Social structure is the framework of societal institutions (politics, and religion) and social practices (social roles) that make up a society and establish limits on behavior. Social interaction is the process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.
A status is socially defined position in society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties. Ascribed status ◦ Social position based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender. Achieved status ◦ Social position that a person assumes as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
A set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status learned in the socialization. Role Expectation ◦ A group or society‟s definition of the way a specific role ought to be played. Role Performance ◦ How a person actually plays a role. Role Conflict ◦ Occurs when incompatible demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time. Role Strain ◦ Occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that the person holds. Role Distancing Creating an appearance of distance or mentally distancing oneself from a particular role/status
Master status is the most important status that a person occupies. Examples: Being a member of a religious, racial, or sexual minority, homeless, gender Status symbols are material signs that inform others of a person‟s specific status. ◦ Example: Wearing a wedding ring proclaims that a person is married.
Many gay rights advocates would suggest thathomosexual orientation is an ascribed status(i.e. gays and lesbians were born that way).With what we know from Scripture, what kind ofstatus would Christians classify homosexualsas?
Statuses held by „Teresa‟, a 35 yr. old wife, mother, and full-time secretary Mother Secretary Wife Occasionally disputes Firm with children in Deferential to Boss husband, mostly setting boundaries agrees with him Send birthday and Proofs her boss‟s Cooks Meals holiday greetings on correspondences behalf of her husband Helps children with Takes minutes at staff Listens to husbands‟ Roles homework meetings gripes about his jobCorrespondingto her Various Serves as first point of Is sexually intimate Buys clothes for with husband at Statuses children contact for bosses‟ mutually-approved clients times
Status RoleRole Conflict Statuses in ConflictRole Strain Examples of conflicting rolesExample of a „Distressed‟ Status: within a Given Status
Applying Role Strain & Role ConflictHow might a pastor whose parishioner admits tocommitting a felony in a private counseling sessionexemplify the role strain of the clergy? How about roleconflict?
Role Exit Occupying Statuses, Playing Teresa becomes confused Roles about her role when they Socialization: Teresa learns what parenting move off to college, gets aTeresa learns to be a good is really like when she has pet to have something to mom and wife by playing her first child at 26, she dote on, and eventually with baby dolls as a child experience role conflict accepts a new identity as when juggling mothering the mother of increasingly with work autonomous children
A social groupconsists of two ormore people whointeractfrequently andshare a commonidentity and afeeling ofinterdependence.
Formal organizations-A highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals. OR Social institution-is a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.
Social Institutions Formal Organizations Family United Methodist Church Religion Bank of America Education Department of Labor Economy Goodwill Government CNN Mass Media* Pfizer Sports* Science* Military**Items with an asterisk are considered emerging institutions.
Social institutions, statuses and roles, and social groups form an interrelated whole of what sociologists call the social structure. EXAMPLE:A family provides a stable structureto raise children and sense of identityfor its members. It may consist of amother who cooks and cleans. What concepts do the highlightedwords in the example correspond to?
Social solidarity is based on social structure which is based on division of labor. Mechanical Solidarity - people are united by traditions and shared values. Organic Solidarity - people are united by mutual dependence on one another.
Sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies (1855– 1936) used the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft to characterize the degree of social solidarity and social control found in societies. Gemeinshcaft societies are bound by kinship and strong ties to communities, while Gesellschaft are based on impersonal and specialized relationships
How would we classify 21st century U.S. society according to Durkheim? Tonnies?How might the modern megachurch resemble Gesellschaft?
The process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience. This meaning strongly influences what we “see” and how we respond to situations.“If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” -W.I. Thomas
Definition of the situation - ◦ We analyze a social context in which we find ourselves, determine what is in our best interest, and adjust our attitudes and actions accordingly. Self-fulfilling prophecy ◦ A false belief or prediction that produces behavior that makes the original false belief come true. Examples: Housing Bubble of 2008, Y2K „crisis‟, MTV‟s „Punk‟d‟
Social Construction of Realityon MTV‟s Punk‟d Start at 1:15 How does Miley Cyrus define the situation? Does her subjective definition of what Justin Beiber does correspond to reality?
The study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation. We engage in „drama‟ on a daily basis. Members of our “audience” judge us and are aware that we may slip and reveal our true character. Impression management ◦ People‟s efforts to present themselves in ways that are favorable to their own interests or image. Face-saving behavior ◦ Strategies to rescue our performance when we experience a potential or actual loss of face.
Front Stage-Pulpit Back Stage-Parish Office Appearance-Clerical collar and black garb Manner-Solemn facial expression when administering the Eucharist
Matthew 6: ◦ Jesus rebukes the Pharisees for praying, fasting, and doing acts of charity in public view Luke 22:25-26 :“Jesus said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them; and those who exercise authority over them call themselves Benefactors. But you are not to be like that. Instead, the greatest among you should be like the youngest, and the one who rules like the one who serves”The Gentile kings engaged in impression management-they wanted to viewed as „in touch‟ with people, though they wanted to control them