Election of 1796• Democratic Republicans :– Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr• Federalists:– John Adams and Thomas Pinckney• BIG ISSUES:– Jay’s Treaty– French Revolution*****According to the constitution, the person with themost electoral votes becomes President, the next highesttotal becomes Vice President.*****
Washington:• HAMILTON– Support Britain– 75% of income• JEFFERSON– Support France– Gave aid to US duringRevolution• Declare Neutrality Act– US will support neither side
• British captured hundreds of American neutral ships and– supporting Indian tribes fighting the U.S. in Ohio– Congress voted an embargo for two months.– Hamilton and the Federalists favored Britain over Franceand sought to normalize relations.– Hamilton designed the plan and Washington sent ChiefJustice Jay to London to negotiate a comprehensive treaty.• Britain was still occupying a number of forts• American merchants wanted compensation for 250ships confiscated• Southerners wanted compensation for the slaves thatBritish took• The boundary with Canada was too vague and neededclarification
Jay’s Treaty• The British agreed to vacate western forts• British will compensate American ship owners• The US guaranteed the payment of war debts• Jay, dropped the issue of compensation forslaves, which angered Southerners
• Warned “steer clear of permanentalliances” with other nation.Washington decided not to run forthird termFarewell Address:
Thomas JeffersonVice PresidentDemocratic- RepublicanTwo opposing party on the Executive Branch
• France objects to Jay’s Treaty– Violation to the American-French alliance– “That favor’s the British! You said you were NEUTRAL!”–The French• What does France do?– Start seizing American Ships! (just like the British had)• President John Adams wants to stay Neutral!– Sends representatives to France to discuss the rights ofneutral nations.
X Y ZIf you want tomeet withTalleyrand, givehim $250,000.Then Lend France10 MillionNot asixpence!XYZ Affair-France ambassadorwanted bribe
• When American’s find out they are outraged•“Millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute!”– Tribute = Bribe• American People want war!• Adams does not ask congress for war– But does build Frigates– Frigates = fast sailing ships with many guns• US led an undeclared naval warfare
Alien and Sedition ActsAnti-French feeling increased: many believed that Frenchagents were everywhere; new immigrants were siding ondifferent nations1. Alien Act» President can force any alien (or foreigner), thoughtto be suspicious to leave» Citizenship lengthen from 5 to 14 years2. 4. Sedition Act» Citizens can be fined or jailed if they criticize thegovernmentMany immigrants were active in the Democratic-Republican Party
James Callender“Every person holding anoffice must either quit it, orthink and vote exactly withMr. Adams”
Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionMadison Jefferson
• Misuse of power of the federal government• Nullification– State had the right to nullify or void act of Congress deemedunconstitutional– Acts were violation of First AmendmentTheory of Nullification
Quiz 131. Name the event where France asked for a bribe from US2. Who was the 2ndPresident of US?3. What does frigates mean?4. To void an act of Congress unconstitutional is called5. Who was the 2ndVice President6. Name the two individual involve in the Kentucky andVirginia Resolution.7. Policy that lengthen citizenship?8. Policy that gives fine to criticism against government9. What do you call Washington’s goodbye speech?10.Washington warns the nation to steer clear of what?
Quiz 13 Period 31. The negotiation between Britain and US was called2. Who was the 2ndPresident of US3. To void an act of Congress deemed unconstitutional4. US policy of choosing neither side5. Where does 75% of US income comes from6. Term for fast sailing ships with many guns7. Negotiation between France and US8. Policy that lengthen citizenship9. Policy that gives fine to those who criticize againstgovernment10. What do you call Washington’s goodbye speech
Quiz 12 Period 21. Who was the 2ndVice President2. What party did the 2ndPresident support3. Policy that jailed/fined citizens that criticize thegovernment4. The negotiation between Britain and US5. The president hello speech6. Term for supporting neither side7. The negotiation between France and US8. Policy that lengthen citizenship9. Who was the 2ndpresident10. To void an Act of Congress that is unconstitutional
The Alien & Sedition Acts• Adams presidency veryunpopular– Press is very critical of thegovernment• Adams & Congress pass theAlien & Sedition Acts.– Someone from anothercountry– Activity designed to overthrow the government• Adams arrests thousands ofjournalists and deportshundreds more for criticizinghis government
States’ Rights• Adams’ unpopularityleaves an opportunity forthe Republicans• Under Jefferson’sguidance Virginia &Kentucky Resolution ispassed.• Claims states can nullifyany federal law– Deprive of legal force
The Election of 1800JeffersonAdamsPresidentialCandidateBurrPinckneyVice- PresidentialCandidateRepublicansFederalist73 votes 73 votes65 votes 64 votes
A TIE!Who decides?During a DEADLOCK ELECTION (tie or nomajority vote) the House of Representativedecides35 ballots were cast – still resulting in a tieHamilton petitioned that Jefferson represented the lesser oftwo evil and on vote 36, Jefferson was chosen as Presidentand Burr became Vice-President
• 3rdPresident• Thomas Jefferson• Democratic- Republican• Secretary of State– James Madison
First Inaugural Address-• Essential Principles of Government– “equal and exact justice to all men”– “peace, commerce, and honest friendshipwith all nations”– “the support of state governments”– compliance with the decisions of the majority– well disciplined militia”– honest payment of debts– maintaining a sound economy– freedom of the press
Why did election lead to the TwelfthAmendment?• Due to the tie between Jefferson and Burr• It showed there was a need to have separateballot between President and Vice President• 12thAmendment– stipulates that electors make a distinct choicebetween their selections for President and VicePresident.
As President:Changes He Made• Reduce the size ofmilitary• Reduce the number ofgovernment employees• Reduce governmentexpenses• Repeal Alien andSedition ActsThings He kept the Same• Kept the National Bank• Did not Fire Federalists• Placed more power intothe PresidencyBecame known as “ Revolution of 1800
Adams (on his last day, last hour,midnight) appointed 16 Federalistjudges• to secure control in judiciary• “midnight appointments/judges”– appointed John Marshall (F)- ChiefJustice• some of the documents were signed but not delivered• Jefferson order Madison not to deliver the letters ofappointment/ arguing it would be invalidConflict with Judicial Branch
Marbury v. Madison 1803• Landmark case• Supreme Court rule Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional• Supreme Court power to review all laws passed todetermine its constitutionality before its approve– judiciary review-Supreme Court’s power to declarean act constitutional or not» Supreme Court voided midnight judges– First time Supreme Court showed its power to decide how the words andsentence should be interpreted- strengthened the power of supreme court– the idea that courts may oversee and nullify the actions of another branch ofgovernment). The decision helped define the “checks and balances" of theAmerican form of government.
Jefferson reelected in 1804• replaced Aaron Burr withGeorge Clinton• small group of Fed- (angeredfrom defeat) plan to uniteNew England w/ NY andsecede ( withdraw) fromunion• approach Burr for support(persuaded to run forgovernor-lost)• Hamilton exposed Burr (unfitfor office)• Burr challenged Hamilton toa duel (illegal)• Burr shot and killedHamilton
• Burr wanted for murder charges(he escape to the west involvedhimself in conspiracy– Plotted w/ Wilkinson (commanderin Louisiana Territory)- to carveown country out of Spanishterritory– Burr- tried to get money fromBritish for breaking from US($500,000)– After a year of plotting- Wilkinsonsuddenly betray Burr and informedJefferson w/ treason- brought totrial– Marshall- not enough evidence toconvict Burr- was freed (needed 2witness)
Louisiana Territory• extended to Mississippi river to RockyMountain– largely unexplored– France gave to Spain- treaty (ending French andIndian War); Napoleon secretly arranged transferback to France (owner)» US worry- Napoleon might use as base• French at war w/Britain- might close New Orleans toUS shipping• main trade route-Mississippi River- NewOrleans very important port to those whocontrol it– Jefferson sent James Monroe to help Livingstonpurchase New Orleans (for $2 million)
– Constitution did not specify how country could acquireterritory or who had authority to do it– Jefferson strict construction- became loose• Adding amendment takes long (Napoleon might changemind)• Base sale of territory as part of treaties w/ foreignnation– Under the “elastic clause” (necessary andproper)– Federalist opposed- waste of money- add to national debt• Federalist reversed position to strict construction– (Constitution did not specify power given toPresident to buy land)– After brief debate- Senate approved treaty anyway
Louisiana Purchase• April 30, 1803– Robert Livingston & JamesMonroe signed the LouisianaPurchase Treaty in Paris– The United States paid $15million for the land, roughly 4cents per acre– The purchase added 828,00square miles of land west ofthe Mississippi to the UnitedStates– July 4 the Louisiana Purchaseis publicly announcedOriginal treaty can be found at:http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals_iv/sections/louisiana_purchase_treaty.htmlDoubled the size ofUnited States
Lewis and Clark Expedition• January 18, 1803– Jefferson asks Congress for funds to explore the land west of theMississippi– His goal is to find a water route to the Pacific• May 1804– Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expeditionMap of Lewis and Clark’s RouteOriginal map can be found at:http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/archive/maptrack_b.html
• Aided by 16 year old Native– Sacajawea– knowledge of languageand geography of theregion was of greatvalue– Key Interpreter andguide
Chapter 6 Section 3• Questions and Answer # 1-6
Period 4 Quiz 131. Who led the expedition2. What doubled the size of the US3. What was the 1stlandmark case4. Who killed Hamilton5. What is a deadlock election6. Who was the 3rdPresident7. What is the president hello speech called8. Who did Jefferson replaced Burr with9. Who was the chief of Justice during 180010. Who was the native girl who became the guide andinterpreter for the expedition
Quiz 10 Period 1/ Quiz 13 period 21. Who was the third president?2. Name the two men sent to an expedition3. What is the president hello speech called?4. Name the 16 year old native girl who became theinterpreter for the expedition5. When was the first election that there was a tie?6. Power of judicial branch is called7. Name one of the change that Jefferson did when he wasa president?8. Name one the things that Jefferson kept?9. Added to the constitution that separated ballots of thevice & president?10. The first landmark case was called
Quiz 14 Period 31. Who replaced Burr’s position2. Name 2 things that Jefferson change3. What is the President’s hello speech called4. Who were the men who led the expedition to Louisiana5. Term for when there’s a tie or no majority during apresidential election6. Name the 16 year old Native girl who became theinterpreter and guide during the expedition7. Name 2 things that Jefferson kept8. How much did US pay for Louisiana purchase9. Who shot and killed Hamilton10. What was the first landmark case
““as real a revolution in theas real a revolution in theprinciples of our government asprinciples of our government asthat of 1776 was in its form.”that of 1776 was in its form.”Do you think that Jeffersonwas correct in calling theelection of 1800 a revolution?