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APHG with Sports #NCGE2013--Paul Gray
 

APHG with Sports #NCGE2013--Paul Gray

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Paul Gray's 2013 NCGE presentation for APHG strand

Paul Gray's 2013 NCGE presentation for APHG strand

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    APHG with Sports #NCGE2013--Paul Gray APHG with Sports #NCGE2013--Paul Gray Presentation Transcript

    • Paul T. Gray, Jr. Russellville High School Russellville, Arkansas paul.gray@russellvilleschools.net
    • Sports can be an effective vehicle to teach geography  Many students can really identify with sports  Using local or regional teams can be a way to make geographic concepts more real  Most importantly, sports teams are about place, regional, cultural, urban, locational and economic issues
    • The NFLhttp://www.sportsgrid.com/nfl/u-s-map-redrawn-nfl-allegiances/
    • The NFL by countyhttp://www.footballsfuture.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=514689&start=0
    • The NBAhttp://www.basketballforum.com/nba-forum/451361-great-nba-team-map.html
    • MLBhttp://hittoleftfield.com/2012/06/27/on-relocation-part-2-of-4-major-league-baseball/
    • The NHLhttp://hoosierhockey.wordpress.com/2010/08/10/commenter-discussion-the-united-states-of-hockey/
    • MLS
    • Sports Team Location and Weber’s Least Cost Theory  Weber eliminated labor mobility and varying wage rates  He calculated the “pulls” exerted on each point of manufacturing  He indicated companies wanted to minimize costs in three major areas  In professional sports location we may want to call this, “How Much Stuff Will Your City Give Me to Locate Here Theory/Model” or “The Sports Team Blackmails Your City for what it wants.”
    • Weber’s Least Cost Theory – 3 primary factors of location (to minimize costs)  Transportation – the lowest possible costs in moving raw materials to the factory and the finished product to market  Labor – this reduces profits, therefore owners may want to move farther from raw materials and markets  Agglomeration – like industries clustering in the same area(s) can reduce costs. Existing infrastructure (transport, water, educated/skilled labor, buildings, etc.)  Deglomeration – what happens when too much agglomeration takes place?  Other Factors – political stability, cheap energy, local receptiveness (locating a prison), taxation (exemptions and, free land), climate (LA and film industry), local mores (brewery, sex shops, etc.), owner’s local connections to area (locates even though not the cheapest or most productive location)  The “other factors” can be especially important in sports team location
    • Central Place Theory  Low order goods  High order goods – e.g. sports  Population Threshold - # of people  Market Threshold – amount of $ in the place/area  Range or Range of Sale  Multiplier Effects (of sports team location)
    • I am an NFL fan  I was driving up to Canada via Detroit a few summers ago  Began thinking about how close Detroit, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Indianapolis, etc. are to each other  Wondered who is a fan of whom in certain places  I asked some students to try to map central places with hexagons
    • Have students experiment with Central Place and thresholds and ranges
    • Income thresholds in pro sports – these are essentially disposable incomes in MSAs www.bizjournals.com/specials/2006/0213/  $89.2B - Major League Baseball  $38.4B - National Basketball Association  $35.7B - National Hockey League  $33.0B - National Football League  $16.1B - Major League Soccer
    • What about Central Place factors of location using sports?  According to Hinch & Higham in Sports Tourism Development  Sports teams are centrally located and there to provide outlets for the hinterlands  Greater number of sports provided, the higher order the location
    • Sports Tourism Development Hinch and Higham continued  Low-order sports (e.g. soccer) can locate in lower order thresholds  Higher order locations are fewer and more widely spaced (Christaller) with higher thresholds  Major League Baseball has the most higher order cities (largest populations)  The NFL has many more cities in the mid- and lower order (lower populations)  Ironically (or not given the NFL’s player pay structure), 6 of the last 8 Super Bowl winners were small market teams
    • Sports Tourism Development Hinch and Higham continued  Finally, a hierarchy of sports locations exists to: 1. Provide consumers who wish to minimize their travel to obtain the sports they want 2. Producers of sports need to maintain a minimum threshold to survive 3. Many times, city leaders do not ask these questions – they just want a team without evaluating pros and cons 4. The risk today is almost entirely on cities – not the teams
    • Central Place in the geography of sports  John Bale in Sports Geography says:  A MLB team needs a threshold of 1 million fan visits each year to be viable  Bale says this number is not realistic for most metro areas
    • According to Bale, the Central Place approach to sports team location has assumptions (just like the models we teach): 1. Even population distribution 2. Homogeneous plane surface 3. Economic rationality  We all know irregularities abound  How about an example or two?
    • Smaller Market cities with successful teams ICE HOCKEY  A Canadian Metropolitan Statistical Area of 3.5M people will average 4,000 more fans per game than a comparable U.S. MSA (Bale) SOCCER  Rochester, NY is a soccer-crazy hotbed capable of a pro team FOOTBALL  Green Bay & Pittsburgh are football towns BASEBALL  St. Louis and Cincinnati are baseball towns BASKETBALL
    • What about teaching the “other” factors of location using sports?  According to a Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Report:  1 extra day of sunny weather per year means $7-12 more spending  This means $14-24M more spending in a metro area of 2 million population  US population has shifted South and West over the past 50-60 years  Many of the teams have moved or expanded to the Sun Belt
    • A Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Report continued  Metropolitan areas which lost a franchise are more likely to finance a new stadium (Quality of Life issue? Inferiority complex w/o a team?)  Part of being a first-rate city is having pro sports (and opera, museums, etc.)  However, bond supporters and teams only show positive impact numbers  Actually, this study found there are negative indicators of having a pro sports team
    • A Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Report continued  For example, Maryland residents get about $1M/year in revenue from the Baltimore Ravens  The public cost of the Ravens stadium is $14M/year  Washington residents get $3.8 to $5.1M compared to $28M annual cost for the Mariners’ stadium  So, the question becomes…what benefits do teams bring to the community at large?  Some of these benefits are tangible and others less tangible
    • Teams have always moved or the leagues expanded  Population shifts – Ft. Wayne Pistons become Detroit Pistons  Local Disputes – Baltimore Colts move to Indianapolis due to pending MD law and Cleveland Browns move to Baltimore in dispute over stadium ownership  New Stadium – too many to mention  Expansion – growing and shifting populations  All the above and personal problems – Norman Green moves the Minnesota North Stars to Dallas
    • The most overextended sports market – at least on paper?http://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/on-numbers/scott-thomas/2011/08/denver-is-most-overextended-market.html  DENVER with 5 teams  The Denver needs total personal income (TPI) of $209.3 billion to provide an adequate base for its five teams  Denver’s actual TPI is $121.9 billion, yielding an income deficit of $87.4 billion  Still, Denver is a pretty good sports town. The Rockies seem safe now given some winning seasons of late
    • The other overextended marketshttp://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/on-numbers/scott-thomas/2011/08/denver-is-most-overextended-market.html Rank City # teams TPI Deficit 2 Cleveland 3 ($71.445) 3 Pittsburgh 3 ($56.676) 4 Tampa-St. Petersburg 3 ($54.119) 5 Kansas City 3 ($52.292) 6 Milwaukee 2 ($51.806) 7 St. Louis 3 ($42.294) 8 Phoenix 4 ($41.069) 9 Minneapolis-St. Paul 4 ($39.400) 10 Cincinnati 2 ($37.524)
    • MLB teams most likely to move  Oakland A’s 1. Stadium is a wreck (note sewage backups in locker rooms in June 2013) 2. The money is in the west and south bay 3. Those moving to Oakland are escaping high rents of San Francisco  Where will they go? 1. Most likely San Jose 2. If not there – Sacramento or Portland
    • MLB teams most likely to move  Tampa Bay Rays 1. Tropicana Field is the worst baseball venue in the world 2. The physical location of the Trop in St. Petersburg is very hard to get to 3. Good play the last few years has kept moving talk down  Where will they go? 1. Most likely Tampa 2. If not there – Charlotte or Orlando
    • NBA team most likely to move  Sacramento Kings 1. NBA will not expand anytime soon, so movement will be based on money and population shifts 2. With the Warriors moving to a new arena in SF, there’s nowhere close to go  Where will they go? 1. On paper, the move should be to Kansas City, but KC has lost the NBA before – the Kings to Sacramento 2. KC has an NBA-ready arena already built 3. Las Vegas is another potential NBA city. There’s plenty of money 4. There are also lots of LA Laker fans and casinos and gambling in Vegas – potential NBA owners are wary
    • Los Angeles and the NFL http://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/on-numbers/scott-thomas/2011/08/los-angeles-is-the-clear-choice.html  A study determined that an NFL team requires an income base of $36.7 billion  The Los Angeles area has $220.3 billion in available personal income after meeting the needs of its other pro-sports franchises  On paper, that’s enough to support 6 NFL teams  What about the intangibles or “other” factors of location for LA?
    • NFL teams most likely to move to LA Jacksonville, Buffalo, St. Louis, Oakland, New Orleans 1. Jacksonville is a very small market (3rd smallest) and fan support has been low 2. Buffalo is the 2nd smallest NFL market (tied with New Orleans) with little success in recent years 3. St. Louis is a mid-market size. Recent sale to Missourian Stan Kroenke (also owner of Nuggets, Rapids, Avalanche, Mammoth and Arsenal) makes Rams’ move less likely 4. Oakland’s stadium is a wreck. They’ve won in LA before 5. New Orleans–all is well right now in this 2nd smallest NFL market. N.O.’s population has shrunk. They’d better win  Where will they go? 1. Los Angeles 2. Still, will people consistently come to NFL games in LA?
    • This is one of the major drivers of an LA team - NFL Potential TV Viewership
    • We moved and everyone seems happy  Baltimore Orioles moved to the CBD from the suburbs and the Baltimore Ravens came to the CBD  Cleveland Browns (after expansion) and Cleveland Indians and Cleveland Cavaliers built new venues in the CBD  These cases involved building new ball parks and/or stadia in downtown areas as part of a larger urban revitalization effort
    • We moved and not everyone is happy Dallas Cowboys  The Cowboys moved to suburban Arlington between Dallas and Ft. Worth  This moved promised many larger developments around Cowboy Stadium (with the Texas Ranger park just down the street)  Large-scale (high-end hotels, restaurants, etc.) developments have not come – example??  Super Bowl XLV – Green Bay stayed in Ft. Worth (Omni) and Pittsburgh stayed in Dallas (Omni Mandalay Bay - Irving)
    • Other factors in sports teams location Missouri joined the SEC in 2012. Located as the most northwest SEC team, travel expenses in the SEC increased from just under $5 million annually to $7 million.  Non-revenue Mizzou teams (not football or basketball) spent as many as 11 days on the road, which affects competiveness and academics  In 1994, the Rams decided to leave Los Angeles  Down the list of factors the Rams mentioned in a St. Louis Post-Dispatch article for moving……  Travel costs of a coastal team, or as we would teach in APHG – Centrality  The Rams said they could save at least a quarter of a million dollars in travel alone  Rams’ owner at the time, the late Georgia Frontiere, a native of St. Louis
    • Who travels to most? Coastal teams.  The NFL West Coast teams  Seattle – 33,586 miles  San Diego – 28,298 miles  Oakland – 27,721 miles Source: www.stlouistoday.com/blogs/sports-around-the-horns/2007/08/rams-are-miles-high-in-nfl 8- 11-07
    • Who travels the least?  Northeastern teams  New York Jets – 9,186 miles  Buffalo – 9,972 miles Source: www.stlouistoday.com/blogs/sports-around-the-horns/2007/08/rams-are-miles-high-in-nfl 8- 11-07
    • In 2012, who traveled the most and least?  MOST – Seattle Seahawks, San Francisco 49ers, San Diego Chargers and Oakland Raiders  LEAST – Indianapolis Colts, Washington Redskins, Cincinnati Bengals and Green Bay Packers – centrality to other teams  Teams traveling under 1,000 miles for a game win 43 percent of the time. The number drops to 40.3 percent when teams travel between 1,000 and 1,999 miles, and plummets to 39.8 percent when they travel over 2,000 miles.  3% may not sound like much unless you miss the playoffs by one game
    • Another way to teach location and central place is to map team allegiance is by… Number and location of radio stations which carry a team
    • Students could map the Cleveland Browns network OHIO AKRON / WAKR-AM 1590 ASHLAND / WNCO-AM 1340 ASHTABULA / WFUN-AM 970 ATHENS / WATH-AM 970 BUCYRUS / WQEL-FM 92.7 CADIZ / WCDK-AM 1430 CANTON / WHBC-AM 1480 CELINA / WKKI-FM 94.3 CHILLICOTHE / WCHI-AM 1350 CLEVELAND / WMMS-FM 100.7 / WTAM-AM 1100 COLUMBUS / WFJX-FM 105.7 DAYTON / WONE-FM 97.5 DEFIANCE / WDFM-FM 98.1 DOVER / WJER-FM 101.7 ELYRIA / WEOL-AM 930 FINDLAY / WQTL-FM 106.3 FOSTORIA / WFOB-AM 1430 LIMA / WBUK-FM 106.3 MANSFIELD / WMAN-AM 1400 MARIETTA / WJAW-FM 100.9 MARION / WMRN-AM 1490 MOUNT VERNON / WMVO-AM 1300 NEWARK / WHTH-AM 790 PAINESVILLE / WBKC-AM 1460 PORTSMOUTH / WNXT-AM 1260 SANDUSKY / WMJK-FM 100.9 / WLEC-AM 1450 TOLEDO / WIOT-FM 104.7 WOOSTER / WQKT-FM 104.5 YOUNGSTOWN / WNCD-FM 93.3 / WKBN-AM 570 ZANESVILLE / WHIZ-AM 1240 OTHER STATES KENTUCKY LEXINGTON / WLAP-AM 630 NEW YORK HORNELL / WLEA-AM 1480 ROCHESTER / WYSL-AM 1040 PENNSYLVANIA CORRY / WEYZ-AM 1530 / WWCB-AM 1370 ERIE / WJET-AM 1400 WEST VIRGINIA PARKERSBURG / WJAW-FM 100.9
    • Cincinnati Bengal Radio Network  Listen to the game on one of these 2013 Bengals Radio Affiliates: OHIO  Athens WATH-AM 970  Canton WTIG-AM 990  Celina WCSM-FM 96.7  Chillicothe WBEX-AM 1490  Cincinnati WCKY-AM WEBN-FM WLW-AM 1530  Columbus WBWR-FM 105.7  Dayton WTUE-FM 104.7  Findlay WBVI-FM 96.7  Hillsboro WSRW-AM 1590  Lima WIMA-AM 1150  Logan WLGN-AM 1510  Marietta WMOA-AM 1490  Middleport WMPO-AM 1390  Mt. Vernon WMVO-AM 1300  Portsmouth WIOI-AM 1010  Washington Court House WCHO-FM 105.5  Zanesville WHIZ-AM 1240 KENTUCKY  Ashland WCMI-AM 1340  Cynthiana WCYN-FM 102.3  Lexington WBVX-FM 92.1  Louisville WKRD-AM 790  Somerset WTLO-AM 1480 INDIANA  Washington WAMW-FM 107.9 WEST VIRGINIA  Huntington WRVC-AM 930  Ravenswood WMOV-AM 1360
    • There is much more one can do with sports and APHG  Cultural issues  Geography of team monikers  Migration issues  Gender issues  Race and Ethnicity  Globalization
    • Thank You and Questions
    • Selected Sources  Bale, J. Sports Geography. (2003), 2nd Ed. Routledge.  Carlino, G., & Coulson, N. E. (2002). Working paper No. 02–12: Compensating differentials and the social benefits of the NFL (No. 02–12). Philadelphia: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.  Hinch, T. and Higham, Sports Tourism Development, (2004). Cromwell Press.  Rappaport, J., & Wilkerson, C. (2001). What are the benefits of hosting a major league sports franchise? Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, (First Quarter), 55–86.  Santo, C. (2005). The economic impact of sports stadiums: Recasting the analysis in context. The Journal of Urban Affairs, 177-191.  http://hittoleftfield.com/2012/06/27/on-relocation-part-2-of-4-major-league-baseball/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._cities_with_teams_from_four_major_league_sports  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relocation_of_professional_sports_teams  http://www.stltoday.com/sports/college/mizzou/more-on-mizzou-s-facilities- facelift/article_f125d834-44cf-53df-a5ca-e6225693b8ce.html  http://www.nfl.com/news/story/09000d5d82a53b24/article/oakland-raiders-will-travel- the-most-miles-in-2012  http://www.bizjournals.com/bizjournals/on-numbers/scott-thomas/2011/08/denver-is- most-overextended-market.html