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Reading critically
 

Reading critically

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    Reading critically Reading critically Presentation Transcript

    • READING CRITICALLY
    • Research literacy  pose … answerable question(s) about education  know where and how to find evidence systematically and comprehensively …  retrieve and read such evidence competently and undertake critical appraisal and analysis of that evidence according to agreed professional and scientific standards  organise and grade the power of this evidence and  determine its relevance to their educational needs and environments (Davies, 1999)
    • Educational Literacy  reading educational texts in a critical way allows the reader to reposition themselves in relation to arguments and policy prescriptions in ways not intended by the writers  the reader is able to understand educational texts as constructed and ideologically laden and is not imprisoned by their discursive structures  the reader has the capacity to resist and transcend the messages which inform and structure educational texts (Scott, 2000)
    • Dimensions of Critical Thinking  identifying and challenging assumptions: about taken- for-granted notions and understandings, habitual patterns of behaviours  challenging the importance of context  imagining and exploring alternatives  developing reflective scepticism (Brookfield, 1987)
    • 5 Types of Knowledge know about problems: for example, the current policy efforts directed at social inclusion reflect a considerable knowledge base on health, wealth and social inequalities; know what works: i.e. what policies, strategies or specific interventions will bring about desired outcomes; know how to put into practice: knowing what should be done is not the same thing as being able to do it effectively; know how to involve: such knowledge covers estimates of client needs as well as information on key stakeholders necessary for potential solutions; know why: knowledge about why action is required, e.g. relationship to values (Nutley et al., 2002)
    • Textual rulestexts are temporally framed (time)texts are produced with specific audiences in minddifferent types of text have different purposesdifferent types of text are underpinned by different ideological frameworksdifferent types of text adopt different attitudes towards the dimension of placedifferent types of text use different media to put across their messages
    • different types of text may refer to other texts or not and may refer to them in different ways (intertextuality)different types of text have histories which influence how they can be readtexts are underpinned by discursive types of knowledgetexts are produced with different types of resourcestexts are characterised by contingency (Scott, 2000)
    • Judging Researchcredibility: adequate construction of realitytransferability: conclusions reached relate usefully to settings other than those under investigation, particularly the one the reader is involved independability/credibilityconfirmability: is the analysis grounded in the data? Are inferences logical? (Guba and Lincoln, 1985)
    • Discourse Analysis ToolsTool DescriptionDeixis What assumptions are being made about what readers already knowFill in Based on contextual information available, what needs to be filled in to achieve clarity?Making Strange What would a reader find unclear, confusing, worth questioning?Subject Why has the writer chosen the topic and why are they saying what they are saying about it?Intonation What did the writer make particularly salient? What did the writer background?Frame Problem Are there any additional context factors which would change the analysis?Doing and Not What is the writer trying to achieve with what s/he is saying?Just Saying
    • Tool DescriptionVocabulary How is style (register) used?Why this Way How else could points have been made? How are words andand not that Way grammatical devices used? (eg passive voice)Identities and What socially recognizable identity or identities and social goods isPolitics Building the writer trying to enact?Cohesion How are pieces of information connected?Situated What situated meaning to certain words and phrases have?MeaningIntertextuality What references are made to other texts and what types of other text?The Big ‘D’ What discourse is the text part of?Discourse (Gee, 2011)