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Three Reasons for Reading Failure The program is not appropriate for the child. There are too many students in the reading class. The pace of the instruction is too rapid for children to achieve mastery of skills presented.
Effective programs emphasize direct, systematic, intensive, and sustained reading School wide participation Supported by professional development Three reasons for reading success
Tier 2 Reading Strategies Tier 2 strategies-Involves small groups 3-5 students Making predictions and previewing a book --This can be done in small groups, where the students take turns sharing their own predictions about the book. Forming purpose for reading and writing --The students should be able to establish reasoning behind their assigned task. This will encourage them to actively participate in the group project. Making a KWL map --A KWL map will allow the students to chart their progress enabling them to take more from their assignment, and they will also be able to visually see what they have learned. All of these strategies will enable both students who are excelling in the class and those who are struggling to actively participate in reading assignments' while building their knowledge and purpose for the assignment.
Tier 3 Reading Strategies Tier 3 strategies-Involves individualized interventions based on problem solving models Direct Instruction- Each lesson is part of a sequence. An example would be to have the first reading and language arts lessons focuses on phonemic awareness, which would be followed by phonics and decoding lessons, which are followed by lessons that focus on comprehension and analysis of content, etc. With each lesson building on the last. --For a student to receive Direct Instruction that has a focus with one to one the student will probably need to have a Para or an assistant teacher available to help coach them through the process. If this is not available and the student is receiving special services and are grouped with other students with similar problems then a resource teacher would be able to support a small group of students through the process.
Student has difficulty maintaining attention to steps in algorithms or problem solving.
Student has difficulty sustaining attention to teacher instruction
Student has difficulty solving multi-step word problems resulting in frustration
Distracted or fidgety during math tasks, lose his or her place while working on a math problem appear mentally fatigued or overly tired when doing math
Tier 2/3 Math strategies Construct a problem with actual objects or manipulative. --This will enable the student to visually see how you are re-arranging various shapes to construct a problem. An example would be to use 5 blocks and then demonstrate taking 2 away leaving only 3 (5-2 =3). Present a problem in a fixed visual display. --You can permanently leave up addition/multiplaction tables or display a math problem on a black or white board before you ask the class a question. Orally state the problem. --By orally asking the class a problem they are receiving the information not only by reading but by the reinforcement you provide by reading it to them. This will also clear up any problems or miss reads. Present the problem in written or symbolic form --At times students can struggle to remember things and by writing them down or having the students write them down they are being visually reinforced.
Math reinforcement It is important to provide positive feed back at all times. If a student is struggling then chances are other students are as well. It is better to work at a slow pace than a fast pace. The students who already knows the information should not be as big of a concern as those students who are struggling. Encourage the students to come in and work with you if they are struggling and make yourself available.
With certain students they may have a learning disability or gap in their learning which is so severe that remedial strategies are not able to be effective enough. In these cases strategies must be used which “compensate” for the difficulty in order to ensure that the child is not penalized with learning delays due to a problem in one area. Compensatory Strategies
Compensatory Reading A child with a reading disability can often struggle in all subjects because all subjects require reading to gain information. Resulting in the student becoming penalized in all subjects because of their inability to read. Compensatory tools
Reading assistant, someone to compensate for a slow or inefficient reader for everyday activities
Audio, the student may receive audio assistance at home or in the class
Verbal reminders from teachers about daily events and what they need to accomplish
Assistance from a peer to help organize their take home work
Compensatory Social Skills Compensatory tools
Verbal reminders on how to appropriately participate in group activities
Help from friends to include the student into various activities
Visual signs when the student does something wrong or when then do something good
Color coordinated team activities to show what group they belong in
Fountas, I.C., Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided Reading. Portsmouth NH: Heinemann Educational Books, Inc. Johnston, F., Juell, C., Invernizzi, M. (1995). Guidelines for Volunteer Tutors of Emergent and Early Readers. Charlottsville, VA: University of Virginia, McGuffey Reading Center Garnett, Kate (1998). Math Learning Disabilities . Retrieved July 12, 2009, from LD Online Web site: http://www.ldonline.org/article/5896 Jordan, Candice (2007). Remedial and Compensatory Strategies. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from Golden Hills Student Services Web site: http://www.ghsdss.com/ Citations