><li>forgery and uttering </li></ul><ul><li>receiving stolen property </li></ul>Crimes Against Property
  39. 39. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>“ the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft” (FBI, 2005:45) </li></ul><ul><li>seventeenth century: the breaking and entering of the dwelling of another at night with the intention of committing a felony inside the dwelling </li></ul><ul><li>today burglary can occur during the day </li></ul><ul><li>not entry alone--must be unlawful entry accompanied by intent to commit another crime inside </li></ul>Burglary
  40. 40. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>“ any willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc.” (FBI, 2005:61) </li></ul><ul><li>first degree: burning of an occupied structure </li></ul><ul><li>second degree: burning of an unoccupied structure </li></ul><ul><li>third degree: burning of personal property </li></ul>Arson
  41. 41. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>crimes against property (theft) are more common than crimes against the person </li></ul><ul><li>88.3 percent of crimes reported to the police were property crimes (UCR, 2005) </li></ul>Theft Offenses
  42. 42. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>“ the unlawful taking, leading, or riding away of the possession or constructive possession of another” (FBI, 2005:49) </li></ul><ul><li>larceny is graded depending on the method of taking and the value of the property taken </li></ul><ul><li>grand theft versus petty theft (felony and misdemeanor) </li></ul>Larceny/Theft
  43. 43. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>“ the taking or attempted taking of anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or putting the victim in fear” (FBI, 2005:31) </li></ul><ul><li>often classified as a violent crime </li></ul><ul><li>extortion: a taking of property accomplished by the threat of future harm to person, property, or reputation </li></ul>Robbery
  44. 44. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>forgery: false legal writing or altering of an existing legal document </li></ul><ul><li>uttering: passing of a false legal document to another, with knowledge of its falsity and the intent to defraud </li></ul>Forgery and Uttering
  45. 45. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>created to deal with fences--persons who deal in stolen goods </li></ul><ul><li>a person must be in possession of property that she knows to be or has reason to believe was stolen </li></ul><ul><li>must have the intent to permanently deprive the rightful owner </li></ul>Receiving Stolen Property
  46. 46. Crime and Criminal Law <ul><li>crimes against public order are those in which the injury is to the peace and order of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disorderly conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unlawful assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vagrancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>crimes against morality are those in which the moral health of society is injured </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adultery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prostitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obscenity </li></ul></ul>Crimes Against Public Order and Morality