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  1. 1. simulation
  2. 2. hyper-reality
  3. 3. "Disneyland is presented as imaginary inorder to make us believe that the rest is real,whereas Los Angeles [is] no longer real, butbelongs to the hyperreal order and to theorder of simulation."Jean Baudrillard, Simulacra & Simulation,1994
  4. 4. Disneylands Main Street […] is an extremely shrewdcommercial reality. [It is] presented as at onceabsolutely realistic and absolutely fantastic […] Thehouses of Disneyland are full-size on the groundfloor, and on a two-thirds scale on the floor above,so they give the impression of being inhabitable(and they are) but also of belonging to a fantasticpast that we can grasp with our imagination. TheMain Street facades are presented to us as toyhouses and invite us to enter them, but their interioris always a disguised supermarket, where you buyobsessively, believing that you are still playing.Umberto Eco Travels in Hyper-reality
  5. 5. “Baudrillards analyses point to a significant reversal of the relation between representation and reality. Previously, the media were believed to mirror, reflect, or represent reality, whereas now the media are coming to constitute a (hyper)reality, anew media reality -- "more realthan real" -- where "the real" is subordinate to representation leading to an ultimate dissolving of the real”. Douglas Kellner
  6. 6. simulation:a copy without an original….
  7. 7. Baudrillard in The Matrix, but the virtual world of the film isnot Baudrillard‟s hyperreality…
  8. 8. Animal Crossing: let’s go to the city
  9. 9. The suffix –oid means „like‟. E.g. an asteroid is an object thatis like a star, an android is like a man, etc. „Oids‟ in Animal Crossing then are „like,‟ but not like anything in particular. They simulations, but simulations of nothing… a playful version of Baudrillard‟s key idea that simulacra are copies without an original. They are virtual, but they aren‟t fake, they exist, they are real
  10. 10. simulation versus representation “Simulation can now be used to model systems that were before way too complex to deal with. We now have a powerful alternative to representation and narrative to explain and understand our world. And simulation does not necessarily have to be a tool for education, but also for art and entertainment (as it happens with videogames). Unlike narrative, simulation offers a first hand experience of a dynamic system (and if the term "dynamic system" doesn’t sound very exciting to you, you can replace it with "family", "society", "person" or whatever is that you would like to simulate). Simulation is a great tool for understanding rules and relationships among them”.Gonzalo Frasca „Simulation 101‟
  11. 11. SimCity: copy or original? Model or world? Territory or map?
  12. 12. Unlike most of the stories were used to hearing, asimulation doesnt have characters or a plot in theconventional sense. Instead, its primary narrativeagent is geography. Simulation games tell a storyfew other media can: the drama of a map changingover time […]As a still frame is to a movie, as a paragraph is to anovel, so is a map to a simulation game. Simulationgames are maps-in-time, dramas which teach ushow to think about structures of spatialrelationshipsTed FriedmanCivilization and Its Discontents: Simulation,Subjectivity, and Space,
  13. 13. Advance Wars: the territory is the map
  14. 14. But what does Super Monkey Ball simulate?
  15. 15. representation v. simulation“watch someone who is unfamiliar with simulationgames playing The Sims for the first time. Buildinghouses and naming characters is straightforwardenough, but as the family goes about its dailyartificial life the tendency is to treat the charactersas if they were real people, or at least as fictionalcharacters who behave according to establishedconventions of narrative, and try to interveneaccordingly. The games dynamics are driven byalgorithms which rarely map directly onto any senseof actual human behaviour or the expectations ofnarrative cause and effect […]
  16. 16. [..] so simulation in a digital game could beanalysed as productive of reality (a gameworld).The Sims is representational on one level: itsimages of houses, human figures, ornaments arefamiliar from the universe of popular mediaculture. But to play the game is to interact with aprofoundly different kind of environment to that ofa film or a television programme. The gameworld,its dynamics, relationships and processes, ismathematically structured and determined”.Giddings & Kennedy 2006, Digital games as new media, inBryce & Rutter (eds) Understanding Digital Games,London: Sage