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Sex and GenderGS: 138: Introduction to SociologySeth Allen                           1
Questions for You…• How are issues of gender “socially  constructed” in society?• How do social institutions such as the f...
Chapter Outline• Sex: The Biological Dimension• Gender: The Cultural Dimension• Gender Stratification in Historical and  C...
Sex and Gender• Sex refers to the biological differences between females and  males.• Gender refers to the culturally and ...
Gender: The Cultural Dimension• Most “sex differences” are socially  constructed gender differences.• Gender is embedded i...
Sex Characteristics• At birth, male and female infants are  distinguished by primary sex  characteristics: the genitalia u...
Hermaphrodites• Caused by a hormone imbalance, a  hermaphrodite has a combination of male  and female genitalia.• Western ...
Sexual Orientation•Alfred Kinsey (1948) was the first to perform large-scale study of sexuality.Some highlights of this st...
Homosexuality vs. Queer BehaviorSociologists distinguish between a homosexual identity,  which has been taboo until recent...
Sexual Orientation• An individual‟s preference for emotional–sexual  relationships with members of the opposite sex  (hete...
Gender Socialization• The process of learning to be male or female.• Gender Scripts: The social expectations of  gender as...
Learning Gender…Early• The family introduces the child to an expectation of  gender. Toys play a vital role in this proces...
Parents and Gender Socialization• Childrens clothing and toys reflect their  parents gender expectations.• Children are of...
Parents and Gender Socialization     in Johnny Cash Song                                   14
Schools and Gender Socialization• Teachers provide messages about gender  through classroom assignments and  informal inte...
Mass Media and Gender                     SocializationMen are portrayed in mass media (even in 2012) as more  productive ...
Gender Socialization at Work• Feminist scholars suggest that the modern workplace  dismisses the double burden of working ...
Gendered Division of LaborThree factors:• Type of subsistence base.• Supply of and demand for labor.• The extent to which ...
Strength Explanations      • Ability to mobilize strength in quick        bursts of energy      • Matches most task done b...
Compatibility-with-Child Care Explanations                 •   Women handle tasks compatible with                     chil...
Male Expenditure Explanations   • Men usually engage in dangerous     work (or warfare)   • Loss of men less disadvantageo...
The Human Capital Model• According to this model, individuals vary in  the amount of human capital they bring to  the labo...
Sociological Trivia• Do you think that gender equality?a. Has generally improved over time (since   the beginning of human...
Sociological Trivia• C is the correct answer, gender inequality  has gradually increased over time and  only recently decr...
Hunting and Gathering Societies                         Hunting   Economic                     game, gathering Characteris...
Horticultural and Pastoral Societies                      Planting crops,   Economic                     domestication of ...
Agrarian Societies  Economic          Labor-intensiveCharacteristics        farming  Control of       Men who own land   S...
Industrial Societies  Economic            MechanizedCharacteristics    production of goods  Control of       Men who own m...
Postindustrial Societies  Economic          Information andCharacteristics     service economy                        Corp...
% of Women and Men in Selected                     Occupations        Table11.3.Gender Segregation in the Workplace for Se...
The Wage Gap – By Occupation                               31
The Wag Gap – By State                         32
Views of Division of Labor by Gender     Theory                         View                  Women’s roles as caregivers ...
Future of Gender Relations in U.S.• If current trends persist (women working outside  home, less breadwinner jobs), the br...
Bureau of Labor Stats. ProjectionsFastest growing occupations according to BLS, with  2020 estimates                      ...
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    1. 1. Sex and GenderGS: 138: Introduction to SociologySeth Allen 1
    2. 2. Questions for You…• How are issues of gender “socially constructed” in society?• How do social institutions such as the family, the peer group, educational institutions and the media facilitate social expectations of gender?• Is there evidence that gender role socialization is becoming more “gender neutral?” 2
    3. 3. Chapter Outline• Sex: The Biological Dimension• Gender: The Cultural Dimension• Gender Stratification in Historical and Contemporary Perspective• Gender and Socialization• Contemporary Gender Inequality• Perspectives on Gender Stratification• Gender Issues in the Future 3
    4. 4. Sex and Gender• Sex refers to the biological differences between females and males.• Gender refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males.• The organization and social structures within society significantly impact how power, property and prestige are distributed based on gender.• Women make up the world‟s largest minority population as women, collectively, do not have the same degrees of power, property and prestige as men world wide. 4
    5. 5. Gender: The Cultural Dimension• Most “sex differences” are socially constructed gender differences.• Gender is embedded in the images, ideas, and language of a society.• Gender is used as a means to divide up work, allocate resources, and distribute power. 5
    6. 6. Sex Characteristics• At birth, male and female infants are distinguished by primary sex characteristics: the genitalia used in the reproductive process.• At puberty, an increased production of hormones results in the development of secondary sex characteristics: physical traits that identify an individual‟s sex. 6
    7. 7. Hermaphrodites• Caused by a hormone imbalance, a hermaphrodite has a combination of male and female genitalia.• Western societies acknowledge two sexes, other societies recognize three: – Men – Women – Berdaches - males who behave, dress, work, 7 and are treated as women.
    8. 8. Sexual Orientation•Alfred Kinsey (1948) was the first to perform large-scale study of sexuality.Some highlights of this study included: •1/3 of American men have had a homosexual encounter •Sexuality exists on a continuum Eve Kosofky Sedwick later distinguished between „homosexual‟ and homosocial behavior, an idea that remains pertinent for sociologists. 8
    9. 9. Homosexuality vs. Queer BehaviorSociologists distinguish between a homosexual identity, which has been taboo until recently and queer behavior, which has been sanctioned in certain circumstances/contexts.Sociologists would ask why homosexuality is so abhorrent while queer acts constitute good,clean fun. 9
    10. 10. Sexual Orientation• An individual‟s preference for emotional–sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).Prevalence of Homosexuality in the United States (1994) University of Chicago study Activity, attraction, or identity Men (%) Women (%) Find same-sex sexual 4.5 5.6 relations appealing Attracted to people of same 6.2 4.4 sex Identify as gay or bisexual 2.8 1.4 At least one sex partner of same sex during past year 2.7 1.3 among those sexually active At least one sex partner of 10 4.9 4.1 same sex since turning 18
    11. 11. Gender Socialization• The process of learning to be male or female.• Gender Scripts: The social expectations of gender assigned to males and females. 11
    12. 12. Learning Gender…Early• The family introduces the child to an expectation of gender. Toys play a vital role in this process of gender socialization. 12
    13. 13. Parents and Gender Socialization• Childrens clothing and toys reflect their parents gender expectations.• Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender. 13
    14. 14. Parents and Gender Socialization in Johnny Cash Song 14
    15. 15. Schools and Gender Socialization• Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students.• Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender over the other. – Example: Sadlers’ research on teachers’ attention toward male and female students 15
    16. 16. Mass Media and Gender SocializationMen are portrayed in mass media (even in 2012) as more productive and assertive. Ads display idealized gender roles.The Big Bang Theory is a sitcom about a bunch of nerdsand their regular neighbor, Penny. Though they are notmacho, their actions provide fuel for entertainment. Howmight this show reinforce gender stereotypes? The women in this ad are young, slender and are portrayed as sexual vixens because the young man 16 wears Tag body spray.
    17. 17. Gender Socialization at Work• Feminist scholars suggest that the modern workplace dismisses the double burden of working women who must balance child care and full-time work• Women are more likely to be „mommy-tracked‟- penalized for leaving the workforce to give birth and expected to leave the workforce when the dual income family model becomes unsustainable Arlie Hochschild (1988) documented double-shift to explain the second shift that working mothers perform. 17
    18. 18. Gendered Division of LaborThree factors:• Type of subsistence base.• Supply of and demand for labor.• The extent to which womens child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work. 18
    19. 19. Strength Explanations • Ability to mobilize strength in quick bursts of energy • Matches most task done by males (slash and burn) • However, women handle tasks involving heavy labor (!Kung) • Fishing (Yahgan) • Herd large animals (Maasai) • Clear land • Carry heavy loads while cultivating (Nepal) 19
    20. 20. Compatibility-with-Child Care Explanations • Women handle tasks compatible with child care (especially at breast- feeding) • Tasks are interruptible to tend to child • Tasks do not take them away for long • Tasks do not place children in danger • However, main marketers are women, who spend long time away from home (below) • Child care is often exchanged with others 20
    21. 21. Male Expenditure Explanations • Men usually engage in dangerous work (or warfare) • Loss of men less disadvantageous to society‟s survival • Than loss of women, who have reproductive power • Shortcomings: Women also take on dangerous tasks • Atga (Philippines): Women hunt (lower left) • Yahgan: fish in rough seas 21
    22. 22. The Human Capital Model• According to this model, individuals vary in the amount of human capital they bring to the labor market.• Human capital is acquired by education and job training; it is the source of a person‟s productivity and can be measured in terms of the return on the investment (wages) and the cost (schooling or training) . 22
    23. 23. Sociological Trivia• Do you think that gender equality?a. Has generally improved over time (since the beginning of human history)b. stayed the samec. has gone through intervals of equality and inequality 23
    24. 24. Sociological Trivia• C is the correct answer, gender inequality has gradually increased over time and only recently decreased. Gender Inequality Over Time 4 Hunting and Gathering 3.5 Societies 3 Horticultural & Pastoral Socieites 2.5 Agrarian Societies 2 Industrial Socieites 1.5 1 Post-Industrial Societies 0.5 0 1 24
    25. 25. Hunting and Gathering Societies Hunting Economic game, gathering Characteristics roots and berriesControl of Surplus None Inheritance None Control over None Procreation Women’s Status Relative Equality 25
    26. 26. Horticultural and Pastoral Societies Planting crops, Economic domestication of Characteristics animals for food Men begin toControl of Surplus control societies Shared— Inheritance patrilineal and matrilineal Control over Increasingly by Procreation men Decreasing in Women’s Status move to pastoralism 26
    27. 27. Agrarian Societies Economic Labor-intensiveCharacteristics farming Control of Men who own land Surplus or herds Inheritance Patrilineal Control over Men—to ensure Procreation legitimacy of heirs Women’s Low Status 27
    28. 28. Industrial Societies Economic MechanizedCharacteristics production of goods Control of Men who own means Surplus of production Inheritance Bilateral Control over Men—but less so in Procreation later stages Women’s Status Low 28
    29. 29. Postindustrial Societies Economic Information andCharacteristics service economy Corporate Control of shareholders and Surplus high-tech entrepreneurs Inheritance Bilateral Control over Mixed Procreation Women’s Varies by class, race, Status and age 29
    30. 30. % of Women and Men in Selected Occupations Table11.3.Gender Segregation in the Workplace for Selected Occupations, 2007Occupation Female workers (%) Male workers (%)Dental hygienists 99.2 0.8Speech-language pathologists 98.0 2.0Preschool and kindergarten 97.3 2.7teachersSecretaries and administrative 96.7 3.3assistantsRegistered nurses 91.7 9.3Food servers (waiters/waitresses) 74.0 26.0Lawyers 32.6 67.4Physicians 30.0 70.0Dentists 28.2 71.8Computer software engineers 20.8 79.2Carpenters 1.9 98.1Electricians 1.7 98.3 30
    31. 31. The Wage Gap – By Occupation 31
    32. 32. The Wag Gap – By State 32
    33. 33. Views of Division of Labor by Gender Theory View Women’s roles as caregivers are crucial in Functionalism ensuring that societal tasks are fulfilled. Division of labor within families and the Conflict workplace results from male control and dominance over women and resources. Feminist Social norms, roles, and institutions ‘stack Approaches the deck’ in favor of male domination. 33
    34. 34. Future of Gender Relations in U.S.• If current trends persist (women working outside home, less breadwinner jobs), the breadwinner- homemaker model will become completely obsolete• Women perform 4 times as much household labor as men, down from 23 times in 1965• Women make up 17% of Congress, 25% of state legislatures• Women are gaining more prominent positions in evangelical churches• Largest areas of job growth will be in „female‟ occupations (See next slide) 34
    35. 35. Bureau of Labor Stats. ProjectionsFastest growing occupations according to BLS, with 2020 estimates 35
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