Homework defense
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  • The literacy rates among fourth grade students in America are sobering. In a recent report by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, one out of three students scored "below basic" on the 2009 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) Reading Test. Among these low performing students, 49 percent come from low-income families. Even more alarming is the fact that more than 67 percent of all US fourth graders scored "below proficient," meaning they are not reading at grade level.http://www.studentsfirst.org/pages/the-stats
  • In the growing global marketplace, students will need to excel in both math and science to compete internationally as engineers, scientists, physicians, and creative entrepreneurs. Yet, in an assessment by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 15-year-olds in the U.S. placed 25th out of 30 countries in math performance and 21st in science performance.n April 2009, Education Week reported that average math and reading scores for 17-year-olds in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests have remained stagnant since the 1970s. And according to The Journal, fourth- and eighth-grade reading scores "have barely budged since 1992," despite policy and investment focused on improving overall student achievement. 
  • 1900 Bok- Ladies Home Journal- mentioned how homework is detrimental to a child’s healthA nation at risk- A Nation at Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform is the title of the 1983 report of American President Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education. Its publication is considered a landmark event in modern American educational history. Among other things, the report contributed to the ever-growing (and still present) sense that American schools are failing, and it touched off a wave of local, state, and federal reform efforts.No child left behind = requires states to develop assessments in basic skills. States must give these assessments to all students at select grade levels in order to receive federal school funding
  • KOHN = He explains that homework not only burdens children but parents as well
  • My action research project will be guided by these questions:
  • . They note economically challenged students whose home environment makes it difficult for them to complete assignments due to a lack of support. Thus, understanding the effects of homework can help teachers’ better address students’ challenges
  • a tool that helps young children to “develop good study habits, foster positive attitudes toward school, and communicate to students the idea that learning takes place at home and school” (Cooper, 1989. p.90). Additionally, homework is essential to honing in on independent study skills (Butler, 1987).
  • GILL AND = criticized those who advocate that homework is harmful and not beneficial for student’s learning. The authors commented on the amount of homework being assigned to students. They stated that other studies showed only a moderate amount of homework was being given. Additionally, they noted that not many parents object to homework.
  • ALLEMAN= PROVIDED teachers should assign homework that is meaningful: work that challenges students’ critical thinking skills, work that provides application of their acquired knowledge, or work that involves creating products. = 7 principles of what meaningful homework should be: connection of homework with the school community or environment; application of critical thinking skills by using real-world situations; involvement of parents; use of students’ background, ethnicity or culture as a resource; linkage to student’s personal situations, cost-effective projects; and use of up-to-date and easy-to-access resources.
  • there is a positive correlation between the amount of homework given and student achievement. Moreover, homework should match students’ interests, and thus, may help increase motivation resulting in increased achievement (Bempechat, 2004)
  • A longitudinal study with fifth grade students (Xu, M., Benson, S.N.K., Mudrey-Camino, R., & Steiner, R. P., 2010) indicated that homework fosters self-regulation skills. Homework allows students to practice self-regulatory behavior such as planning, organization, overcoming obstacles, persistence and staying on task. The study mentioned that students who complete their homework develop skills for academic work through practice making homework self-regulated learning.
  • One of the main problems with homework is not whether it benefits learning; the problem is in the implementation= Cooper
  • KOHN = He noted the lack of unity among researchers whether homework is beneficial to student learning
  • Paul (2011) questioned the effectiveness of homework in relation to advance learning. It is the quality, not the quantity that matters According to Paul’s survey of parents, 4 out of 10 parents polled believed that most of the homework given was merely busywork. The survey reported that homework given in science, history, and English did very little to increase the students’ test scores. BENNET= PROVIDED EVIDENCE THAT HOMEWORK HARMFUL TO CHILDS HEALTH AND TAKE AWAY FAMILY TIME and blamed teachers who were not trained properly on how to give homework
  • Schnurmacher (2012), a radio talk show host, complained that homework is forced labor. Homework has very little benefits, cause unnecessary stress for parents and childNelson (2007), a newspaper writer, interviewed the principal from the Street Prep School in Victorville, San Bernardino County who recently banned homework in 2006. The principal was persuaded in his decision by existing research and regular complaints from parents that teachers were giving too much homework. The principal believed that making the teacher act as coacheswould be more beneficial than giving homework when there is no coach at home to help the students. He noted that excellent teaching does not require hours of homework
  • Through their interviews they found that homework often disrupts family life. In their findings, they noted that almost 50% of parents reported arguing with their children over homework, and 34% reported homework as a source of stress and struggle (Kralovec & Buell, 2000). = stated that the effects of homework cannot be visibly seen in test scores. The authors decided to do a study by not giving homework to students. The students reported that the no homework policy improved their learning and removed a great deal of stress as well as enriched their cooperative learningThey noted that homework should be used to build cognitive skills and not a “drill-and-kill” task (Baker and Le Tendre, 2005)
  • Table 4 shows that the students with homework had a slightly higher mean score than the students who were not given homework for four out of the five quizzes. I ran an independent samples t-test to compare the students’ quiz scores for the two groups (no homework versus homework) to determine if the difference between the two sets of quiz scores was statistically significant. The independent variable was the homework status, and the dependent variable was the quiz scores. In analyzing the data, I set the alpha level of significance at .05 (α = .05). If the p-value is greater than or equal to .05, then the null hypothesis is retained. If the p-value is less than .05, then the null hypothesis is rejected. To run this test, I identified the null and the alternative hypothesis as follows: H01: There is no significant difference in the assessment results (quiz scores) between students who were given homework and students who were not given homework.HA1: There is a significant difference in the assessment results (quiz scores) between students who were given homework and students who were not given homework.

Transcript

  • 1. HOMEWORK DOES IT INCREASE STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT? By: Carmen Serrano Social Studies, JFK Teacher
  • 2. • FOR YEARS AMERICANS HAVE BEEN CONCERNED ABOUT FALLING BEHIND IN EDUCATION AND THEY MAY HAVE BEEN CORRECT IN DOING SO.
  • 3. • IN A RECENT REPORT BY THE ANNIE E. CASEY FOUNDATION, ONE OUT OF THREE STUDENTS SCORED "BELOW BASIC" ON THE 2009 NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATION PROGRESS (NAEP) READING TEST. EVEN MORE ALARMING IS THE FACT THAT MORE THAN 67 PERCENT OF ALL US FOURTH GRADERS SCORED "BELOW PROFICIENT,"
  • 4. • AMERICAN STUDENTS RANKED 25TH IN MATH, 17TH IN SCIENCE AND 14TH IN READING. • THE UNITED STATES PLACES 17TH IN THE DEVELOPED WORLD FOR EDUCATION, ACCORDING TO A GLOBAL REPORT BY EDUCATION FIRM PEARSON (2007).
  • 5. WHY HOMEWORK HAS BECOME SO CONTROVERSIAL? • SOVIET UNION LAUNCHED SPUTNIK CAUSED THE UNITED STATES TO FOCUS ON EDUCATION, ESPECIALLY IN THE AREAS OF SCIENCE AND MATH (NELSON 2007). • A NATION AT RISK WAS PUBLISHED, AND IT CRITICIZED UNITED STATES EDUCATION, CALLING IT MEDIOCRE (U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 1983). • NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND LEGISLATION WAS IMPLEMENTED TO SECURE ALL CHILDREN’S EDUCATION (PL 107110, 2001).
  • 6. • HOMEWORK HAS BECOME A COMMON AND WELL-KNOWN STUDENT DAILY ROUTINE (COOPER, ROBINSON, & PATALL, 2006).
  • 7. • DOES HOMEWORK REALLY HELP STUDENTS INCREASE THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE? • DO STUDIES SHOW A LINK BETWEEN HOMEWORK AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT? • THERE IS VERY LITTLE CORRELATION BETWEEN HOMEWORK AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT (COOPER, 2006). • KOHN (2006) ARGUES THAT NONE OF THE RESEARCH SHOWS A CONNECTION BETWEEN HOMEWORK AND INDEPENDENT THINKING. (KOHN, 2006).
  • 8. • SO WHY DO TEACHERS CONTINUE TO GIVE HOMEWORK?
  • 9. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY • COLLECTING HOMEWORK BECAME FRUSTRATING!!!! • IS HOMEWORK A MAJOR COMPONENT OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT? • AM I FAILING TO PROMOTE HIGH ACADEMIC STANDARDS BY NOT GIVING HOMEWORK? • WILL ASSIGNING HOMEWORK HELP THEM UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT BETTER? • IS MY IMPLEMENTATION OF HOMEWORK CORRECT? AM I ASSIGNING THE RIGHT WORK? • DOES HOMEWORK HELP INCREASE THEIR CRITICAL THINKING SKILL?
  • 10. • THE PURPOSE OF THIS ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT IS TO IMPROVE MY EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES AND DETERMINE IF USING HOMEWORK BENEFITS STUDENT LEARNING. • TO DETERMINE IF ASSESSMENT RESULTS ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT AMONG STUDENTS WHO WERE GIVEN HOMEWORK AND STUDENTS WHO WERE NOT GIVEN HOMEWORK. • THE POTENTIAL OF LEADING TO PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES ON HOMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION.
  • 11. RESEARCH QUESTION • 1. WHAT ARE THE STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING HOMEWORK? • 2. HOW DOES HOMEWORK IMPACT STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT?
  • 12. SIGNIFICANCE • THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS STUDY IS TO GAIN INSIGHT AS TO WHETHER HOMEWORK ACTUALLY HELPS INCREASE STUDENT LEARNING. • HOMEWORK CONTRIBUTES TO THE CORPORATE STYLE AND COMPETITIVE CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES (KRALOVEC AND BUELL, 2000)
  • 13. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF HOMEWORK? • BUTLER (1987) STATES THAT HOMEWORK SHOULD BE ACTIVITIES THAT REINFORCE LEARNING, PROVIDE PRACTICE, AND ALLOW STUDENTS TO APPLY NEW LEARNED SKILLS. • COOPER (2007) DEFINES HOMEWORK AS "TASKS ASSIGNED TO STUDENTS BY SCHOOL TEACHERS THAT ARE INTENDED TO BE CARRIED OUT DURING NON-SCHOOL HOURS” (P. 4). • HOMEWORK SHOULD BE FUN, AND RELATED TO LIFE SKILLS (KOHN, 2006) • HOMEWORK HELPS STUDENTS DEVELOP SELFDISCIPLINE, RESPONSIBILITY, AND GOOD HABITS AND ATTITUDES (PAULU, 1995).
  • 14. PERCEPTION OF HOMEWORK • MORE THAN 80% OF TEACHERS AND 77% OF STUDENTS AFFIRMED THAT HOMEWORK IS VERY IMPORTANT TO THEM; APPROXIMATELY 90% OF TEACHERS AND PARENTS AND 69% OF STUDENTS BELIEVED THAT HOMEWORK HELPED STUDENTS LEARN MORE IN SCHOOL (MARKOW, KIM, AND LIEBMAN 2007) • ONLY 10% OF PARENTS BELIEVED THAT THEIR CHILDREN HAD TOO MUCH, WHILE 25% BELIEVED THEY HAD TOO LITTLE, AND 64% OF PARENTS BELIEVED THEIR CHILDREN HAD ABOUT THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF HOMEWORK (GILL &
  • 15. LITERATURE REVIEW ADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK • HOMEWORK INCREASES LEARNING AND, THEREFORE, SHOULD BE CONTINUED AND MODIFIED FOR IMPROVEMENT WHEN NECESSARY (MARZANO & PICKERING, 2007). • • HOMEWORK ENHANCES CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION, CONNECTS FUTURE LESSONS, BOOSTS FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS, AND ADDS TO THE STUDENT’S INTEREST IN LEARNING (ALLEMAN, 2010).
  • 16. ADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK • STUDENTS REMEMBER ONLY 50% OF THE INFORMATION. THUS, HOMEWORK WILL REINFORCE OR HELP STUDENTS APPLY THAT INFORMATION (KURUTS, 2006). • THERE IS A POSITIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF HOMEWORK GIVEN AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. (BEMPECHAT, 2004) • SINCE 1962, OUT OF 20 STUDIES DONE, 14 ARE PRO-HOMEWORK ; OUT OF 50 STUDIES, 43 SHOWED STUDENTS WHO DID THEIR HOMEWORK IMPROVED IN THEIR ACHIEVEMENT (COOPER, 2000). • ALSO NOTED THAT STUDENTS WHO DO HOMEWORK WILL OUTPERFORM STUDENTS WHO DO NOT DO HOMEWORK BY 69% ON A STANDARDIZED TEST. COOPER (2000) • ALSO SHOWS THAT THE POSITIVE CORRELATION IS MUCH STRONGER FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS THAN ELEMENTARY STUDENTS (COOPER, 2006)
  • 17. • HOMEWORK COMPLETION SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCES STUDENT’S SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AND MOTIVATIONAL BELIEFS, AND THAT HOMEWORK IMPROVES STUDENTS’ SELF-EFFICACY AND INSTILLS RESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT (BEMBENUTTY, 2009) • HOMEWORK FOSTERS SELF-REGULATION SKILLS, IT ALLOWS STUDENTS TO PRACTICE BEHAVIOR SUCH AS PLANNING, ORGANIZATION, OVERCOMING OBSTACLES, PERSISTENCE AND STAYING ON TASK (XU, M., BENSON, S.N.K., MUDREY-CAMINO, R., & STEINER, R. P., 2010)
  • 18. • DUKE UNIVERSITY RESEARCHERS HAVE REVIEWED MORE THAN 60 RESEARCH STUDIES ON HOMEWORK BETWEEN 1987 AND 2003 AND CONCLUDED THAT HOMEWORK DOES HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. • DURHAM, N.C. 2013, DUKE UNIVERSITY
  • 19. LITERATURE REVIEW DISADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK • RECENTLY, HOMEWORK HAS BECOME “A SOURCE OF COMPLAINT AND FRICTION BETWEEN HOME AND SCHOOL MORE OFTEN THAN OTHER TEACHING ACTIVITIES” (COOPER, 2001 P. IX). • TEACHERS LACK THE SKILLS TO DESIGN HOMEWORK THAT ACTUALLY BENEFITS THE STUDENT’S LEARNING (COOPER, 2007). • REVIEW OF 60 STUDIES NOTED THAT TOO MUCH HOMEWORK MAY REDUCE THE EFFECT OF HOMEWORK OR MAY EVEN BECOME A HINDRANCE TO STUDENT LEARNING (COOPER, 2007)
  • 20. LITERATURE REVIEW DISADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK • IF THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN HOMEWORK AND ACHIEVEMENT, IT IS NOT SUFFICIENT ENOUGH TO JUSTIFY THAT CONCLUSION AND THAT SEVERAL FACTORS SURROUNDING HOMEWORK AND ACHIEVEMENT NEED TO BE CONSIDERED (KOHN, 2006) • HOMEWORK SEEMS TO BE TAKING OVER SOME OF THE TIME MEANT TO BE FOR SOCIALIZATION. (KOHN, 2006). • FOUND CONTRADICTING RESEARCH STUDIES—THAT SHOWED HOMEWORK DOES BENEFIT LEARNING WHILE OTHER RESEARCHERS ARGUED THAT IT DOES NOT
  • 21. DISADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK • 4 OUT OF 10 PARENTS POLLED BELIEVED THAT MOST OF THE HOMEWORK GIVEN WAS MERELY BUSYWORK (PAUL, 2011) • TOO MUCH HOMEWORK CAN BE HARMFUL TO A CHILD’S HEALTH AND FAMILY TIME (BENNET & KALISH 2006, P. 53). • CAUTIONED TEACHERS NOT TO GIVE TOO MUCH HOMEWORK BECAUSE THIS MAY DIMINISH ITS’ EFFECTIVENESS OR EVEN BECOME COUNTERPRODUCTIVE (COOPER, ROBINSON, AND PATALL, (2006) • HOMEWORK SHOULD NOT BE GIVEN TOO OFTEN, BUT WHEN IT IS GIVEN, THEN IT SHOULD BE REALISTIC IN LENGTH AND THE DIFFICULTY SHOULD BE BASED ON STUDENTS’ SKILL LEVEL.( GOOD AND BROPHY ,2003)
  • 22. • CLAIM THAT HOMEWORK CAN BE HARMFUL TO STUDENT’S WELL-BEING WHEN TEACHERS ARE NOT TRAINED IN HOW TO ASSIGN HOMEWORK. THE AUTHORS RECOMMEND REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF HOMEWORK GIVEN, DESIGNING MORE VALUABLE ASSIGNMENTS, AND AVOIDING GIVING HOMEWORK DURING HOLIDAYS OR BREAKS (BENNET AND KALISH, 2006)
  • 23. • HOMEWORK IS “FORCED LABOR.” TEACHERS SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO EVERYTHING INSIDE THE CLASSROOM (SCHNURMACHER, 2012). • PRINCIPAL BANNED HOMEWORK IN HIS SCHOOL AND NOTED THAT EXCELLENT TEACHING DOES NOT REQUIRED HOURS OF HOMEWORK (NELSON, 2007).
  • 24. • REPORTED THAT ONE QUARTER OF STUDENTS FINISH HOMEWORK ONLY SOMETIMES, RARELY, OR NEVER (MARKOW ET AL. (2007)
  • 25. • CONDUCTED A STUDY ON ALTERNATIVE HIGH SCHOOLS AND WERE AMAZED TO DISCOVER THAT HOMEWORK WAS ONE OF THE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS THAT CAUSED STUDENTS TO DROP OUT OF SCHOOL. (KRALOVEC AND BUELL’S, 2000) • SUGGEST THAT POLICYMAKERS SHOULD LOOK INTO THE QUALITY OF HOMEWORK BEING ASSIGNED IN ORDER TO MAKE HOMEWORK PRACTICES EFFECTIVE (BAKER AND LE TENDRE, 2005)
  • 26. • COOPER ET. AL., (2006) NOTE THAT SINCE HOMEWORK HAS BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES, A NEED FOR CONTINUED RESEARCH IS NECESSARY.
  • 27. METHODOLOGY • THIS STUDY TOOK PLACE AT A PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL. • BLOCK SCHEDULE FORMAT WITH ALTERNATING PERIODS EACH DAY. • STUDENTS ATTEND THREE 100-MINUTES CLASSES PER DAY. • THE PARTICIPANTS OF THIS STUDY WERE STUDENTS IN MY U.S. HISTORY CLASS (N = 90). • THE STUDENTS INCLUDED 44 MALES AND 46 FEMALES. • THEY REPRESENTED A VARIETY OF ETHNIC AND CULTURAL BACKGROUNDS • THE CLASSES CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY WAS CATEGORIZED AS CLASS A AND CLASS B. • CLASS A WAS NOT GIVEN HOMEWORK, AND CLASS B WAS GIVEN HOMEWORK. • THE STUDY WAS OVER A THREE WEEK PERIOD. • CONSENT FORMS WERE DISTRIBUTED FOR STUDENTS AND PARENTS TO SIGN. THE STUDENTS WHO RETURNED THE CONSENT FORMS WITH SIGNATURES WERE USED AS PART OF THE STUDY.
  • 28. INTERVENTION • THE SAME LESSONS WERE GIVEN TO BOTH GROUPS USING A POWERPOINT PRESENTATION • HOMEWORK WAS GIVEN TO GROUP B. • HOMEWORK WAS EXPLAINED, DIRECTIONS GIVEN, AND ONE OR TWO PROBLEMS FROM THE HOMEWORK WERE SOLVED IN CLASS AS A TAKE HOME SAMPLE MODEL. • HOMEWORK WAS ALWAYS DUE THE NEXT CLASS MEETING DAY AND WAS RETURNED ON THE SAME DAY OF THE QUIZ WITH COMMENTS AND FEEDBACK TO HELP THE STUDENTS UNDERSTAND THE MISTAKES THEY MADE. • HOMEWORK CONSISTED OF: (A) VOCABULARY, (B) SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS, (C) SIGNIFICANT EVENTS, AND (D) CRITICAL THINKING. • STUDENTS WERE TOLD THAT HOMEWORK WOULD BE GRADED, AND LATE POINTS WOULD BE DEDUCTED FOR EACH DAY THE HOMEWORK WAS LATE.
  • 29. INTERVENTION • FIVE QUIZZES WERE GIVEN TO BOTH GROUP A AND GROUP B. • QUIZZES TAKEN BY STUDENTS WHO DID NOT TURN IN THEIR HOMEWORK ON TIME WERE COLLECTED AS PART OF THE DATA BUT WERE RECORDED AND LABELED ACCORDINGLY. • QUIZ QUESTIONS CONSISTED OF: (A) VOCABULARY, (B) SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS, (C) SIGNIFICANT EVENTS, AND (D) CRITICAL THINKING.
  • 30. DATA COLLECTION • DATA COLLECTED WERE HOMEWORK COMPLETION, QUIZ SCORES AND SURVEY RESPONSES. • THE QUIZ AVERAGES WERE COMPARED BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS: STUDENTS WHO WERE GIVEN HOMEWORK VERSUS STUDENTS WHO WERE NOT GIVEN HOMEWORK. • HOMEWORK. STUDENTS’ HOMEWORK WAS COLLECTED, GRADED, AND THEN RECORDED. • A CHECKLIST WAS KEPT WHETHER THE STUDENTS COMPLETED THE ASSIGNMENTS. STUDENTS WHO DID NOT TURN IN HOMEWORK OR TURNED IT IN LATE WERE NOTED ACCORDINGLY. • QUIZ SCORES. QUIZZES WAS COLLECTED, GRADED, AND THEN RECORDED. • STUDENTS WHO TOOK QUIZZES BUT DID NOT TURN IN THEIR HOMEWORK WERE PROPERLY NOTED IN THE CHECKLIST.
  • 31. DATA COLLECTION • SURVEYS. UPON COMPLETION OF THE STUDY, THE STUDENTS COMPLETED A SURVEY. • ALL SURVEYS WERE COMPLETED ANONYMOUSLY. • STUDENTS WHO WERE ABSENT WERE NOT GIVEN MAKE UP DAY
  • 32. RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS 1. WHAT ARE THE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING HOMEWORK? • DATA WAS GATHERED USING A STUDENT PERCEPTION SURVEY CONSISTING OF 11 ITEMS GIVEN TO GROUP B (STUDENTS WHO WERE GIVEN HOMEWORK). • STUDENTS RESPONDED TO EACH ITEM USING A LIKERT SCALE RATING: 1 = STRONGLY DISAGREE, 2 = DISAGREE, 3 = AGREE SOMEWHAT, 4 = AGREE, AND 5 = STRONGLY AGREE.
  • 33. TABLE 1: STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF HOMEWORK (N = 63) Item M SD 1. I like homework. 2.34 1.2 0 2. I always do homework 2.98 .86 4 3. I always get help at home when doing my homework 2.84 1.3 2 4. I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework 3.67 1.2 6 5. I always feel unsure on how to do my homework 2.95 .99 9 6. I feel teachers give too much homework 3.58 1.1 0 7. I have an adult to help me at home with my homework 2.97 1.2 6 8. Homework helps me often to better understand what I learned in class 3.08 1.1 7
  • 34. HOMEWORK COMPLETION RATE Class Total HW # 1 HW # 2 HW # 3 HW # 4 HW #5 number particip ants 2nd Period 19 11 58% 11 58% 12 63% 4 21% 12 63% 4th Period 22 10 45% 8 36% 4 18% 12 55% 15 68% 6th Period 22 13 59% 9 41% 8 36% 12 55% 8 36%
  • 35. QUIZ AVERAGE Quiz #1 Group A No Homewor k N Mean SD Group B Homewor k N Mean SD Sig.(2tailed) Quiz #2 Quiz #3 Quiz #4 Quiz #5 50 13.76 5.34 54 12.28 4.86 60 13.80 5.31 54 13.96 4.59 49 13.84 4.32 34 12.41 4.34 28 13.43 4.14 24 14.42 5.24 32 14.94 4.63 35 14.11 3.69 .23 .29 .63 .35 .76
  • 36. DISCUSSIONS • THE RESULTS OF THIS ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT INDICATED THAT THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN STUDENTS WHO WERE GIVEN HOMEWORK AND STUDENTS WHO WERE NOT GIVEN HOMEWORK. • HOWEVER, KOHN (2006) SUGGESTS THAT EVEN IF THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN HOMEWORK AND ACHIEVEMENT, IT IS NOT SUFFICIENT ENOUGH TO JUSTIFY A QUICK CONCLUSION AND THAT SEVERAL FACTORS SURROUNDING HOMEWORK AND ACHIEVEMENT NEED TO BE CONSIDERED. • STUDENTS NOT TURNING IN HOMEWORK ON TIME WERE ONE OF THE BIGGEST FACTORS THAT AFFECTED THIS STUDY. • LIMITING MY COMPARISON BETWEEN THOSE WHO TURNED IN THEIR HOMEWORK AND THOSE WHO DID NOT. • FOR EXAMPLE, PERIOD 4 AND 6 HAD LESS THAN 50% OF STUDENTS WHO TURNED IN HOMEWORK FOR HOMEWORK #2 AND # 3. THE STUDENTS WHO WERE ASSIGNED HOMEWORK BUT DID NOT TURN IT IN ON TIME STILL HAD TO TAKE THE QUIZ, BUT THEIR QUIZ SCORES WERE NOT INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS FOR GROUP B. THEIR SCORES WERE, INSTEAD, RECORDED UNDER THOSE STUDENTS WHO WERE NOT GIVEN HOMEWORK, GIVING MY
  • 37. • STUDENT ATTENDANCE. • IF A STUDENT WAS ABSENT DURING THE QUIZ DAY, MY SAMPLE FOR THAT DAY DECREASED. • STUDENTS WHO WERE ABSENT WERE NOT ABLE TO TURN IN HOMEWORK • PRODUCING LESS RELIABLE DATA. • NOT FOLLOWING DIRECTION PROPERLY • FOR THE FIRST HOMEWORK, SOME STUDENTS DID NOT FOLLOW DIRECTIONS. • SOME STUDENTS TURNED IN HOMEWORK WITH INFORMATION FROM CHAPTER
  • 38. • TIME OF STUDY CONDUCTED • THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SCHOOL YEAR WHEN STUDENTS ARE STILL GETTING FAMILIAR WITH THEIR CLASSES. • CONSENT FORM • A NUMBER OF STUDENTS DID NOT TURN IN THEIR CONSENT FORM WITH PARENT SIGNATURE ON TIME • CAUSING MY DATA TO SHRINK; SPECIFICALLY MY 3RD PERIOD CLASS THAT ONLY HAD 9 OUT OF 30 STUDENT PARTICIPANTS
  • 39. • STUDENT PERCEPTION • 36 OUT OF 63 (OR 54%) STUDENTS WHO WERE ASSIGNED HOMEWORK STATED THAT THEY DID NOT LIKE DOING HOMEWORK. • THIS MAY CONFIRM TABLE 5 SHOWING AN AVERAGE OF ONLY 40% SUBMISSION OF HOMEWORK THROUGHOUT THE DURATION OF STUDY. • HOWEVER, SURVEY QUESTION TWO SHOWED THAT 49 (OR 78%) STUDENTS STATED THEY ALWAYS DO HOMEWORK. • STUDENTS MAY HAVE DONE THEIR HOMEWORK BUT MAY HAVE NOT TURNED IT IN ON TIME FOR SOME REASON OR HAVE TURNED IT IN INCOMPLETE. • 43 (OR 68%) OF THE STUDENTS WHO WERE UNSURE ON HOW TO DO THEIR HOMEWORK. • ONE OF THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL QUESTIONS ABOUT HOMEWORK IS THE AMOUNT GIVEN TO THE STUDENTS. ACCORDING TO THE SURVEY, 53 (OR 84%) STUDENTS THINK TEACHERS GIVE TOO MUCH HOMEWORK. • I FELT THIS MAY HAVE BEEN PARTLY TRUE SINCE DURING THE STUDY, I GAVE STUDENTS FIVE CONSECUTIVE HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS WITHOUT RESPITE. IN FACT, I STARTED TO FEEL
  • 40. • ON SURVEY QUESTION NUMBER NINE, THERE WERE 40 (OR 63%) STUDENTS WHO STATED THAT THEY SPENT A LOT OF TIME DOING HOMEWORK. • ON THE LINE PROVIDED, STUDENT’S PERCEPTION OF “A LOT” IS BETWEEN 10 MINUTES TO 3 HOURS • THERE WERE 55(OR 87%) STUDENTS WHO STATED THAT THEY PUT A LOT OF EFFORT IN THEIR HOMEWORK. THIS MAY BE TRUE FOR THE LOW LEVEL STUDENTS WHO TRY HARD IN COMPLETING THEIR HOMEWORK BUT HAVE TROUBLE DUE TO COMPREHENSION. • ON SURVEY QUESTION 8, THERE WERE 42 (OR 67%) STUDENTS WHO DECLARED THAT HOMEWORK HELPS THEM UNDERSTAND THE LESSON BETTER AND 45 (OR 71%) STATED THAT HOMEWORK HELPS THEM PASS THEIR TESTS AND QUIZZES. • THIS CAN BE PROVEN ON TABLE 4 WHERE STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED HOMEWORK SHOWED A SLIGHT INCREASE ON QUIZ
  • 41. • HOMEWORK SHOULD BE TREATED AS REINFORCEMENT ON LESSONS THAT WERE PREVIOUSLY PRESENTED IN THE CLASS TO HELP MASTER INDIVIDUAL SKILLS. IT SHOULD BE USED TO HELP STUDENTS APPLY PREVIOUS LEARNED SKILLS TO DIFFERENT CONTEXTS. • THE MAIN INSIGHT I GAINED FROM THIS RESEARCH STUDY IS THAT HOMEWORK IS NOT A STRATEGY THAT WORKS FOR ALL STUDENTS. HOMEWORK SHOULD BE GIVEN IN MODERATION AND ALWAYS WITH CLEAR AND SIMPLE DIRECTIONS; IF POSSIBLE, IT SHOULD ALWAYS COME WITH EXAMPLES. HOMEWORK SHOULD BE GIVEN WHEN STUDENTS HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE LESSON, THUS, MAKING HOMEWORK A FORM OF HONING THEIR SKILLS AND NOT BURDENING THEIR MINDS WITH “BUSYWORK.”
  • 42. RECOMMENDATION • IN THE FUTURE, I WOULD RECOMMEND CONDUCTING THIS STUDY IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SCHOOL YEAR WHEN STUDENTS ARE SETTLED IN AND FEEL MORE COMFORTABLE IN THE CLASS AS WELL AS WITH TEACHER’S INSTRUCTION. • ALSO RECOMMEND LENGTHENING THE RESEARCH STUDY OVER AN ENTIRE QUARTER (2 ½ MONTHS). • I FOUND THAT GIVING HOMEWORK DAILY CAUSED MY STUDENTS TO TIRE AND BE WEARY TO TURN IT IN. A LONGER STUDY PERIOD WOULD L ALSO ALLOW ME TO IDENTIFY MORE SIGNIFICANT PATTERNS AND TRENDS IN STUDENT BEHAVIOR AND PERFORMANCES IN REGARDS TO COMPLETING HOMEWORK AND ITS EFFECT ON THEIR ACHIEVEMENT. • A NEED FOR CONTINUED RESEARCH IS NECESSARY. WITH ALL
  • 43. THANK YOU!
  • 44. • COOPER POINTED OUT THAT THERE ARE LIMITATIONS TO CURRENT RESEARCH ON HOMEWORK. FOR INSTANCE, LITTLE RESEARCH HAS BEEN DONE TO ASSESS WHETHER A STUDENT'S RACE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OR ABILITY LEVEL AFFECTS THE IMPORTANCE OF HOMEWORK IN HIS OR HER ACHIEVEMENT.
  • 45. • HOMEWORK 'BRIDGES THE GAP BETWEEN LEARNING AT SCHOOL AND LEARNING AT HOME' AND SHOULD THEREFORE BE CONSISTENT WITH AND CONNECTED TO THE LEARNING EXPERIENCES BEING PROVIDED IN THE CLASSROOM. AS WELL AS EMPHASIZING CURRICULUM RELEVANCE, SCHOOL HOMEWORK POLICIES SHOULD ENSURE THAT HOMEWORK • IS APPROPRIATE FOR EACH STUDENT'S AGE AND ABILITY • TAKES INTO ACCOUNT STUDENTS' OTHER COMMITMENTS, SUCH AS SPORT, PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT AND HOME RESPONSIBILITIES • TAKES INTO ACCOUNT TECHNOLOGY SUCH AS EMAIL AND THE INTERNET SO THAT STUDENTS WITHOUT ACCESS ARE NOT DISADVANTAGED.