Chapter four


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Chapter four

  1. 1. Chapter Four: The Foundations of Knowledge
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is Intelligence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to David Wechsler, a very clever person who developed many intelligence tests, he believes that intelligence is the capacity to understand one’s world and the resourcefulness to cope with its challenges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important well-known psychologists concluded that intelligence consists with: problem solving and practical skills, verbal ability, and social competence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Problem solving and practical skills - include being able to reason logically to identify connections among ideas and to see all parts of the problem by keeping an open mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Verbal Ability - includes speaking clearly and comprehensibly, conversing well with knowledge about important subjects, studying hard, reading, and having a good vocabulary all add up to be intelligent in this particular category. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Social Competence - is being able to accept others for who they and what they are, being sensitive to others needs and being socially active. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Edward DeBono <ul><li>Edward DeBono relates our mental process with the mechanics of an automobile. </li></ul><ul><li>motor = intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>fuel = knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>tuned = thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- We fuel the motor of a car in order to keep it running and in order to maintain the activeness and energy of our motor we would have to keep our motor tuned. Our intelligence needs to be fueled with knowledge and in order for us to maintain our mind working and in shape we need to keep thinking and keep our brains and intelligence tuned up. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lateral Thinking <ul><li>Edward DeBono thought of a more creative thinking style called Lateral Thinking. He suggests that we look at a problem at a different angle or different viewpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>On a website on his view on thinking, he describes four different aspects of lateral thinking: </li></ul><ul><li>“ 1) recognize dominant ideas that polarize perception of a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>2) search for different ways of looking at things. </li></ul><ul><li>3) relaxation of rigid control of thinking, and </li></ul><ul><li>4) use of chance to encourage other ideas. “ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. Multiple Intelligence Theory <ul><li>Howard Gardner of Harvard University proposed the theory of multiple intelligences. He argues that each intelligence is different and independent of one another and that a person can do poorly in one but excel in another. </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner's Eight Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>1. Linguistic intelligence (&quot;word smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Logical-mathematical intelligence (&quot;number/reasoning smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Spatial intelligence (&quot;picture smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (&quot;body smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Musical intelligence (&quot;music smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Interpersonal intelligence (&quot;people smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Intrapersonal intelligence (&quot;self smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Naturalist intelligence (&quot;nature smart&quot;) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence <ul><li>Robert S. Sternberg, a psychologist at Yale University, argues that we possess many other different types of intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>- Analytical Intelligence – internal knowledge that is learned and is displayed as the ability to critically think and problem solve. </li></ul><ul><li>- Creative Intelligence – involves insight, synthesis and the ability to react to certain situations. Reflect how a person connects the internal world </li></ul><ul><li>to external reality. </li></ul><ul><li>- Practical Intelligence – this involves the ability to grasp and understand real life problems in everyday life. Practical intelligence is “Street Smarts.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>Many psychologists have looked only at our intellectual intelligence. But some other psychologists have dug deeper into the intelligence and found that emotional intelligence plays an important role in the decisions we make. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence can help a person relate to another person and benefit from this experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers believe that 90% of emotional communication is nonverbal. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions can play a particular role within a person,; it can determine the feelings of someone and can that person can either respond either in a negative or positive way based on their emotional capabilities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Many people have heard the saying nature vs. nurture but not many fully understand the concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><li>- Belief that all people ARE NOT born with equal potential or capacity for intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>-Environment plays a limited role in helping people reach their potential. </li></ul><ul><li>-Not everyone is born smart and what lies in our genes determines our future outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>-New born children are born a “blank tablet” and the environment starts to inscribe on that tablet. </li></ul><ul><li>- Belief that all people ARE born with equal capacity for intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>-The environment and surroundings determine our outcome and environmental factors and surroundings can either help maximize or lower our capacity for learning. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Justin Serranzana </li></ul><ul><li>Speech 104 </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Marteney </li></ul>
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