Chapter 7: Courtroom Participants and the Trial
<ul><li>After completion of this chapter, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the basic legal philosoph...
<ul><li>The concept that a trial is a ‘battle’ between the state and a legal ‘champion’ who represents the defendant  </li...
<ul><li>Police and the prosecutor work together to bring charges </li></ul><ul><li>This serves as a check and balance </li...
<ul><li>Three other important decisions that are made before the trial are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. setting bail, </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Eighth Amendment of the Constitution recognizes the concept of bail: </li></ul><ul><li>Bail may be set by a schedu...
<ul><li>Manhattan Bail Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release on Recognizance (ROR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditional Rele...
<ul><li>The controversy over bail has centered on: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What is excessive bail? </li></ul><ul><li>2. When ...
<ul><li>Reduces time and cost associated with court case </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps back-logged dockets moving </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>A criminal case must assure defendant the right to a speedy trial under the Sixth Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Fede...
<ul><li>Motion for discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Motion for suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Motion for change of venue </li></...
<ul><li>Motion for dismissal </li></ul><ul><li>Motion for a bill of particulars </li></ul><ul><li>Motions for severance of...
Pearson Education, Inc. ©  2010  <ul><li>Prosecutor </li></ul><ul><li>Defense Attorney </li></ul><ul><li>Judge </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Court reporter </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk of the court </li></ul><ul><li>Witness </li></ul><ul><li>Bailiff </li></ul>
<ul><li>Pretrial motions </li></ul><ul><li>Jury Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Opening Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Prosecuto...
<ul><li>Surrebuttal </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Charge to the Jury </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberatio...
<ul><li>Selecting fair citizen jurors has been a major challenge for courts </li></ul><ul><li>‘Jury of One’s Peers’ requir...
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0131389033 ppt07

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0131389033 ppt07

  1. 1. Chapter 7: Courtroom Participants and the Trial
  2. 2. <ul><li>After completion of this chapter, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the basic legal philosophy of a criminal trial </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how court jurisdiction is determined </li></ul><ul><li>Identify major pretrial proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the Sixth Amendment requirement for a speedy trial </li></ul><ul><li>Know the roles of the participants in a criminal trial </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The concept that a trial is a ‘battle’ between the state and a legal ‘champion’ who represents the defendant </li></ul><ul><li>Trials are complex because many criminal justice agencies and personnel must interact in the pursuit of justice: police, prosecutors, judges, jurors, victims and offenders </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Police and the prosecutor work together to bring charges </li></ul><ul><li>This serves as a check and balance </li></ul><ul><li>Police arrest does not guarantee the prosecutor will prosecute </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the phrase ‘Prosecutorial Discretion’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Three other important decisions that are made before the trial are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. setting bail, </li></ul><ul><li>2. determining the competency of the defendant to stand trial </li></ul><ul><li>3. plea bargaining </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Eighth Amendment of the Constitution recognizes the concept of bail: </li></ul><ul><li>Bail may be set by a schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Amount is typically based upon possible fine </li></ul><ul><li>Can be denied if defendant is a flight risk </li></ul><ul><li>Can be denied for reasons of community safety </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Manhattan Bail Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release on Recognizance (ROR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditional Release </li></ul><ul><li>Property Bond </li></ul><ul><li>Signature Bond </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The controversy over bail has centered on: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What is excessive bail? </li></ul><ul><li>2. When can bail be denied? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Does the bail system discriminate against the poor? </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Reduces time and cost associated with court case </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps back-logged dockets moving </li></ul><ul><li>Over 90% of defendants receive a plea bargain </li></ul><ul><li>Plea can surround the charges or the range of sentencing </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>A criminal case must assure defendant the right to a speedy trial under the Sixth Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Federal prosecutor has 30 days to seek an indictment </li></ul><ul><li>Federal prosecutor has 70 days to start trial </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Motion for discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Motion for suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Motion for change of venue </li></ul><ul><li>Motion for continuance continued… </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Motion for dismissal </li></ul><ul><li>Motion for a bill of particulars </li></ul><ul><li>Motions for severance of charges or defendants </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pearson Education, Inc. © 2010 <ul><li>Prosecutor </li></ul><ul><li>Defense Attorney </li></ul><ul><li>Judge </li></ul><ul><li>Jury continued…. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Court reporter </li></ul><ul><li>Clerk of the court </li></ul><ul><li>Witness </li></ul><ul><li>Bailiff </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Pretrial motions </li></ul><ul><li>Jury Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Opening Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Prosecutor’s Case </li></ul><ul><li>Defense Case </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuttal continued… </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Surrebuttal </li></ul><ul><li>Closing Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Charge to the Jury </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>Verdict </li></ul><ul><li>Sentencing </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Selecting fair citizen jurors has been a major challenge for courts </li></ul><ul><li>‘Jury of One’s Peers’ requires a broad base of citizens who represent the community </li></ul><ul><li>Jury size of ‘12’ is a tradition, not a constitutional requirement </li></ul>
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