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0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
0131389033 ppt04
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0131389033 ppt04

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  • 1. Chapter 4: Roles and Functions of the Police
  • 2. <ul><li>After completion of this chapter, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the historical development of American policing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how jurisdiction relates to contemporary policing </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major federal and state law enforcement agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Be familiar with the hiring and training process for police officers </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to discuss various social factors that influence policing strategies </li></ul>Pearson Education, Inc. © 2010
  • 3. <ul><li>Parliament passes the London Metropolitan Police Act in 1829 </li></ul><ul><li>Established first full-time paid police force </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Robert Peel known as the ‘Father of Modern Policing’ </li></ul><ul><li>Peel’s officers called ‘Bobbies’ </li></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>Early American police modeled after the London Metropolitan Police </li></ul><ul><li>A distinct characteristic of American policing is that thousands of police agencies have their own jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>The jurisdiction of policing can be divided into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Police Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local police </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>3 different types of federal agencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American Tribal Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilian Police </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Perform law enforcement duties on military bases, federal lands, and in cases involving military personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Each branch of the military service has its own criminal justice system, including courts and correctional institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Based upon the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Each Native American reservation has the legal authority to establish its own tribal police </li></ul><ul><li>Research suggests Native American reservations have been neglected by the U.S. criminal justice system </li></ul><ul><li>Their rate of violent victimizations is more than twice the rate as that for the nation as a whole </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>U.S. Marshals Service </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Secret Service </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Bureau of Investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Enforcement Administration </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Highway patrols focus on traffic enforcement and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate criminal activities, especially in municipalities or counties that be biased toward the case </li></ul><ul><li>All states have an agency with the exception of Hawaii </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Oldest policing authority in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Chief law enforcement officer of the county </li></ul><ul><li>Typically elected to a four-year term </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities include: law enforcement, court service and protection, and jail operations </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Most visible with over 12,000 municipal police departments </li></ul><ul><li>Chief of Police appointed by a mayor, city council, or a police commission </li></ul><ul><li>Chief does not have civil service job protection </li></ul><ul><li>Budget for a department is one of a city&apos;s largest expenses </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Special police have limited jurisdiction both in geographic and police powers </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>airport police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>park police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transit police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public school police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>college and university police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public housing police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>game wardens </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Police applicants are examined on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screened for criminal and driving records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical agility test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug screen testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygraph (in some states) </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Those passing selection process attend a ‘police academy’ for up to 1,100 hours of training </li></ul><ul><li>After graduation recruits are assigned to a ‘field-training program’ up to 1 year on a probationary period </li></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Community Policing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on decentralized strategies that promote crime prevention rather than rapid response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on promoting the quality of life in a community rather than solely law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of alternatives other than arrest and force to solve the cause of problems </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Problem-Oriented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase effectiveness by attacking underlying problems that cause incidents that consume patrol time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on expertise of line officers to study problems and develop solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closer involvement with public to ensure the police are addressing their needs </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. <ul><li>Broken Window Theory: belief that ignoring public order violations leads to community neglect, which in turn breeds crime </li></ul><ul><li>Zero-Tolerance Strategy: strict police enforcement of the laws, even for minor violations </li></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>Effectiveness is still not well documented </li></ul><ul><li>Popular with the public </li></ul><ul><li>May have little impact on crime rates </li></ul><ul><li>Does reduce citizen’s fear of crime </li></ul>

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