Using Information Ethically How to Recognize and Prevent Plagiarism Seth Allen, M.L.I.S.
What is Plagiarism?According to the Davidson Community College Catalog, plagiarism is: “Plagiarizing includes any attempt to pass another‟s work off as one‟s own, in part or in whole, without properly acknowledging the source. This includes directly quoting, summarizing, or using ideas, images, or data from another‟s work without properly citing the source as well as submitting purchased or borrowed papers as one‟s own” (Academics, p.2).In Layman’s Terms:Plagiarism is form a cheating whereby a student passes of the work of others as their own by failing to give credit to others.Davidson Community College Catalog: Academics. (2012). Retrieved Dec. 5, 2012 from: http://www.davidsonccc.edu/catalog.htm
Why Should I Care?• Uphold personal, academic, and institutional integrity• Poorly cited work leads to poor arguments in papers and speeches• Instructors need a „breadcrumb‟ trail to verify the sources you use in your papers• Plagiarism could lead to disciplinary actions by Davidson County Community College (next slide)
How Davidson County Community College Handles Academic Dishonesty Verbal warning Written warning Failing grade for the assignment involved Failing grade for the course Removal from the course
So What‟s the Difference? Plagiarism Is: Plagiarism Is Not:• Passing off someone else‟s intellectual • Restating common property* as your own (intentionally or knowledge,** such as: unintentionally) • Popular proverbs or sayings• Failing to mention peers with whom • Well-known dates and you collaborated historical events• Failing to cite the sources of ideas or • Information in given field information, whether a direct quote, of study that is widely summary, or a paraphrase disseminated outside of• Failing to place three or more words the field from the original source in quotation • Stating your own research marks findings, ideas, and thoughts
ParaphrasingDefinition: a restatement of a text or passage giving the meaning in another form, as for clearness; rewordingExample taken from page 22 of unChristian by David Kinnaman and Gabe Lyons:“For both Mosaics and Busters, relationships are the driving force. Being loyal to friends is one of their highest values….Still under their relational connectedness lies fierce individualism.”In my paper I write: Mosaics and Busters are relationship- centered and yet highly individualistic (Kinnamn & Lyons, 2007, p.22).Kinnaman, D., & Lyons, G. (2007). Unchristian: What a new generation really thinks aboutChristianity-- and why it matters. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Books.
Direct QuotesWhen directly quoting three or more consecutive words ora phrase from a text, enclose these words in quotationmarks.From the text:“For both Mosaics and Busters, relationships are the driving force. Being loyal to friends is one of their highest values….Still under their relational connectedness lies fierce individualism.”In my paper I write:Mosaics and Busters value loyalty. “Being loyal to friends is one of their highest values….Still under their relational connectedness lies fierce individualism” (Kinnamn & Lyons, 2007, p.22).Kinnaman, D., & Lyons, G. (2007). Unchristian: What a new generation really thinks about Christianity-- and why it matters. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Books.
Assessing Your Knowledge of PlagiarismThe next couple of slides will assess your knowledge of plagiarism through a series of examples. Click on the ENTER tab to view the answer and explanation.Excerpt from my paper: The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.Does this require a citation?No, this is common knowledge.
Example #1-Common KnowledgeIn my paper I write:With nearly 2.2 billion adherents worldwide, Christianity is the world’s largest faith. Should I include a citation?
Example #1-Common Knowledge Yes. While the fact that Christianity is the largest religion is common knowledge, the no. of adherents is not.With nearly 2.2 billion adherents worldwide,Christianity is the world‟s largest faith(Benokraitis, 2012, p. 263). ORBenokraitis (2012) states that Christianity thelargest religion with over 2 billion adherents(p.263).Benokraitis, N. V. (2012). SOC. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Example #2-Citing 3 or More Consecutive Words in ParenthesesOriginal Text From Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820-2000 :The diversity of suburbia is evidence of assimilation and a source of conflict.My paper reads:Suburbia is not as homogenous as some have assumed. Instead, suburbs feature evidence of assimilation and a source of conflict (Hayden, 2003, p.13). Is this plagiarism?
Example #2-Citing 3 or More Consecutive Words in Parentheses YES.Even though I properly cited the source, I used three consecutive words from the text without putting them in quotation marks. I should use quotation marks around the phrase “evidence of assimilation and a source of conflict.”
Example #3-Paraphrasing Other‟s IdeasOriginal Text From a Book:"Though students do not have books, they most emphatically do have music. Nothing is more singular about this generation than its addiction to music. This is the age of music and the states of soul that accompany it."I paraphrase this statement in my paper by writing:Bloom (1987) states emphatically that music is the most significant characteristic of this generation of students, and in fact, that they are addicted to music (p.68). This is quite insightful, but is not limited to students. Did I paraphrase correctly?
Example #3-Paraphrasing Other‟s Ideas Yes.I did not plagiarize because I did not use more than three consecutive words from the original text AND I cited the source of the idea.
Example #4-Paraphrasing ALL Ideas That Are Not Your OwnOriginal Text From a Book:"Though students do not have books, they most emphatically do have music. Nothing is more singular about this generation than its addiction to music. This is the age of music and the states of soul that accompany it".I paraphrase this statement in my paper by writing:Bloom (1987) states emphatically that music is the most significant characteristic of this generation of students (p.68) and in fact, that they are addicted to music. This is quite insightful, but is not limited to students. Did I paraphrase correctly?
Example #4-Paraphrasing ALL Ideas That Are Not Your Own NO.I put the source citation before the statement “they are addicted music”. Therefore, I am implying that this is my own conclusion, when in fact, it is the author‟s.Put in in-text citation after you have encapsulated all of the authors‟ ideas.
Example #5-Information and Images on the WebI found this beautiful picture on Wikipedia that I would like to incorporate in a presentation on Israel. There is caption on the photo stating it is in the public domain. Should I cite the source of this photograph?
Example #5-Information and Images on the Web Yes.While many photographs are available on Wikipedia that the author has released to the public domain (and thus do not require the creator‟s permission to re- use), one must still cite the source as a caption and in the bibliography. (Werner, 2011)Werner, B. Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, in the background the Church of the Holy Sepulcher [Online image]. Retrieved Sep. 22, 2011 from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jerusalem_Dome_of_the_rock_BW_14.J PG
Example #6: Citing Sacred TextsIn my paper, I write:Many would argue that hard work is a biblical virtue tantamount to following the 10 commandments. Paul urges believers in Colossus to work “willing, as unto the Lord.” Should I cite this?
Example #6: Citing Sacred Texts Yes. Cite the source in-text, but omit it from your bibliography.Many would argue that hard work is a biblical virtue tantamount to following the 10 commandments. Paul urges the believers in Colossus to work “willing, as unto the Lord” (Col. 3:23 New International Version).
Example #7: Personal CommunicationI am writing a paper on the challenges of teaching „digital natives‟ in the college classroom. I email a professor of Freshman Seminar to ask about her insights. She responds in her email that the greatest challenge to teaching digital natives is the constant distraction of social media. In my paper I write: “In an email with Prof. Warwick, she said that digital natives are distracted in the classroom from using social media.”Do I need to cite this like I would cite a published source?
Example #7: Personal CommunicationYes. All sources, published or not, should be cited in your paper but not in the bibliography.In an email with Prof. Denise Warwick, she said that digital natives are distracted in the classroom from using social media (personal communication, Nov. 20, 2012).
Summarizing What You Learned Any ideas that are not your own must be properly cited, even if the item is not published, has an expired or no copyright, or is listed as „public domain‟ Using three or more consecutive words from the original text must be enclosed in quotation marks Paraphrasing and summarizing someone else‟s work requires a citation Common knowledge and your own research and thoughts do not require a citation
Where Do I Go From Here? Consult the some trusted online writing centers: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ http://lib.trinity.edu/research/citing/APAelectronicsources.pdf Use the „References‟ tab in Microsoft Word to capture data about your books as you use them Try some FREE online citation generators, such as: www.easybib.com & www.eazypaper.com When in doubt about the ethical use of a source, ask your professor or librarian Adopt conscientious study and research habits Consult Davidson County Community College‟s Catalog: http://www.davidsonccc.edu/pdfs/catalog/Academics.pdf
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