Chapter 11 Corrections in the CommunityChapter OutlineI. Why Intermediate Sentences?II. Incarceration Fails to Prepare Offenders for ReentryIII. Concern for Community SafetyIV. Intermediate Sanctions and Community Corrections Intensive Probation Supervision Split Sentencing and Shock Probation Shock Incarceration: Boot Camps Home Confinement and Electronic MonitoringV. Reentry Programs: Preparing Offenders to Take Responsibility Work Release Education Release Halfway Houses Day Reporting CentersVI. Reentry Programs for Drug Offenders Adult Drug Courts Tribal Drug Courts TASC and RSAT Try, Try Again
Learning ObjectivesAfter completion of this chapter, students should be able to:1. Explain why federal and state government are turning to community corrections sanctions.2. Describe opposition to community corrections sanctions.3. Describe the various sanctions used by the criminal justice system.4. Detail new strategies being used to promote reentry into the community for ex-offenders.5. Explain the purpose of adult drug court.Key TermsCommunity based corrections (p. 208) prevention and treatment programs designed to promotethe successful transition of offenders from prison to the community.Day reporting center (p. 218) an intermediate sanction to provide a gradual adjustment toreentry under closely supervised conditionsDrug court (p. 219) an approach that provides drug offenders the opportunity for intermediatesanctions, community treatment, and intensive probations supervision instead of prison timeEducation release (p. 217) a program in which inmates are released to attend college orvocational programs.Electronic monitoring (p. 213) an approach in home confinement programs that ensurescompliance through electronic meansFaith-based programs (p. 215) programs provided by religious-based and church-affiliatedgroups; their role in rehabilitation is controversial because they receive federal money and maycombine religious instruction with rehabilitation.Halfway house (p. 217) a transition program that allows inmates to move from prison to thecommunity in stepsHome confinement (p. 213) a court-imposed sentence requiring offenders to remain confined intheir own residences.
Intensive probation supervision (p. 211) probation supervised by probation and parole officerswith smaller caseloads, placing a greater emphasis on compliance with the conditions ofsupervisionIntermediate sanctions (p. 210) punishments that restrict offenders’ freedom withoutimprisoning them and that consist of community-based prevention and treatment programs topromote the successful transition of offenders from prison to the community.Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (p. 220) a federal assistance program that helps statesprovide for treatment instead of prison for substance abusers.Revolving door syndrome (p. 220) the repeated arrest and incarceration of an offenderShock incarceration (p. 212) programs (boot camps) that adapt military-style physical fitnessand discipline training to the correctional environmentShock probation (p. 212) a sentence for a first-time, nonviolent offender, who was notexpecting a sentence, intended to impress on the offender the possible consequences of his or herbehavior by exposure to a brief period of imprisonment before probationSplit sentencing (p. 212) after a brief period of imprisonment, the judge brings the offender backto court and offers the option of probationTreatment Accountability Abuse Treatment (p. 220) a federal assistance program that helpsstates break the addiction-crime cycleTribal Healing to Wellness Courts (p. 220) Native American drug treatment programs thatadapt traditional cultural beliefs and practicesWork release (p. 215) a program that allows facilities to release inmates for paid work in thecommunityChapter Summary An over whelming number of offenders are currently returning from prison to thecommunity. Often they fail in their attempt to reenter the community as law-abiding citizens.Given the disappointment with traditional probation and parole programs, new programs arebeing tried with the aim of better protection for the community and more successful reentry intothe community. New programs include: intermediate sanctions and community-basedcorrections. Intensive probation supervision (IPS) is used to emphasize strict accountability to theconditions of probation. Split sentencing and shock probation require the offender to spend abrief period of time in prison before being granted supervised release in the community. Shock
incarceration is accomplished through boot camps for adult and juvenile offenders. Homeconfinement is an intermediate sanction that requires offenders to remain within the home unlessspecifically authorized to leave. Electronic monitoring effectively and efficiently ensures thatoffenders remain at home. Community-based treatment programs such as work release and education release helpoffenders to obtain work or education so that they will be successful when they reenter thecommunity. Halfway houses are programs designed to help inmates make the transition fromprison back into the community. Halfway houses provide offenders with restricted freedomswithin the community during the last part of their sentence. Day reporting centers are used asintermediate sanctions to keep offenders out of prison, with relatively low recidivism rates.Media to ExploreFor data and resources on corrections, see www.nicic.org/Features/Library/, the libraryservices of the National Institute of Corrections. This is an excellent Web site for gathering datafor academic papers.See www.allencountycorrections.com/ to visit the home page of the Allen County CommunityCorrections – Fort Wayne, Indiana Web site. Established in 1984, by the Community CorrectionsAdvisory Board, Allen County Community Corrections is one of the most comprehensivecommunity corrections programs in the nation.Go to www.judiciary.state.nj.us/drugcourt/index.htm to obtain information about the NewJersey Adult Drug Court programs.To view information about state “boot camps” see www.state.nj.us/corrections/cia/srp.html forinformation about New Jersey’s program and for information about Georgia’s boot campprograms see www.dcor.state.ga.us/Divisions/Corrections/BootCamps.htmlTo view information about Kentucky’s drug court seewww.courts.ky.gov/stateprograms/drugcourt/To view information about New York’s veterans court seewww.erie.gov/veterans/veterans_court.asp