CJ 2011  James A. Fagin  Chapter 13:Homeland Security
After completion of this chapter, students should be ableto:Explain how terrorism has affected the criminal justice syste...
     Terrorism is a strategy of using random, violent       attacks on noncombatants, symbolic building       and landmar...
Domestic terrorism involves acts such as:  Militias and extremist groups, such as   Timothy McVeigh, Oklahoma City Bombin...
     Prior to the September 11, 2001, the criminal       justice system lacked resources to counter       international t...
     The DHS consolidated 22 federal agencies and       180,000 employees to create a single agency      Transportation ...
     Enemy Combatant Executive Order allows       captured persons to be detained in military       prisons, without char...
     Allows police to use roving wiretaps to track       any phone a terrorist suspect might use      Permits law enforc...
     Fear of attacks is transforming cities into urban       fortresses      Threats are costing police departments mill...
     There is concern that illegal immigrants could        obtain jobs as airline mechanics, at nuclear        facilities...
     DHS has been criticized as ‘overly aggressive’        racial profiling        no-fly list      The 9/11 Commissio...
     ICE deports approximately 80,000 illegal       immigrants for criminal activity      In 2008, ICE arrested over 1,0...
     Cyber attacks can be executed from anywhere       in the world      Difficult to establish the source of attacks  ...
     Congress has provided law enforcement       officials with new powers that diminish Fourth       Amendment rights  ...
     Material witness law allows federal authorities       to hold a person indefinitely without bringing       charges ...
     Rendition: illegal transportation of a person to       a foreign country for the purpose of having       officials o...
     Role of local police and the need for coordinating       multiagency response to terrorism have exposed       critic...
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0131389033 ppt13

  1. 1. CJ 2011 James A. Fagin Chapter 13:Homeland Security
  2. 2. After completion of this chapter, students should be ableto:Explain how terrorism has affected the criminal justice systemDetail how the United States reorganized law enforcementagencies to respond to terrorismGive examples of how fear of terrorist attacks influencelegislation, homeland security strategies, and search and seizureSpecify concerns about the impact of homeland securitylegislation and law enforcement powers with regard toconstitutional rightsCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3.  Terrorism is a strategy of using random, violent attacks on noncombatants, symbolic building and landmarks, and infrastructure of a society to cause widespread fearCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. Domestic terrorism involves acts such as:  Militias and extremist groups, such as Timothy McVeigh, Oklahoma City Bombing  Single-issue extremist groups, such as anti-abortion groups  Ecoterrorist, such as Animal Liberation Front (ALF), and Earth Liberation Front (ELF)CJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. 5.  Prior to the September 11, 2001, the criminal justice system lacked resources to counter international terrorism  USA Patriot Act gives federal law enforcement agencies expanded powersCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. 6.  The DHS consolidated 22 federal agencies and 180,000 employees to create a single agency  Transportation Security Administration (TSA) created for airport security and passenger screening, deployed over 20,000 baggage screeners in 2002  FAA reports have been critical of baggage screeners’ ability to prevent passengers with potential weapons or explosives from boardingCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. 7.  Enemy Combatant Executive Order allows captured persons to be detained in military prisons, without charges, without access to an attorney, nor other constitutional rights  Civil rights proponents argue that circumventing the criminal justice system is a danger to civil libertiesCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. 8.  Allows police to use roving wiretaps to track any phone a terrorist suspect might use  Permits law enforcement to conduct searches with delayed notifications  Section 215 of Patriot act allows searches of business, medical, bookstore or library records without probable causeCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. 9.  Fear of attacks is transforming cities into urban fortresses  Threats are costing police departments millions of dollars in overtime costs, training, and equipment  Few departments have the budget to provide officers with the necessary training and equipment to prepare for a biological, chemical, or nuclear terrorist attackCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10.  There is concern that illegal immigrants could obtain jobs as airline mechanics, at nuclear facilities, or at other infrastructure facilities  Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) conducts investigations to determine if illegal immigrants are employed in such facilities  Government adopts ‘Smart Passports’ containing microchips with personal data, and a radio frequency identification systemCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 10
  11. 11.  DHS has been criticized as ‘overly aggressive’  racial profiling  no-fly list  The 9/11 Commission criticized immigration polices as neither preventing potential terrorists from entering the country, nor clearly identifying themCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. 12.  ICE deports approximately 80,000 illegal immigrants for criminal activity  In 2008, ICE arrested over 1,000 alleged gang members of which most eligible for deportation  DHS has advocated adaption of a ‘National ID Card’CJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 12
  13. 13.  Cyber attacks can be executed from anywhere in the world  Difficult to establish the source of attacks  Extremist groups use the Internet to recruit new members, provide online training for jihadists, and disseminate propagandaCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 13
  14. 14.  Congress has provided law enforcement officials with new powers that diminish Fourth Amendment rights  FBI has new powers to conduct domestic intelligence and to monitor the political activist groups that diminish First Amendment rightsCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 14
  15. 15.  Material witness law allows federal authorities to hold a person indefinitely without bringing charges  U.S. Supreme Court (2008) ruled that terrorist suspects held at the Guantanamo Bay naval base had constitutional rights to challenge their detentionCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16.  Rendition: illegal transportation of a person to a foreign country for the purpose of having officials of that country interrogate the person using torture  Waterboarding was used under the Bush administration in the interrogation of al-Qaeda leadersCJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. 17.  Role of local police and the need for coordinating multiagency response to terrorism have exposed critical shortcomings in training and equipment  War on Terrorism has resulted in reexamination of some of the most basic practices of the criminal justice system  Criminal Justice scholars and student must ask, What are the best practices for responding to terrorism?CJ 2011 © 2011 Pearson Higher Education,James A. Fagin Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. • All Rights Reserved. 17
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