Von Thunen


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  • Some good points but diagrams mostly too low definition to read. Cutesy comments necesary?
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Von Thunen

  1. 1. Rootin’ Tootin’Rootin’ Tootin’ Von ThunenVon Thunen
  2. 2. What factors matter whenWhat factors matter when you choose to farm? Whereyou choose to farm? Where farm? Why?farm? Why? Physical Factors: Soil quality Topography: Sloped or flat lands- easy to irrigate Climate: (most important) LET’S LOOK AT GREECE
  3. 3. What do you know aboutWhat do you know about Greece (P/C)?Greece (P/C)? Islands Hills/Mts. Mediterranean
  4. 4. What are the other factorsWhat are the other factors besides Physical/climate?besides Physical/climate?
  5. 5. Cultural FactorsCultural Factors Culture Horse meat: nutritious (taboo in U.S.) Pig/Cow Algerians and wine
  6. 6. AlgeriaAlgeria Where is it? Physical/Climate?
  7. 7. Political FactorsPolitical Factors Colonization and plantations Gov finance of types of ag: new tech, certain product Government and culture (French and wine!) EU/US and farm subsidies An agricultural subsidy is money paid to farmers and agribusinesses to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.
  8. 8. Economic factorsEconomic factors Cost of land/taxes Cost of machines Cost of fertilizer/etc Distance from market (shipping costs)
  9. 9. Johann Heinrich vonJohann Heinrich von ThunenThunen German alive during 2nd Agricultural Rev. Saw geographic pattern that seemed to emerge from market outward creates model that explains and predicts agriculture land use patterns
  10. 10. Von Thunen’s ModelVon Thunen’s Model The Isolated State (1826) Isolate certain variables: All soil, terrain and climate is the same (Isotropic) Only one market/city State (country is isolated- no trade) What mattered then to farmers?
  11. 11. $$$$: Profit$$$$: Profit
  12. 12. Factors that matter to VT...Factors that matter to VT... Land CostLand Cost Transportation CostTransportation Cost
  13. 13. What was his theory?What was his theory? Concentric Rings of ag. activity surround a city Each ring is different type of ag. Pattern is intensive to extensive
  14. 14. Ring 1: Market gardeningRing 1: Market gardening and Dairyand Dairy Why near city? Perishable Profitable/demand high $ Can afford high rent
  15. 15. Ring 2: ForestRing 2: Forest (run Forest run)(run Forest run) Why? Need for Construction Need for fuel Heavy/hard/costly to transport
  16. 16. Ring 3: Various CropsRing 3: Various Crops and Grainsand Grains What crops grown closest to Market (within 3)? furthest? Crops with the highest market price and the highest transportation costs closest (perishable also)
  17. 17. Ring 4: Livestock RanchingRing 4: Livestock Ranching Why? Extensive...need lots of land...land is cheaper in Ring 4 After Ring 4: “4’get’aboutit...”
  18. 18. Notice the sharp or flat curves
  19. 19. Let’s mess with VonLet’s mess with Von ThunenThunen What if a River moved thru the middle of his model? What does a river do?
  20. 20. Cool!Cool!
  21. 21. A Railroad from the SEA Railroad from the SE Cool Thunen!
  22. 22. Major IntersectionMajor Intersection Whoa Thunen!
  23. 23. Another Small MarketAnother Small Market Suburban Thunen!
  24. 24. Von Thunen today: noVon Thunen today: no more forest, But...more forest, But...
  25. 25. VT TodayVT Today -more intensive; closer to market -near market: minimal transport costs, but land costs and taxes high -near market: perishable...milk, fruits
  26. 26. VT TodayVT Today
  27. 27. Von Thunen in RealityVon Thunen in Reality
  28. 28. VT TodayVT Today 1) Market gardening (truck farming): specialize in non-tropical fruits, veg. and vines 2) Dairy: we know 3) Livestock fattening/grain: grain for livestock...cattle/pigs -3/4 of cropland in W. Europe devoted to animals -90% in Denmark Although livestock-grain farms work land intensively, the value per unit is less than a truck farm...hence further from city 4) grain: Wheat -Capital needed: planting and harvesting machinery
  29. 29. UruguayUruguay One City Here’s how VT would predict Reality?
  30. 30. Pretty darn close!Pretty darn close!
  31. 31. Chi-ThunenChi-Thunen
  32. 32. megalopolis Avg sized farm in ND is 1300 acres. intensive commercial ag. close to the market... farms may average 40 acres or less.
  33. 33. VT in USAVT in USA # Figure A represents what the agricultural land use would be if the most basic assumptions were applied, namely the market located at New York (or Bosnywash), crops being ranked by comparative rent paying abilities and considering ubiquitous geographical characteristics. Although this representation has some level of concordance with reality, it inaccurately portrays agricultural land use in the United States.
  34. 34. VT in USAVT in USA # Figure B includes one supplementary assumption that considers climate variations, where the north is colder than the south. This constraint has a significant impact on agricultural land use as even if for a location a crop would have a higher rent paying ability, another crop would be grown because climatic conditions forbids it. The resulting agricultural land use has a much higher level of correspondence with reality