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Population Policies

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  • 1928 – 1972 Sexual Sterilization Act of Alberta Alberta’s Provincial Training School for Mental Defectives
  • 6 – 8 million 1932 - 1933 famine 8 – 10 million Stalin’s repression 14 million military losses in WW2 20 million civilian losses in WW2 Total 50 million +
  • Huge country and small population (3,000,000)
  • 5000 medals given out in 2011 for 25 years plus seat slopes to centre so couples in conflict will be brought together
  • In 2003, Family Matters Singapore commissioned Singapore Polytechnic (SP) to create a pair of Romancing Singapore (RS) His and Hers perfumes to be given to their partners at the RS events.
  • Post office sponsored contest – best love letter Best young family contest Libraries display reading material for parents to be
  • Today probably the best day care system in Canada
  • Transcript

    • 1. National Conception Day: A Good Idea ? http://www.tedxkidsbc.com/2011/05/vision/
    • 2. Population Policies What types of population policies exist ? http://www.monochrom.at/english/2008/04/demographic-winter.htm
    • 3. Pro-natalist or Expansive
    • 4. Anti-natalist or Restrictive http://www.greenprophet.com/countries/afghanistan/
    • 5. Maintenance or Stability http://www.yooj.co.uk/test_page_1.html http://www.visualphotos.com/image/2x4628085/russian_babys_feet_sticking_out_from_blanket 2 babies.1 +
    • 6. Migration Policies http://www.cbc.ca/history/SECTIONSE1EP16CH3LE.html International Domestic http://usa-green-card.com/blog/index.php/tag/green-card-lottery/
    • 7. Eugenics http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/7861604/List-of-French-who-collaborated-with-Nazis- to-be-published-online.html http://statismwatch.ca/1997/06/01/alberta-barren-the-mannings-and-forced-sterilization-in-canada/
    • 8. 2009 • 36 countries have pro-natalist policies • 67 countries have anti-natalist policies • 33 countries have maintenance policies
    • 9. Country Type of Policy Years Incentives U.S.S.R. Pro-natalist 1944 - 1992 Medals / respect Russia Pro-natalist 2006 •$10,000 for 2nd & subsequent children •monthly support $ Summary Sheet of Pro-natalist and Anti-natalist Policies Example:
    • 10. Pro-natalist incentives Anti-natalist incentives
    • 11. Pro-natalist   Anti-natalist CBR CDR RNI   CBR CDR RNI Russia 13 14 -0.1  China 12 7 0.5 Japan 8 9 -0.1  Egypt 25 5 2 Germany 8 10 -0.2  India 23 7 1.6 Singapore 9 4 0.5  Vietnam 17 7 1 Iran 19 6 1.3  Indonesia 19 6 1.3 France 13 9 0.4  Ethiopia 37 10 2.7 Australia 14 6 0.8  Bolivia 26 7 1.9 Newfoundland 9 9 0  Nepal 25 6 1.9 Quebec 11 7 0.4  Philippines 25 6 1.9   Niger 48 12 3.6   Mali 45 15 3
    • 12. Does where a country fits within the DT influence the type of population policy they implement ? Birth rates are plotted pro-natalist anti-natalist
    • 13. Does where a country fits within the DT influence the type of population policy they implement ? (horizontal position is what is important) pro-natalist anti-natalist RNI x 10 is plotted
    • 14. Pro-natalist or Expansive Policies http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1384422/Special-investigation-Inside-migrant-maternity-ward-NHS-struggling-cope.html
    • 15. *Why would a country want a pro-natalist policy ? • replaces those lost in war and civil unrest • build up the military • replace retiring folks in the workforce • support the increasing number of seniors • occupy parts of a country that are virtually empty • help develop the resources of a state • lead to economic growth • increase majority/minority percentages • gain more influence internationally
    • 16. Examples: of Pro-natalist Policies Past and Present http://www.imb.org/southern-africa/images/Malagasy_children.jpg
    • 17. U.S.S.R. 1944 – 1992 awarded medals to women in order to encourage a high fertility rate. Why ?
    • 18. • Motherhood Medals • Order of the Glory of Motherhood or Order of Maternal Glory • Order of Mother Heroine 3 Categories of Medals were Presented
    • 19. Motherhood Medals 5 children 8,000,000 awarded 2nd Class 6 children 4,000,000 awarded 1st Class
    • 20. Order of Maternal Glory 7 children - 2,000,000 awarded 3rd Class 8 children - 1,000,000 awarded 2nd Class 1st Class 9 children - 500,000 awarded
    • 21. Order Mother Heroine 10 children 200,000 awarded
    • 22. People’s Republic of Albania http://www.albaniancorner.com/store/Medals%20&%20Orders%20&%20Militaria/c22/index.html Order of Mother Heroine 10 children 1944 - 1992 Medals for bearing, raising, & educating children
    • 23. Albania Communist Order:Motherhood Glory Class I Class II Class III 9 children 6 children 3 children
    • 24. Germany Cross of Honor of the German Mother 1938 - 1944 http://nobeliefs.com/mementoes.htm
    • 25. Bronze 3rd Class Mother’s Nazi Cross 4, 5 Silver 2nd Class Mother’s Nazi Cross 6, 7 Gold 1st Class Mother’s Nazi Cross 8 or more Diamond – 14 or more ? http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-medals/nazi2.htm
    • 26. German Mother’s Cross 14 children ? 17 diamonds http://snyderstreasures.com/pages/motherscross.htm
    • 27. Hello, I just ran across your site with the rare diamond mothers cross. My grandmother was awarded this, she had 13 kids, 11 were boys. It was told to me by my father that it was given to her in his home town of Danzig. I had searched many times trying to find and information regarding this and all I found was the gold silver and bronze crosses. I thought maybe my dad was mistaken when he reported that hers had diamonds in it. I spoke with my dad and got a lot more information on how my grandmother received that cross. She was the only one in Danzig and was in the newspaper for it. My grandmothers name was Anna Noetzel Sirotzki, born Feb. 23 1894. It was given in Danzig. Now known as Gdansk. If you are a war buff you know about Danzig. The 5 black cars came with the Nazi flags to my dads home, the address was Nr 5 Rammbau Strasse, Danzig. The 2 men presented it were of the Nazi party named, Gauleiter Forsterar and Senatsprasiden Arthur Greiser. They were the highest in charge in the City next to Hitler in Danzig and Poland. My dad said it was a huge presentation and party. The newspapers were there as well. This is why that cross is so important to my family. And why if I had the money I would buy it. To me it means the world. My father is so excited to finally have confirmation of the cross. He is now 81 yrs old and in poor health but his memory is sharp as a tack. I wish he had it but it is long gone and your is to much for me to ever afford. It is nice to see that it does desist. I guess I am wondering how you located this rare item? With this being part of my family hermitage I wish I had 5 grand. Sincerely, Monica W. http://www.snyderstreasures.com/pages/motherscross.htm
    • 28. Bulgaria 1950 - 1991 Medal for Maternity, 1st class 4 children Medal for Maternity, 2nd class 3 children http://www.shopbulgaria.com/communist-period-1948-1989-5007.html
    • 29. Bulgarian Order of Mother Glory (original version) http://www.shopbulgaria.com/communist-period-1948-1989-5007.html Class I Class 2 Class 3 4, 5 children ? 6,7 children ? 8/9 children ?
    • 30. Bulgarian Order of Mother Glory (newer version) http://www.shopbulgaria.com/communist-period-1948-1989-5007.html Class I Class 2 Class 3
    • 31. Mongolia Order of Maternal Glory : 1957 First Class Second Class 9 children 5 – 8 children http://crazymongol.tripod.com/order_of_maternal_glory.htm
    • 32. Mongolia
    • 33. Russia 2005 - 06 Putin identified the demographic crisis 2011 boost the BR by 30% over the next 4 years & increase life expectancy ($54 billion ) 2012 Russia's long-standing demographic crisis, ….. could eventually turn the huge country into “a geopolitical 'void' whose fate would be decided by other powers” unless current trends are turned around. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/21/vladimir-putin-increasing-russian-life-expectancy
    • 34. Russia Recent incentives 2006 - 2012 • 2nd & subsequent babies - ~ $10,000 (pd. at age 3) - ~ $60.00 / month • if more than 3 children - ~ $250 / month http://somatosphere.net/2011/12/%E2%80%98population-prescriptions%E2%80%99-pronatalism-and-the-fear-of-underpopulation-in-post-soviet-russia.html •child’s ed. •improve living conditions / mortgage •mother’s retirement
    • 35. • more available daycare • adjustable work schedules for women • smart immigration policy – encourage expats to return home (cash, social benefits, jobs) --encourage talented young foreigners to immigrate • established a special system of pension for housewives as a separate class • financial support for single mothers Russia Recent incentives continued
    • 36. Russia Recent incentives continued 2008 Year of the Family http://www.farfrommoscow.com/articles/songs-for-russias-day-of-family-fidelity-and-love.html
    • 37. Russia Recent incentives continued July 8 new national holiday – Day of Family, Love, and Fidelity http://somatosphere.net/2011/12/%E2%80%98population-prescriptions%E2%80%99-pronatalism-and-the-fear-of- underpopulation-in-post-soviet-russia.html A 3rd child means wealth will be tripled in the third millennium. • earlier births • stable families – reduce divorce rate, revive family values • promote patriotism – babies for Russia • “Give me Life Campaign” • medals for long married couples with children (~ 25 years)
    • 38. Princesses Masako & Aiko Japan
    • 39. Japan Government Incentives • improved parental leave (1 yr. @ 66.7%) • local govn’ts (rural) cash bonuses • monthly allowance (~ 300/child) • New Angel Plan (more available daycare & less working hours) • free pre-natal care and deliveries Companies are urged to have family-friendly packages • monthly payments (Matsushita) • shorter hours (Nippon Telegraph & Telephone) • fertility treatments paid for (Canon) • $400 (1st ) - $40,000 (5th ) (Softbank) • $1000 – 1st , $2000 – 2nd , $20,300 for 3rd + (Koei Tecmo ) http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=600&catid=18
    • 40. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2006-05/11/content_586920.htm http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/lifestyle/2006-05/11/content_586920_2.htm Stop the birth rate decline bra, babies support old people
    • 41. Japan Labour force Women (cumulative causation) Immigration policy (Nation-state) Robotics http://www.thedetroitbureau.com/2009/03/japanese-big-three-production-plunging/ http://www.superstock.com/stock-photos-images/4102-24539
    • 42. Their earlier anti-natalist policies worked so well, Singapore is now promoting births again Singapore http://ethanwan.blogspot.com/2009/12/dr-koh-poh-kian-sbcc.html
    • 43. Child Development Credit & Baby Bonus Singapore CDC - Jan. 1, 2005 Dec. 31, 2011 - $300 - $400 per child per year in CDA Baby Bonus • Started in 2001 and modified since • $4000 for 1st & 2nd child • $6000 for 3rd & 4th child Born after Aug 17, 2008 matching contributions - parents/government Dec. 31 year child turns 6 $6000 1st & 2nd (total or /yr. ?) $12,000 3rd & 4th $18,000 5th & subsequent Born before Aug 17, 20 matching contributions for 2nd – 4th babies only
    • 44. Singapore Social Development Unit 1984(started) 2006(changed) • to improve the social networking between busy working individuals • organize activities for its members http://www.myspaceanimations.com/myspace-animations-heart-graphics.html
    • 45. Social Development Unit “The Chemistry Guide: When Boy Meets Girl”, '' focusing on the overworked, the shy, and the "cosmetically challenged." The guide reminds hopeful singles that "Skin-care products are must-have investments" and "There's no bigger turnoff than a foul mouth, reeking with leftovers from lunch!" “Dare to Date" 2 free publications http://healthscreeningpackagessingapore.com/
    • 46. Family Matters/Singapore government department Singapore http://www.openmentis.com/Romancing_Singapore.htm
    • 47. http://www.sp.edu.sg/wps/portal/vp-spws/schcls.abt.ourproducts.romancingsg http://www.sp.edu.sg/wps/portal/vp-spws/schcls.abt.ourproducts.romancingsg Singapore H is and H er perfum e C om m issioned by Fam ily M atters/Singapore
    • 48. Singapore http://thepreppyprincess.wordpress.com/2008/05/30/an-actual-preppy-link-to-sex-and-the-city-omg/ govn’t allowing more suggestive programming (TV and movies)
    • 49. SDU = Social Development Unit or Singapore Criticisms Single, Desperate, and Ugly Social Engineering (eugenics ?)
    • 50. http://funnymalaysia.blogspot.com/2007_10_01_archive.ht ml Singapore Dr. Wei Siang Yu Dr. Love’s midnight talk show (bathtub tutorials) (rekindle the passion) Dr. Love’s Super Baby-Making Show (9 /10 couples - $100,000)
    • 51. Australia http://www.familyassist.gov.au/payments/family-assistance-payments/baby-bonus/ Baby bonus - ~2004 “have one for your husband, one for your wife, and one for the country” $5000/child Family tax benefits
    • 52. 1967 – first anti-natalist policy 1979 – pro-natalist 1988 – anti-natalist 2006 – pro-natalist Anti-natalist or pro-natalist ? Iran W hy ?
    • 53. • start of Islamic Revolution • family planning program – western influence • promotion of contraception by health officials banned • procreation to bolster the ranks of “soldiers for Islam” (8 year war with Iraq) Ayatollah Khomeini http://www.fnb.to/FNB/Article/Khomeyni/Khomeiny3.jpg 1979
    • 54. Khomeini’s pro-natalist policy resulted in GR of 3.2% Total fertility rate rose to 7
    • 55. 1988
    • 56. 2006 “I am against saying that two children are enough. Our country has a lot of capacity. It has the capacity for many children to grow in it. It even has the capacity for 120 million people. Westerners have got problems. Because their population growth is negative, they are worried and fear that if our population increases, we will triumph over them.” Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/38434672/ns/world_news-mideast_n_africa/t/iran-will-pay-new-babies-boost-population/
    • 57. 2006 • encouraged more babies • reduced working hours for women • 70,000,000 increase to 120,000,000 • July ~ $980 at birth and ~ $98/yr. until 18 can be used at age 20 – marriage, educ., health, or house (Politics ? more sign. To poor, his supporters • Nov. encourage citizens to marry and reproduce earlier 20 males 16/17 girls increase to 150,000,000 2010
    • 58. Sub-state Level Pro-natalist Policies • Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia - Family Contact Day (Conception Day) http://www.russianlessons.net/russia/ulyanovs k/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Newfoundland_and_Labrador,_Canada.svg • Quebec, Canada • Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
    • 59. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20268426/ns/world_news-europe/t/russians-offered-day-prizes-procreate/ Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia - Family Contact Day (Conception Day) Grand Prize winners of “Give Birth to a Patriot on Russia’s Independence Day” Contest
    • 60. http://www.russianlessons.net/russia/ulyanovsk/ Conception Day started Sept. 12, 2005 • possible day off work to allow for conception / contests / displays • if birth June 12 - win a prize • TVs, washing machines, SUV • Grand Prize to the parents judged to be the fittest
    • 61. Quebec, Canada 1950s – very high total fertility rate *Why ? 1980s – one of the lowest in Canada Why ? Quebec government wanted to increase the TFR *Why ?
    • 62. Quebec 1987 – 1992 • $ 500 for each of 1st 2 children • $3000 for each subsequent child • child care facilities improved & expanded • tax free family allowance if 2 or more children • interest free housing loans (up to $7000) 1992 – 1997 • $ 500 for 1st child • $1000 for 2nd • $6000 for each subsequent child • other benefits remain the same 1997 program cancelled
    • 63. • couples who have a baby within 5 years of finishing university will get 1/2 their student loan paid off 2003 election Parti Quebecois’ platform involved population expansion Bernard Landry Quebec
    • 64. Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada out-migration *Why ? declining fertility http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Newfoundland_and_Labrador,_Canada.svg
    • 65. http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-newfoundland-fishing-boats-image10517522 http://jewishwings.com/trips/newfoundland/ http://www.oilsandsdevelopers.ca/index.php/oil-sands-technologies/mining/ http://www.reocities.com/ftmcmurray2003/
    • 66. • $1000 per birth or adopted baby • improved maternity/paternity program • improved daycare Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada http://www.whiterockdaycare.ca/photogallery_chrismas.htm
    • 67. Anti-natalist Policies http://monkeygeography.wordpress.com/ib/
    • 68. http://www.zazzle.com/antinatalism
    • 69. Why would a country want an anti-natalist policy ? • cannot afford to provide for them • overpopulation concerns - limited available resources local, national, international SCALE • allow more women in the workforce and boost economy • repress a group of people separate policy for certain groups or different applications of the policy (see 2nd last slide)
    • 70. China 2 different programs in recent years • Later, Longer, Fewer Policy 1971 • One Child Policy 1979
    • 71. What difference would it make when you got married ? http://www.photoshopessentials.com/photo-effects/photo-templates/ http://www.world-of-weddings.com/wedding-dresses/older-bride-wedding-dress.html
    • 72. One Child Policy 1979 - rewards start once 1 child contract is signed Rewards • free medical care • free daycare and schooling • guaranteed job for child • bonuses for parents • extra maternity leave • better housing • bigger old age pension Penalties • must repay financial benefits • educational, medical benefits, & guaranteed jobs are withdrawn • parents’ wages reduced
    • 73. *How did the government persuade its citizens to cooperate ?
    • 74. 80,000 Family Planning Workers http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/pop1.html
    • 75. http://www.nisjapan.minidns.net/nis/galleries/5thgradestudentwork/5thGradeChinaProject/07CN.html Education Program
    • 76. Peer pressure
    • 77. Advertizing http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/pop1.html
    • 78. Carry out family planning Implement the basic national policy http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/pop.html
    • 79. Clever and pretty healthy and lovely source: http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/pop.html
    • 80. http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/pop.htmlhttp://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/pop1.html
    • 81. How many missing girls are there in the under 20 categories ?
    • 82. Little emperors Any social problems ?
    • 83. China Birth Control Abortions Sterilization http://www.chinatouristmaps.com/china-maps/ethnic-minorities-in-china.html http://blog.hilncore.com/2011/07/brazilian-meatball-served-with-a-condom/ Eugenics
    • 84. In recent years China has relaxed the rules, and in some cases have even started encouraging two children. (in some districts in certain situations) Why ? In many cases, parents are not taking advantage of this opportunity. *Why ?
    • 85. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/innovations/post/un-population-fund-execdirector-i-wish-them-interesting- lives/2011/10/12/gIQAjWn7bM_blog.html Philippines
    • 86. http://www.atheistnexus.org/group/atheistnews/forum/topics/vatican-city-continuing-the?commentId=2182797%3AComment %3A1276319&xg_source=activity&groupId=2182797%3AGroup%3A3247 http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/8055471-lagman-confused-on-rh-bill Politics vs Religion Philippines
    • 87. http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/reproductive-health-bill-a-population-measure-filipino-rep-admits-then-bac/ Politics vs Religion Philippines
    • 88. Nepal
    • 89. Bolivia http://info.k4health.org/pr/j50/p5.jpg
    • 90. Ethiopia
    • 91. Indonesia
    • 92. Vietnam http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3206/3150039863_cb3ba3359d.jpg?v=0
    • 93. India Wait until the 1st child is 3 before having your 2nd www.ecoworld.com/waters/indias- population.html India vs. China
    • 94. India s extremists want anti-Muslim family planning measure Ummah News ^ | June 14 2002 India's Hindu extremist party, the VHP, has asked the government to enforce family planning measures on the Muslim population, saying its rapid increase is "detrimental" to Hindus in the country.
    • 95. Egypt
    • 96. http://www.ummah.com/forum/showthread. php?366146-One-Region-in-Myanmar- Limits-Births-of-Muslims One Region in Myanmar Limits Births of Muslims This just happened a couple of weeks ago. June 2013 I don’t Have a slide made up yet. Google it or follow the website below. One website said the national government is reviewing the law.
    • 97. Singapore – National Night
    • 98. Annapolis Royal, N.S. Fort McMurray, Alb. Are there demographic problems here ? What type of population policies might be appropriate ?