Andes and Latin America
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Andes and Latin America

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Presentation for the Massachusetts Geographic Alliance, 2013

Presentation for the Massachusetts Geographic Alliance, 2013

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  • An advertisement (Conde Nast Traveler) from 2007. When scale is not shown on a map – beware! On this map, Peru has clipped off Alaska so as not to show the Pacific Ocean at scale. The Japanese are wealthy enough to be world tourists (and they have historical connections with Peru). Their trip across the Pacific to Peru seems only as long as Europeans’ trip across the Atlantic.
  • Amazon, Anacondas and Macaws
  • A breadbasket, similar to American Midwest with Wheat and Livestock.
  • CVC disease limits production
  • No longer a “growing problem”
  • A recently constructed section of the controversial US-Mexico border fence expansion project crosses previously pristine desert sands at sunrise on March 14, 2009 between Yuma, Arizona and Calexico, California. The new barrier between the US and Mexico stands 15 feet tall and sits on top of the sand so it can lifted by a machine and repositioned whenever the migrating desert dunes begin to bury it. The almost seven miles of floating fence cost about $6 million per mile to build.

Andes and Latin America Andes and Latin America Presentation Transcript

  • Latin AmericaInter-related Physical and Human Geographies http://geographyeducation.org/regional/south-america/
  • The Andes—Historical Divide
  • General Outline• Natural Disasters• Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)• Human Development Index (HDI)• Border Issues
  • Natural hazards-Archipelago
  • 1996 Montserrat
  • Andes--Perfect Subduction Zone
  • Chilean Economy• Pacific Rim• Elongated, Andes• Southern Hemisphere
  • Atacama Desert• Orographic Lifting• Cold Ocean Currents
  • Agricultural Region-Las Pampas• Grains, Livestock• Breadbasket• Similar to Midwest in USA
  • Brazilian Agriculture• Coffee, Citrus, Tobacco (1st)
  • General Outline• Natural Disasters• Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)• Human Development Index (HDI)• Border Issues
  • Altitudinal Zonation
  • ALTITUDINAL ZONATION TIERRA CALIENTE (Tropical) Bananas, Cocoa, Sugar, Rice 3000’ 750 m Sea SeaLevel Level
  • ALTITUDINAL ZONATION TIERRA TEMPLADA (Temperate) Coffee, Rice, Corn, Beans 6,500’ 1800 m 3000’ 600 m Sea SeaLevel Level
  • ALTITUDINAL ZONATION TIERRA FRIA (Mid-latitude like) Corn, Wheat, Potato 12,000’ 3,600 m 6,500’ 2,000 m 3000’ 600 m Sea SeaLevel Level
  • ALTITUDINAL ZONATION TIERRA HELADA (Alpine) 12,000’ Grazing, Mining 3,600 m 6,500’ 2,000 m 3000’ 600 m Sea SeaLevel Level
  • Culture and Altitudinal Zonation Indigenous Areas Spanish settlements African Influence
  • SOUTHAMERICA’S CULTURE SPHERES
  • The Caribbean… A carnival of abundance The Carribean…“Races of all continents have miscegenated there, cultures andcustoms most foreign to each other have syncretized, nature hasexploited into myriads of forms, and the constant feast of colorand sounds has goaded the formal carnival to paroxysm…” Gabriel García Márquez, Colombian novelist
  • South American Drug Trade
  • MAINLAND vs RIMLAND
  • General Outline• Natural Disasters• Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)• Human Development Index (HDI)• Border Issues
  • HDI-Levels of Human Development • Income • Life Expectancy • Literacy • Education
  • HDICountry HDI (2012)Mexico 57Guatemala 131Belize 93El Salvador 105Honduras 121Nicaragua 129Costa Rica 69Panama 58Columbia 88http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index
  • Regional Consequences• Migration – Source countries? – Destinations?• Foreign Investment – Where would you invest?• Political stability – Military power
  • Alajuela, Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica Airport
  • General Outline• Natural Disasters• Mountains (Altitudinal Zonation)• Human Development Index (HDI)• Border Issues
  • GDP PER CAPITA ALONG THE US-MEXICAN BORDER
  • De-Industrialization job loss in USA
  • NAFTA-Foreign Investment1) Cheap labor2) close to USA marketsMaquiladoras – Foreign-owned companies
  • “Twin Cities”
  • Why drug violence on our doorstep?• Huge drug demand (2/3 of illegal global demand)• Mexico was South America’s “middle man” – NAFTA – 9/11• Political corruption
  • US/Mexico BorderLate 20th Century: 1 Million illegal crossings each year – (~60% Mexicans) 45% of Agricultural laborers in the US were undocumented migrants
  • 21st Century—limited undocumented migrationhttp://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/07/06/world/americas/immigration.html?hp
  • Changes in the USA • Tightened: – Border patrol/Fence – Employer laws • Loosened: • Visa requirements – Less economic disparity $6 million per mile
  • Changes in Mexico• Improved: – Economy – Education – Politics• Lower birth rates• Agave products