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  • Learning Objective One
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Transcript

  • 1. CorrectionalIssues
  • 2. Special Populations and Juvenile Corrections
  • 3.  Elderly Prisoners  Geriatric offenders  Housing  Medical care  Programs  Release
  • 4.  Prisoners with HIV/AIDS  Higher rate of infection than general population ▪ High-risk behaviors ▪ IV drug use ▪ Needle sharing ▪ Unprotected sex
  • 5.  Prisoners with HIV/AIDS  Segregation policies are controversial ▪ Advocates ▪ Prison violence decreases ▪ HIV-infected inmates benefit from removal from the general population ▪ Additional health care and programs more available ▪ Better living accommodations ▪ More staff support and specialized care
  • 6.  Prisoners with HIV/AIDS  Safe environment for staff ▪ Correctional officers ▪ Breaking up fights ▪ Handling physically violent inmates ▪ Chance of virus transmission are reportedly low
  • 7.  Mentally Ill Prisoners  Deinstitutionalization  More likely among violent offenders  Less likely among drug offenders  Differs by age, race, and gender  Sexual abuse, homelessness, incarcerated family member
  • 8.  Mentally Ill Prisoners  Challenges for correctional officials ▪ More fights ▪ More rule violations ▪ Counseling ▪ Medication
  • 9.  Long-Term Prisoners  Each life sentence costs taxpayers approximately $1 million  “Get tough” sentences mean more non-violent long term inmates  Not generally control problems
  • 10.  Long-Term Prisoners  Three main principles for managing long-term inmates ▪ Maximize opportunities for the inmates to exercise choice in living conditions ▪ Create opportunities for meaningful living ▪ Help the inmates maintain contact with the outside world
  • 11.  The Problem of Youth Crime  In a typical year, about… ▪ 1,100 youths under the age of 18 are arrested for homicide ▪ 4,200 for forcible rape ▪ 60,500 for aggravated assault  Extremely serious juvenile crime is still rare
  • 12.  The History of Juvenile Corrections in the United States  The Puritan Period  The Refuge Period  The Juvenile Court Period
  • 13.  The History of Juvenile Corrections in the United States  The Juvenile Court Period ▪ Parens patriae ▪ Informality ▪ Individualization ▪ Intervention ▪ Delinquent, neglected, dependent children
  • 14.  The History of Juvenile Corrections in the United States  The Juvenile Rights Period  The Crime Control Period ▪ Racial, demographic, and economic changes
  • 15.  Why Treat Juveniles and Adults Differently?  Juveniles are young and may easily change  Juveniles have a high rate of “desistence”  Juveniles’ families are an important part of their lives  Juveniles are easily influenced by their peers  Juveniles have little responsibility for others
  • 16.  The Problem of Serious Delinquency  Normal delinquency  Status offenses ▪ Runaway ▪ Truancy ▪ Ungovernable  Age appropriate behavior  Social context
  • 17.  Percentage of Petitioned Status Offense Cases Involving Female Offenders 1985–2002
  • 18.  Sanctioning Juvenile Offenders  Fragmentation ▪ Courts ▪ Executive branch ▪ County ▪ State  Other factors to consider
  • 19.  Sanctioning Juvenile Offenders  Disposition of juvenile offenders  Waiver  Diversion  Detention  Juvenile probation  Intermediate sanctions for juveniles  Juvenile incarceration  Juvenile aftercare
  • 20.  The Special Problem of Gangs  Most gangs nonviolent  Custodial facilities ▪ Control ▪ Management of inter-gang conflict  Community settings ▪ Hostile competition for prosocial programming  Operation Ceasefire, Boston
  • 21.  The Special Problem of Gangs Characteristics of Youth Who Belong to a Gang
  • 22.  The Future of Juvenile Justice  Public policymakers  Public opinion  Juvenile waiver  Tougher probation  Middle ground