NB1 & NB2: Making Comparisons


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NB1 & NB2: Making comparisons
(Courtesy of Ana Mena, EOI Cartagena)

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NB1 & NB2: Making Comparisons

  2. 2. Think about adjectives to describe the following people
  3. 4. Now, let’s compare them
  4. 5. How do we make comparisons in English? <ul><li>When we talk about two things or people, we can compare them: </li></ul><ul><li>is SMALLER THAN </li></ul><ul><li>There are two ways to form a comparative adjective in English: </li></ul><ul><li>1.- SHORT ADJECTIVES add “-ER” + than </li></ul><ul><li>2.- LONG ADJECTIVES use </li></ul><ul><li>“ MORE + adj. + THAN” </li></ul>
  5. 6. SHORT ADJECTIVES <ul><li>One-syllable adjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>rich, strong, fat, slim,… </li></ul><ul><li>Two-syllable adjectives ending in –y: </li></ul><ul><li>happy, friendly, funny,… </li></ul><ul><li>These adjectives add -ER : </li></ul><ul><li>RICH-RICH ER HAPPY-HAPP IER </li></ul>
  6. 7. SPELLING CHANGES <ul><ul><li>If the adjective ends in “-e” , it only adds “-r”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAT E - LATE R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the adjective ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, it doubles the last consonant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIG- BIG G ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the adjective ends in –y , it changes to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ i” + -er if preceded by a consonant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HAPPY- HAPP IER </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. LONG ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Two-syllable adjectives not ending in –y: </li></ul><ul><li>modern, …. </li></ul><ul><li>Rest of adjectives of more than two syllables: </li></ul><ul><li>expensive, talkative, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>These adjectives use MORE + adj. + THAN: </li></ul><ul><li>more modern than </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>Some two-syllable adjectives can take either “-er” or “ more”: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QUIET CLEVER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NARROW SIMPLE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. IRREGULAR FORMS <ul><li>GOOD-BETTER </li></ul><ul><li>BAD-WORSE </li></ul><ul><li>FAR-FURTHER </li></ul>
  10. 11. ADJECTIVES vs ADVERBS <ul><li>It’s an easy language. </li></ul><ul><li>You can learn this language easily . </li></ul><ul><li>The music is slow . </li></ul><ul><li>The pianist is playing slowly . </li></ul><ul><li>Her ideas are interesting . </li></ul><ul><li>She spoke interestingly about her ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Joe looked hungry . </li></ul><ul><li>Joe ate hungrily . </li></ul>
  11. 12. What’s the difference? <ul><li>Adjectives are connected with nouns and pronouns. They usually tell you more about people and things. They can go before nouns, or after be , seem , look , etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs are connected with verbs.They tell you how something happens/ how someone does something . </li></ul>
  12. 13. Choose an adjective or an adverb: <ul><li>This is a train. It stops everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>You’ve cooked the meat </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve got an job. </li></ul><ul><li>I sing very . </li></ul>slow beautifully easy well/badly
  13. 14. USING ADVERBS TO MAKE COMPARISONS <ul><li>Can you speak more quietly, please? </li></ul><ul><li>Angela writes more clearly than Ellie. </li></ul><ul><li>To make the comparative of most adverbs we use “more + adv. + than” </li></ul>
  14. 15. Compare these two animals using adverbs:
  15. 16. Exceptions: <ul><li>Early , late , fast , near and soon have comparatives with -er , like adjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier, faster, later, harder, nearer, sooner </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular forms: </li></ul><ul><li>well- better </li></ul><ul><li>badly- worse </li></ul><ul><li>far- further/farther </li></ul>
  16. 17. Use the comparative of the adverbs in the box to complete the advice: <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early, near, fats, hard, late </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I want to earn more money”. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I want to eat my breakfast slowly in the morning”. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get up . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I want to get more sleep” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get up . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’m afraid I’m going to miss the train”. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walk . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I hate driving to work”. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live your work and walk. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>harder earlier later faster nearer
  17. 18. Compare the following pairs:
  18. 20. We can also use “as…as” and “less ….than” to compare two things: <ul><li>Antonio is as rich as Robert. </li></ul><ul><li>(they are the same) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Torrente” is less serious than “Gone with the wind”. </li></ul>