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0131389033 ppt04 0131389033 ppt04 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 4: Roles and Functions of the Police
    • After completion of this chapter, students should be able to:
    • Describe the historical development of American policing
    • Explain how jurisdiction relates to contemporary policing
    • Identify the major federal and state law enforcement agencies
    • Be familiar with the hiring and training process for police officers
    • Be able to discuss various social factors that influence policing strategies
    Pearson Education, Inc. © 2010
    • Parliament passes the London Metropolitan Police Act in 1829
    • Established first full-time paid police force
    • Sir Robert Peel known as the ‘Father of Modern Policing’
    • Peel’s officers called ‘Bobbies’
    • Early American police modeled after the London Metropolitan Police
    • A distinct characteristic of American policing is that thousands of police agencies have their own jurisdiction
    • The jurisdiction of policing can be divided into:
      • Federal Agencies
      • State Police Agencies
      • Local police
    • 3 different types of federal agencies:
      • Military Police
      • Native American Tribal Police
      • Civilian Police
    • Perform law enforcement duties on military bases, federal lands, and in cases involving military personnel
    • Each branch of the military service has its own criminal justice system, including courts and correctional institutions
    • Based upon the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)
    • Each Native American reservation has the legal authority to establish its own tribal police
    • Research suggests Native American reservations have been neglected by the U.S. criminal justice system
    • Their rate of violent victimizations is more than twice the rate as that for the nation as a whole
    • U.S. Marshals Service
    • U.S. Secret Service
    • Federal Bureau of Investigations
    • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
    • Drug Enforcement Administration
    • Highway patrols focus on traffic enforcement and safety
    • Investigate criminal activities, especially in municipalities or counties that be biased toward the case
    • All states have an agency with the exception of Hawaii
    • Oldest policing authority in the United States
    • Chief law enforcement officer of the county
    • Typically elected to a four-year term
    • Responsibilities include: law enforcement, court service and protection, and jail operations
    • Most visible with over 12,000 municipal police departments
    • Chief of Police appointed by a mayor, city council, or a police commission
    • Chief does not have civil service job protection
    • Budget for a department is one of a city's largest expenses
    • Special police have limited jurisdiction both in geographic and police powers
    • Includes:
      • airport police
      • park police
      • transit police
      • public school police
      • college and university police
      • public housing police
      • game wardens
    • Police applicants are examined on:
      • Written test
      • Screened for criminal and driving records
      • Physical agility test
      • Psychological examination
      • Drug screen testing
      • Polygraph (in some states)
    • Those passing selection process attend a ‘police academy’ for up to 1,100 hours of training
    • After graduation recruits are assigned to a ‘field-training program’ up to 1 year on a probationary period
    • Community Policing:
      • Focus on decentralized strategies that promote crime prevention rather than rapid response
      • Focus on promoting the quality of life in a community rather than solely law enforcement
      • Use of alternatives other than arrest and force to solve the cause of problems
    • Problem-Oriented:
      • Increase effectiveness by attacking underlying problems that cause incidents that consume patrol time
      • Relies on expertise of line officers to study problems and develop solutions
      • Closer involvement with public to ensure the police are addressing their needs
    • Broken Window Theory: belief that ignoring public order violations leads to community neglect, which in turn breeds crime
    • Zero-Tolerance Strategy: strict police enforcement of the laws, even for minor violations
    • Effectiveness is still not well documented
    • Popular with the public
    • May have little impact on crime rates
    • Does reduce citizen’s fear of crime