HVAC Basic Concepts of Air Conditioning

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Learn the basics about Air Conditioning from this detailed presentation.

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  • 100% Job Oriented HVAC, ELECTRICAL, PLUMBING, FIRE FIGHTING, IBMS, Auto CAD MEP, Revit MEP Training Institute in AP's new Capital AMARAVATI by 40 Years Industry experienced Engineers. Please visit www.mepguru.in or call us on +91 7674003482 or drop a mail at mepgurus@gmail.com
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  • professional presentation, fantastic slides
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  • fantastic slides with simple language. More sketches could've been added.
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  • This is a so so good presentation about HVAC. It may required to add about working principle and chiller equipment .
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  • professional presentation
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HVAC Basic Concepts of Air Conditioning

  1. 1. Basic Concepts of Air Conditioning Prepared exclusively for COACH LEATHERWARE
  2. 2. PanelModerator:Bob KeingsteinBoss Facilities Services631-361-7430bobk@bossfacilityservices.com Slide 1
  3. 3. COIL COOL AIR HEATSOURCE OF COOL AIR • COIL • Slide 3
  4. 4. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM S.A. DUCTCOIL COOL AIR HEAT S.A. FAN Slide 4
  5. 5. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINALCOIL COOL AIR HEAT S.A. FAN Slide 5
  6. 6. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL COOL WARM AIRCOIL AIR HEAT S.A. FAN Slide 6
  7. 7. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINALCOIL COOL AIR HEAT S.A. FAN Slide 7
  8. 8. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL COIL COOL AIR HEAT S.A. FAN Slide 8
  9. 9. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER FILTER Slide 9
  10. 10. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM E.A.EXHAUST DAMPER AIR R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER FILTER Slide 10
  11. 11. Economizer• Provides cooling to space when outdoor air temperatures are below 55 degrees• Switches over automatically from mechanical cooling• Adjusts R.A. and F.A. dampers to maintain space temp• May incorporate enthalpy control• Mandatory in some states based on unit capacity Slide 11
  12. 12. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM E.A.EXHAUST DAMPER AIR R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER WATER PIPING FILTER CHILLED WATER WATER PUMP CHILLER Slide 12
  13. 13. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM E.A.EXHAUST DAMPER AIR R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER WATER PIPING FILTER HEAT COOLING TOWER CHILLED WATER WATER PUMP CHILLER CONDENSER PUMP Slide 13
  14. 14. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM E.A.EXHAUST DAMPER AIR R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER WATER PIPING FILTER HEAT BOILER COOLING TOWER CHILLED WATER WATER PUMP CHILLER CONDENSER PUMP Slide 14
  15. 15. Equipment Types• ROOFTOP PACKAGE UNIT• SPLIT SYSTEM• CHILLED WATER AIR HANDLER• VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV)• AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP• Life expectancy 10 to 12 yrs for rooftop and split systems• Expect increase in repair costs as equipment ages• Typically largest expense to operation of store, energy/repair costs• Repair or Replace? Slide 15
  16. 16. Single Package Roof Top Unit•Most common•Entire hvac system islocated on mall roof•Most common to haveroof leaks from roof curb,condensate overflow orroof punctures Slide 16
  17. 17. Single Package Roof Top Unit HEAT COMP CONDR ELECTRIC COIL HEATERO.A. FANE.A. S.A. DUCT S.A. R.A. DUCT TERMINAL HEAT Slide 17
  18. 18. Single Package Roof Top Unit• Rooftop package unit• Mounted on adaptor curb• Power exhaust and economizer installed Slide 18
  19. 19. Split System• HVAC system split into 2 pieces• Condensing unit located on roof (houses compressor, condenser coil, condenser fan motor)• Air handler located in space above ceiling (houses blower assembly, evap coil, air filters)• Connected electrically and with refrigerant piping• Most prone to refrigerant leaks especially if long distance between components• Many times refrigerant lines are buried in construction and inaccessible Slide 19
  20. 20. SPLIT SYSTEM CONDENSING UNIT HEAT REFRIGERANT C LINES C O O N M AIR P D R AIR HANDLING UNIT COILO.A. POSSIBLE FAN ELECTRIC HEATE.A. S.A. DUCT R.A. DUCT HEAT OPTIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY HEATING SYSTEM Slide 20
  21. 21. SPLIT SYSTEM Slide 21
  22. 22. Split System• Air cooled condensing unit• Compressor, condenser coil and condenser fans• Connected to indoor air handler Slide 22
  23. 23. VAV BOX•Consists of VAV terminal Variable Air Volumebox located in the spaceabove ceiling•May have supplementalblower motor for positiveairflow to space•May have air filtration•Has a damper inside thatopens and closes on demandfrom thermostat to allowmore or less airflow tospace Slide 23
  24. 24. Major System Components• Compressor• Condenser coil• Evaporator coil• Condenser fan motor• Evaporator fan motor• Thermostatic expansion valve• Evaporator blower assembly• Economizers (Optional) Slide 24
  25. 25. HEAT REJECTION 95F DB (“HIGH TEMPERATURE”) 78F DB HEAT 95F 105F CONDENSER CONDITIONED SPACE 85F COOLING TOWER COMPRESSOR95F 55F 75F 35F COOLER 45F REFRIGERATION MACHINE HEAT GATHERING (REFRIGERATION CYCLE) (“LOW TEMPERATURE”) Slide 25
  26. 26. Compressor• This component is the heart of the system..• Pumps refrigerant and oil throughout system• Separates the high pressure side of the system from the low pressure side• If compressor fails, no cooling is possible Slide 26
  27. 27. Condenser• Condenser coil is what gets rid of the heat in the system• Can be water or air cooled, however most are air cooled in retail application• Located outdoors (air cooled)• Fins on coil are subject to corrosion in salt water environment. Special coatings can be applied.• Fins are subject to damage from hail• Traps dirt and requires periodic cleanings Slide 27
  28. 28. Evaporator Coil• Provides cold air to the space• Located after the system air filters• Return air is blown over the coil and chilled• Removes moisture from air (condensate)• Traps dirt that gets past air filters, reducing cooling capacity (95% is bacterial)• Requires periodic chemical cleaning Slide 28
  29. 29. Evaporator Fan Motor• Located behind condenser coil• Draws ambient air across condenser coil• System may have up to 4 or more motors based on system capacity• Motors are direct drive with fan blades attached• Requires little if any maintenance (sealed bearings) Slide 29
  30. 30. TXV Thermal Expansion Valve• Located at the evaporator coil• Provides the correct amount of refrigerant to the evaporator coil for proper cooling• Separates the high pressure side of the system from the low pressure side• Failure could cause compressor failure and loss of system cooling capacity• Frequently overlooked in diagnosing system problems• Requires manual setting of superheat for proper operation. Slide 30
  31. 31. Evaporator Blower Assembly• Consists of:• Blower motor• Pulleys and fan belts• Bearings• Fan shaft• Fan wheels• Housings• Can be located indoors or outdoors Slide 31
  32. 32. Control Types• CONVENTIONAL THERMOSTAT• DIGITAL PROGRAMMABLE THERMOSTAT• PNEUMATIC• LCD SYSTEM• MALL INTERFACE Slide 32
  33. 33. Low Ambient Controls• Low ambient controls• May be added to air cooled systems that must operate when outdoor temperatures are below 55 degrees• Cycles condenser fan/s to maintain correct system pressures• Used when economizer is not present• Much less costly to install• Much more costly to operate Slide 33
  34. 34. Conventional Thermostat• Completely manual operation• Will maintain a single heat or cool setting• System must be switched from heat to cool• No energy savings• Will allow system to operate all night while store is closed wasting energy• Easy to tamper with• Least expensive to install Slide 34
  35. 35. Programmable Thermostat• Provides auto changeover from heat to cool• Provides up to 4 heat/cool settings per 24 hour period• Can provide different weekend settings• Keyboard can be locked out• Set it and forget it Slide 35
  36. 36. Pneumatic Thermostat• Uses air provided by mall to operate thermostat• Very commonly used with VAV systems• Least commonly found in malls• Parts are fairly expensive Slide 36
  37. 37. LCD Thermostat• Used in newer stores• Programmable type• Can be dialed into by monitoring company for data Slide 37
  38. 38. Rules Of Thumb1HP = 1KW = 1KVA 1KW = 3413 BTU1 Ton Cooling = 12,000 BTU 1 Ton = 400 CFMRetail = 380 SQ FT/ Ton coolingDelta T = 18 F across coil cooling Delta T = 25 F for heating CFM = Building Volume in Cubic Feet Minute/Air Change Delta T = Difference between entering and leaving DB = ΔT Slide 39
  39. 39. Servpro of Great Neck / Port Washington For Further Information Please Contact Us: 516-767-9600 ServproOfGreatNeck.com Slide 40

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