Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
0131389033 ppt02
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

0131389033 ppt02


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Chapter 2: Crime: Why and How Much
  • 2.
    • After completion of this chapter, students should be able to:
    • Describe a variety of theoretical explanations used to explain criminal behavior
    • Understand the importance of the Victims’ Rights Movement
    • Explain the history and usage of the Uniform Crime Report
    • Discuss what is meant by ‘clearance rate’
    • Explain the importance of the National Incident-Based Reporting System
  • 3.
    • Criminology is the scientific study of criminal behavior, its causes, patterns, and affects upon society
  • 4.
    • Theories in criminology contribute to explaining, predicting, and preventing crime
    • Theories provide general principles that will apply to similar cases to show how factors influencing crime are interrelated
  • 5.
    • Classical Theory
    • Biological Explanations
    • Psychological Explanations
    • Sociological Explanations
    • Conflict Theories
  • 6.
    • Based on Cesare Beccerra's (1776) belief that people are rational thinking, and will seek pleasure over pain
    • He argued that punishment must be appropriate and proportional to the crime
    • Classicalist believe criminal behavior is controlled by swift, certain, and appropriate punishment
  • 7.
    • Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909), founder of the Positivist School of Criminology
    • His theory of ‘atavism’ believed criminals were not fully developed and were throwbacks to primitive man
    • He believed criminals had physical characteristics such as long arms, large lips, crooked nose, and excessive body hair, suggesting an ape-like evolution, believed to distinguish criminals from non-criminals
  • 8.
    • Biocriminolgy: views the variables of genetics and neurophysiology as influencing criminal behavior
      • XYY Chromosome Theory: Patricia Jacobs (1965) discovered some males have an extra ‘Y’ chromosome
      • These so-called ‘supermales’ were found to have higher conviction rates for violent crime
  • 9.
    • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Theorized that behavior is not a free-will choice, but is controlled by subconscious desires
      • The Superego
      • The Ego
      • The Id
    • Theory of psychoanalysis has been applied to the study of criminals
  • 10.
    • Social Disorganization
    • Differential Association Theory
    • Social Control Theory
    • Strain Theory
    • Cultural Deviance
    • Conflict Theories
  • 11.
    • Robert Ezra Park (1864-1944) studied Chicago’s patterns of rapid industrialization and immigration and viewed crime as more dependant on disruptive social forces than individuals
    • Subsequent study by Shaw and McKay(1930s) established the Concentric Zone Theory
    • Crime rates higher in the ‘zone of transition,’ where there was poverty, a lack of schooling, unemployment, illegitimacy and juvenile delinquency, hence social disorganization
  • 12.
    • First proposed by Edwin Sutherland (1883-1950)
    • Theory purports that criminal behavior is learned through association with a peer group that engages in criminal behavior
    • Used to explain white-collar crime
  • 13.
    • Theory of crime causation based on the assumptions that people’s belief in the values of their society and culture make them law-abiding citizens
      • Neutralization Theory: Sykes and Matza
      • Theory assumes that criminals learn techniques that allow them to rationalize their behavior, deny responsibility for their actions and avoid being guilt-ridden
  • 14.
    • Robert Merton (1919-2003)
    • Theory purported that people are naturally law-abiding, but resort to crime when frustrated with a lack of legitimate means for economic success
  • 15.
    • Theories of crime causation based on the assumption that criminal behavior is learned through participation with deviant subcultures that have a different value system
    • Albert Cohen defined ‘reaction formation’ as lower-class youths reject middle-class values they cannot attain and instead join countercultures that express the opposite values
  • 16.
    • Conflict Theory
      • crime based on Marxism theory that the sources of criminal behavior are class conflict and social inequality, wherein the ruling class use the criminal justice system to control lower class
    • Feminist Criminology
      • based on the assumption that gender inequality lies at the heart of crimes in which women are the victims or perpetrators
  • 17.
    • The study of victims and their patterns of victimization
    • Explains why certain people or groups are victims in specific situations
  • 18.
    • Victims’ rights advocacy gave rise to the National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) in 1976
    • Victim and Witness Act of 1982 established federal polices for treating crime victims
    • Crime Victims’ Rights Act of 2004 provides assurance that victims be protected, notified and heard at various proceedings
  • 19.
    • Statistics about crime and research data help shape the operations of police, the courts, and corrections
    • Crime data affect social and political policy
  • 20.
    • Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
    • National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
    • National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
  • 21.
    • First established in 1930
    • Approved by Congress
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) responsible for collecting and publishing the data
  • 22. Pearson Education, Inc. © 2010
  • 23.
    • The percentage of crimes reported to the police that the police have solved
    • Solved does not mean that the perpetrator has been arrested, prosecuted, convicted, or incarcerated
    • Means that the police are reasonably certain they know who committed the crime
  • 24.
    • The FBI recognized shortcomings of the UCR
    • This drove a new plan to address the underreporting of crime
    • NIBRS will be broader and more inclusive than the UCR
    • Will gather more information about the relationship between offender and victim
  • 25.
    • Sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and Census Bureau
    • A survey of households that began in 1972
    • They mail out to 60,000 homes every 6 months
    • Followed for 2 ½ years