History and theory part1


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History and theory part1

  1. 1. + Introduction to Architecture ARCHITECTURE FROM TIME TO TIME
  2. 2. + 1. What is “history”? What is “theory”?
  3. 3. Theory History what is the difference? istoria (grk) :learning with asking chronological/causal questions 1: the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another 2 : abstract thought aristoteles : systematic analysis about some natural phenomenon 3 : the general or abstract principles of a body of fact, a science, or an art Source: Meriam Webster Dictionary Online
  4. 4. 2. + What is “the aim” of learning history and theory ?
  5. 5. KNOWING what has happened what is happening what should happen + SCIENTIFICALLY Man learn about his(her)-self for the better process of being and to be..
  6. 6. + Studying architectural history relates to our need to understand the present. … for it is only by studying the past that we can hope to understand how we have arrived
  7. 7. How to look at history ??? as a Closed Text or as an Open Text ? History always taking sides, depend on the writers / theoritician History is always freehave to be re-
  8. 8. + The search for shelter: The primitive hut Man wants to make himself a dwelling that protects but does not bury him… Let us look at man in his primitive state without any aid or guidance other than his natural instincts. He is in need of a place to rest. AbbeLaugier’sEssay surl’architecture, 1755
  9. 9. + The discovery of creating shelter Drawing from Viollet le Duc’sDictionnaireraisonne de l’architecture, 1856
  10. 10. + Architecture One of the early architectural developments was the use of the “post-and-lintel” method
  11. 11. + Milestone of Architectural History
  12. 12. ModernA Before + Modern depend on history rchitect..as a Milestone cut off from history After Modern cut off from history back to history
  13. 13. 500 AD Small Tribal Groups (10.000 BC- 200 AD) 1000 AD Tradingslink India – China (200-600) Tarumanegara (358-669) 1500 AD Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 – ke-13) Majapahit (1293-1500) 2000 AD Mataram (1500-1700) Portugis (1512-1800) VOC (1600 -1800) Belanda (1800-1942) Jepang (1942-1945) Independence (1945-…)
  14. 14. + ARCHITECTURE Autobiography of the human race
  15. 15. + Pre Historic architecture
  16. 16. + Neolithic Architecture  Also known as “Stone-Age” architecture contains some of the oldest known structures made by mankind.  Distinguishable by Paleolithic and Mesolithic making and use of stone tools.  Neolithic cultures have been shown to have existed in southwest Asia as early as 8000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.  The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific region remained at the Neolithic level up until the time of European contact.
  17. 17. + Neolithic Architecture  Neolithic Architects were great builders who used mainly mudbrick to construct houses and villages.  Houses were plastered and painted with ancient scenes of humans and animals.  Many of the more famous Neolithic structures were remarkably made by enormous stones.
  18. 18. + Egyptian Architecture  Due to lack of wood most Egyptian architecture was made with mud-brick and stone.  Minerals included sandstone, limestone, and granite, which were generally used for tombs and temples.  Most ancient Egyptian towns have been lost because they were situated in the cultivated and flooded area of the Nile Valley.
  19. 19. 2500 B.C. 1500 B.C.
  20. 20. + Pyramids PERMANENCE and IMMORTALITY
  21. 21. + Egyptian Architecture  Temples and tombs have survived:  Built on ground unaffected by the Nile flood  Constructed of stone.  Egyptian architecture is based mainly on its religious monuments such as Pyramids.  All monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns.
  22. 22. + 800 AD
  23. 23. +
  24. 24. Parthenon, Greece, Post & Lintel
  25. 25. Function as temple for the Gods, Sculptural Form, Rectangular
  26. 26. + Architecture the art or science of building; specifically: the art or practice of designing and building structures and especially habitable ones Or as Vitruvius said: Architecture was a building that incorporated.. Utilitas – Firmitas – Venustas Commodity – Firmness - Delight
  27. 27. + The architect Architekton – master builder
  28. 28. + Architectur e Ancient Greek “Orders” (styles): composed of a shaft, capital, and base.
  29. 29. + Greek Architecture Entablature: the top of an order; includes the architrave, frieze, and cornice. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/architecture/entablature.html
  30. 30. + Roman Architecture Other key developments include the arch, http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm
  31. 31. And the vault
  32. 32. + Pantheon And the dome
  33. 33. + The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is often made up of small stones called voussoir and a large central stone called a keystone.
  34. 34. A series of columns is called a colonnade. A series of arches is called an arcade.
  35. 35. + The arch, vault, and dome are variations of the same concept that allowed for greater height and more space inside a building.
  36. 36. Gladiator, Rome
  37. 37. + Roman Architecture  Romans built more kinds of structures than any earlier civilization.  In addition to houses, temples, and palaces, Romans constructed aqueducts, public baths, shops, theaters, and outdoor arenas.
  38. 38. +
  39. 39. + Gothic Architecture  Mainly flourished in western Europe from the 1100’s to 1400’s.  New systems of construction allowed for architects to design churches with thinner walls and lighter piers.  Piers extended several stories high and into the roof area making individual columns like ribs on an open umbrella.  Ribbed vaults are most distinguishable characteristic of Gothic architecture.
  40. 40. + 1140-1500
  41. 41. + Gothic Architecture  Other styles included pointed arches, stained-glass windows, flying buttresses.  Flying buttresses were brick or stone arched supports built along outside walls.  Emphasizes vertically and a skeletal stone structure.  Pointed arch was introduced for both visual and structural reasons. Channels weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle.  Gothic cathedrals could be highly decorated with statues and paintings.
  42. 42. +
  43. 43. +
  44. 44. + 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 2000 AD Small Tribal Groups (10.000 BC- 200 AD) Tradingslink India – China (200-600) Tarumanegara (358-669) Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 – ke-13) Majapahit (1293-1500) Mataram (1500-1700) Portugis (1512-1800) VOC (1600 -1800) Belanda (1800-1942) Jepang (1942-1945) Independence (1945-…) 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 2000 AD
  45. 45. + De Re Aedificatoria remained the classic treatise on architecture from the 16th until the 18th century. Leon Battista Alberti 1443 De re aedificatoria (English: On the Art of Building) a concise version of sociology of architecture and tells architect how buildings should be built, not how they were built.
  46. 46. + Renaissance Architecture  Beginning between the early 15th and the early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe.  The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts  Orderly arrangement of arches, niches replaced the more complex proportional view of medieval buildings.  Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical, planned appearance.
  47. 47. + Renaissance Architecture  Facades (front of building) are symmetrical around their vertical axis.  The columns and windows show a progression towards the center.  Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice.  Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch.  Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated.
  48. 48. +
  49. 49. +
  50. 50. + St. Peter’s
  51. 51. Pazzi Chapel
  52. 52. Golden Section Leonardo da Vinci
  53. 53. Brunelleschi, Santa Maria Del Fiore, Florence RENAISSANCE (1420-1600)
  54. 54. Next episode
  55. 55. Louis XIV
  56. 56. Rational Effective Efficient Standard Mass Production
  57. 57. to be continued