LINUX_COMMANDS

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LINUX_COMMANDS

  1. 1. 31%2(37 0-29< ()&-%286%&%.3 32 *-,)637:EVMSWPW 0MWXE PSW JMGLIVSW HI YR HMVIGXSVMS GSRGVIXSPW P 0MWXE XEQFMqR PEW TVSTMIHEHIW ] EXVMFYXSWPW PE 0MWXE JMGLIVSW MRGPYMHSW PSW SGYPXSW HI WMWXIQEPW PE ` QSVI 0MWXE PSW JMGLIVSW HI YR HMVIGXSVMS HI JSVQE TEKMREHEGEX R JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE IP GSRXIRMHS HI YR JMGLIVS 0S QYIWXVE XSHS WIKYMHS SR PESTGMzR R PS RYQIVEQSVI JMGLIVS → 1YIWXVER IP GSRXIRMHS HI YR JMGLIVS HI JSVQE TEKMREHE QSVI TIVQMXITEWEV HI TjKMRE GSR PE FEVVE IWTEGMEHSVE PIWW EHIQjW TYIHI MV LEGMEPIWW JMGLIVS EXVjW GSR PE F SR PIWW EP JMREP HIP EVGLMZS RSW HMGI IRH SJ XLI JMPI TEVEZSPZIV E PE WLIPP TYPWEV U^GEX JMGLIVS^QSVI JMGLIVS  " 1YIWXVER IP GSRXIRMHS HI YR JMGLIVS GSQTVMQMHS K^^PIWW JMGLIVSIGLS GEHIRE IGLS RSW QYIWXVE IR TERXEPPE IP XIXS UYI PI WMKEKVIT GEHIRE EVGLMZS 1YIWXVE PEW PuRIEW HIP EVGLMZS UYI GSRXMIRIR PE GEHIRE )N TEVEUYI QYIWXVI PEW PuRIEW HIP EVGLMZS QIQS UYI GSRXMIRIR PE TEPEFVE S GSRNYRXS HI PIXVEW GVIHMXKVIT GVIHMX QIQSKVIT [ GVIHMX QIQS QSWXVEVuE PEW PuRIEW HI QIQS UYI GSRXMIRIR PE TEPEFVE GVIHMXWXEX JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE IP IWXEHS HI YR JMGLIVSWXEX J JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE IP IWXEHS HIP WMWXIQE HI JMGLIVSWJMPI JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE HI UYq XMTS IW YR JMGLIVSXEMP EVGLMZS 1YIWXVE PEW •PXMQEW PuRIEW HI YR EVGLMZS TSV HIJIGXSXEMP R EVGLMZS 1YIWXVE PEW R •PXMQEW PuRIEW HIP JMGLIVSLIEH JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE PEW TVMQIVEW PuRIEW HI YR JMGLIVSLIEH R JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE PEW TVMQIVEW R PuRIEW HI YR JMGLIVSJMRH YWV REQI PMPS TVMRX &YWGE XSHSW PSW JMGLIVSW GSR RSQFVI PMPS IR YWVJMRH LSQI TEGS REQI NTK TVMRX &YWGE XSHEW PEW MQjKIRIW NTK IR LSQI TEGS[LIVIMW INIGYXEFPI &YWGE INIGYXEFPIW INIQTPS [LIVIMW JMRHX]TI GSQERHS 1YIWXVE PE YFMGEGMzR HIP GSQERHS MRHMGEHS 7M IW YR GSQERHSMRXIVRS HIP WLIPP QSWXVEVj EPKS EWu GSQS GSQERHS MW E WLIPP FYMPXMRT[H :MWYEPM^E IP HMVIGXSVMS EGXYEPLMWXSV] 1YIWXVE IP PMWXEHS HI GSQERHSW YWEHSW TSV IP YWYEVMS b FEWLCLMWXSV]JG P 1YIWXVE IP PMWXEHS HI PSW •PXMQSW GSQERHSW INIGYXEHSWINIGX GHVSQ %FVI PE FERHINE HIP GHVSQINIGX X GHVSQ MIVVE PE FERHINE HIP GHVSQGH RSQCHMVIGXSVMS EQFME HI HMVIGXSVMSGH :YIPZIW EP ERXIVMSVGH QS^MPPE )RXVEW EP HI QS^MPPE TSV PE TYIVXE KVERHIGH QS^MPPE )RXVEW EP HI QS^MPPE MRHMGERHS PE VYXE VIPEXMZEGH LSQI TEGS QS^MPPE )RXVEW EP HI QS^MPPE MRHMGERHS PE VYXE GSQTPIXEGH )RXVEW IR IP HMVIGXSVMS TIVWSREPGT HT6 JMGLIVS VYXECJMGLIVS 6IEPM^E YRE GSTME HIP JMGLIVS E VYXECJMGLIVS GEQFMjRHSPI IPRSQFVI 7M IP JMGLIVS HI HIWXMRS IMWXMIVE PS WSFVIIWGVMFMVuE
  2. 2. GT HT6 JMGLIVS HMVIGXSVMS STME JMGLIVS E HMVIGXSVMS GSRWIVZERHS JMGLIVS IP RSQFVI6 STME YR HMVIGXSVMS VIGYVWMZEQIRXI WEPZS PSW JMGLIVSW IWTIGMEPIWT STME TVIWIVZERHS TIVQMWSW TVSTMIXEVMS KVYTSW ] JIGLEWH SRWIVZE PSW IRPEGIW WMQFzPMGSW GSQS XEPIW ] TVIWIVZE PEW VIPEGMSRIW HIPSW HYVSWE 0S QMWQS UYI HT6M )R GEWS HI IMWXMV IP EVGLMZS HI HIWXMRS RSW TVIKYRXEVuE WM WSFVIIWGVMFMVPSQZ VYXECJMGLIVS VYXECJMGLIVS 1YIZI ] S VIRSQFVE JMGLIVSW S HMVIGXSVMSW 7M IP JMGLIVS HIHIWXMRS IMWXMIVE PS WSFVIIWGVMFMVuE 9WERHS PE STGMzR ²M RSW TVIKYRXEVuE ERXIW HI WSFVIIWGVMFMVQZ M VYXECJMGLIVS VYXECJMGLIVSQOHMV RSQCHMVIGXSVMS VIE YR HMVIGXSVMSVQHMV RSQCHMVIGXSVMS )PMQMRE YR HMVIGXSVMS XMIRI UYI IWXEV ZEGuSVQ EVGLMZS )PMQMRE EVGLMZSW 2S ZER E PE TETIPIVE SR PE STGMzR M RSW TIHMVjGSRJMVQEGMzR ERXIW HI IPMQMREV IP EVGLMZS :IV IR EPMEW GzQS LEGIV UYI ZE]ER E PE TETIPIVEVQ V HMVIGXSVMS &SVVE PSW JMGLIVSW HI YR HMVIGXSVMS VIGYVWMZEQIRXI 5YMIXSVVVVVVVVQ NTK &SVVE XSHSW PSW JMGLIVSW NTK HIP HMVIGXSVMS EGXYEPPR VYXECJMGLIVS VYXECIRPEGI VIE YR IRPEGI HYVS GSR IP QMWQS MRSHS IW HIGMV QMWQS JMGLIVSGSR HMWXMRXSW RSQFVIWPR W VYXECHMVIGXSVMS VYXECIRPEGI VIE YR IRPEGI WMQFzPMGS GSR HMJIVIRXI MRSHS IW HIGMV WI GVIE YRRYIZS JMGLIVS UYI ETYRXE EP ETYRXEHS TIVQMXMIRHS IRPE^EV GSR HMVIGXSVMSW ] GSR JMGLIVSW HI SXVSWMWXIQE HI EVGLMZSW)N WYHS PR W LSQI LEVPER XLIQIW VSSX XLIQIW LEGI UYI VSSX XLIQIW ETYRXI E LSQI LEVPERXLIQIW EWu IP XIQE TEVE IP YWYEVMS VSSX WIVj IP QMWQS UYI TEVE IP YWYEVMS LEVPERHMJJ ?STGMSRIWA JMGLIVS JMGLIVS SQTEVE JMGLIVSWHMJJ [ JMGLIVS JMGLIVS (IWGEVXE IWTEGMS IR FPERGS GYERHS GSQTEVE PuRIEWHMJJ U JMGLIVS JMGLIVS -RJSVQE WzPS HI WM PSW JMGLIVSW HMJMIVIR RS HI PSW HIXEPPIW HI PEWHMJIVIRGMEWHMJJ ] JMGLIVS JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE PE WEPMHE E HSW GSPYQREWNSMR ?STGMSRIWA JMGLIVS JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE PEW PuRIEW GSMRGMHIRXIW IRXVI JMGLIVS ] JMGLIVSXSYGL ? EQA? XA JMGLIVS EQFME PEW JIGLEW HI EGGIWS E ] S QSHMJMGEGMzR Q HI YREVGLMZSXSYGL EQ JMGLIVS % PE JIGLE EGXYEP 7M RS IMWXMIWI IP JMGLIVS WI GVIEVuEXSYGL EQ X JMGL % PE JIGLE IWTIGMJMGEHE 7M RS IMWXMIWI IP JMGLIVS WI GVIEVuE%%11((LLQQ WW 7M RS WI IWTIGMJMGER PSW WIKYRHSW XSQEVuE GSQS ZEPSVXSYGL JMGLIVS 9WEHS WMR STGMSRIW GVIEVuE YR JMGLIVS GSR PE JIGLE EGXYEPWTPMX F QS^EVX SKK QS^EVX 4EVXMV YR EVGLMZS ↓ RSQFVI IPIKMHS TEVE PEW TEVXIW TSV HIJIGXS ↓XEQEyS IR F]XIW HI GEHE TEVXIGEX QS^EVX " QS^EVX SKK 9RMV PEW HMWXMRXEW TEVXIW HI YR JMGLIVS GSVXEHS GSR WTPMXGLS[R ? 6A YWYEVMS JMGLIVS EQFME IP TVSTMIXEVMS HI YR JMGLIVS S HMVIGXSVMSGLKVT ? 6A KVYTS JMGLIVS EQFME IP KVYTS HI YR JMGLIVS S HMVIGXSVMSGLQSH JMGLIVS EQFME PSW TIVQMWSW HI EGGIWS HI YR JMGLIVS EHE IW YR R•QIVS )P Ÿ LEGIVIJIVIRGME E PSW TIVQMWSW HIP YWYEVMS TVSTMIXEVMS HIP EVGLMZS IP Ÿ E PSW TIVQMWSW HIP KVYTS EP UYITIVXIRIGI IP YWYEVMS TVSTMIXEVMS HIP EVGLMZS ] IP Ÿ E PSW TIVQMWSW HIP VIWXS HI YWYEVMSW )P TIVQMWS HIPIGXYVE XMIRI YR ZEPSV HI IP HI IWGVMXYVE ] IP HI INIGYGMzR EHE WIVj IP VIWYPXEHS HI WYQEV PSWZEPSVIW HI PSW TIVQMWSW UYI WI ZER E SXSVKEV EP YWYEVMS EP KVYTS ] EP VIWXS 4SV IN WM UYIVIQSW UYI IPTVSTMIXEVMS XIRKE TIVQMWS HI PIGXYVE IWGVMXYVE ] INIGYGMzR IP TVMQIV R•QIVS WIVj !4IVQMWSW ] WY WMKRMJMGEHSWzPS IP TVSTMIXEVMS XMIRI HIVIGLSW HI PIGXYVE ] IWGVMXYVE IP KVYTS ] PSW HIQjW WzPSXMIRIR IP HI PIGXYVEWzPS IP TVSTMIXEVMS XMIRI HIVIGLSW HI PIGXYVE IWGVMXYVE ] INIGYGMzRWzPS IP TVSTMIXEVMS XMIRI HIVIGLSW HI PIGXYVE IWGVMXYVE ] INIGYGMzR IP KVYTS ] PSWHIQjW WzPS HI PIGXYVE ] INIGYGMzR %TPMGEHS E YR HMVIGXSVMS XSHSW TYIHIR PIIV IPHMVIGXSVMS TIVS WzPS IP TVSTMIXEVMS TYIHI GEQFMEV IP GSRXIRMHS
  3. 3. YQEWO RRR )WXEFPIGI UYq TIVQMWSW WIVjR HIWLEFMPMXEHSW TEVE PSW EVGLMZSWRYIZSW` YQEWO 1YIWXVE PE GSRJMKYVEGMzR EGXYEP HI YQEWO RSVQEPQIRXI` YQEWO (IWLEFMPMXE RMRKYRS IW HIGMV PSW EGXMZE XSHSW`` %XIRGMzR UYI PE GSWE QERHE LYIZSW`` ` YQEWO ! GLQSH ` ` YQEWO ! GLQSH `` ` YQEWO [ [ ! GLQSH V[ V V ` ` YQEWO ! GLQSH V[ V V ```` 9RE QERIVE VjTMHE HI EZIVMKYEV PSW TIVQMWSW TEVXMIRHS HI YQEWO IW ETPMGERHS PE WMKYMIRXI VIWXE` ! TEVE IP TVMQIV GEWS ] ! TEVE IP WIKYRHS`` YERHS YQEWO IW PSW TIVQMWSW RSVQEPIW HI YR HMVIGXSVMS WSR V[ V V TVSHYGXS HI PE` VIWXE 7MR IQFEVKS PSW HI YR JMGLIVS WSR V[ V V fWXS IW EWu TSVUYI WI GSRWMHIVE` UYI PS RSVQEP TEVE YR JMGLIVS IW UYI RS WIE INIGYXEFPI HI QERIVE UYI PE VIWXE TEVE EZIVMKYEV PSW` TIVQMWSW HI YR JMGLIVS WIVuE !`` 7M IWGVMFS IR YRE GSRWSPE YQEWO ] E GSRXMRYEGMzR QOHMV RYIZSHMVIGXSVMS qWXI XIRHVj XSHSW PSW` TIQMWSW V[ V[ V[ TIVS £] PSW JMGLIVSW UYI GVIIQSW HIRXVS HI HMGLS HMVIGXSVMS# TYIW qWXSW` XIRHVjR PSW TIVQMWSW V[ V[ V[ VIWYPXEHS HI PE VIWXE !`` £3W EGPEVEMW# ]S XEQTSGS`` 4EVE UYI PE QjWGEVE HI TIVQMWSW TIVQERI^GE HI YRE WIWMzR E SXVE XMIRIW UYI TSRIVPE IR IP` FEWLCTVSJMPI HI XY LSQI-QTVMQMIRHSPTV JMGLIVS %yEHI YR HSGYQIRXS E PE GSPE HI MQTVIWMzRPTV JMGLIVS 6IEPM^E GSTMEW HIP JMGLIVSPTV 4PEWIV JMGLIVS JMGLIVS -QTVMQI PSW JMGLIVSW IR PE MQTVIWSVE PEWIVPTU 1YIWXVE PSW HSGYQIRXSW IR GSPEPTVQ ERGIPE PE MQTVIWMzR HIP HSGYQIRXS EGXMZSPTVQ ERGIPE PE MQTVIWMzR HIP XVEFENS RŸ)QTEUYIXEHS ] GSQTVIWMzRSQTVMQMV ^MT ^MT V JMGLIVS ^MT JMGLIVSCECGSQTVMQMV INIQTPS ^MT V WMREXVE ^MTWMREXVE(IWGSQTVMQMV ^MT YR^MT EVGLMZS ^MT:IV GSRXIRMHS ^MT YR^MT Z EVGLMZS ^MT(IWGSQTVMQMV VEV YRVEV I V EVGLMZS VEV I IXVEI IR IP HMVIGXSVMS EGXYEP(IWGSQTVMQMV VEV YRVEV V EVGLMZS VEV HMVIGXSVMS HI HIWXMRS IXVEI HSRHI WIMRHMUYI:IV GSRXIRMHS VEV YRVEV Z EVGLMZS VEVSQTVMQMV K^ K^MT V JMGLIVS INIQTPS K^MT V WMREXVE(IWGSQTVMQMV K^ K^MT H JMGLIVS K^ S KYR^MT JMGLIVS K^ WI FSVVEVj IPEVGLMZSGSQTVMQMHS:IV GSRXIRMHS K^ K^MT G JMGLIVS K^SQTVMQMV F^ F^MT JMGLIVS INIQTPS F^MT WMREXVE SKK(IWGSQTVMQMV F^ F^MT H JMGLIVS F^ S FYR^MT JMGLIVS F^ WI FSVVEVj IP EVGLMZSGSQTVMQMHS:IV GSRXIRMHS F^ F^MT G JMGLIVS F^238% V IUYMZEPI IR XSHSW PSW GEWSW E VIGYVWMZS
  4. 4. 1MIRXVEW UYI ^MT GSQTVMQI ] IQTEUYIXE K^MT S F^MT WzPS GSQTVMQIR JMGLIVSW RS HMVIGXSVMSW TEVE IWSIMWXI XEV*MGLIVSW XEV)QTEUYIXEV XEV ZGJ EVGLMZS XEV JMGLIVS JMGLIVS JMGLIVS TYIHI WIV HMVIGXSVMS(IWIQTEUYIXEV XEV ZJ EVGLMZS XEV:IV GSRXIRMHS XEV ZXJ EVGLMZS XEV4EVE GSQTVMQMV ZEVMSW JMGLIVSW ] IQTEUYIXEVPSW IR YR WSPS EVGLMZS LE] UYI GSQFMREV IP XEV ] IP K^MT S IPF^MT HI PE WMKYMIRXI QERIVE*MGLIVSW XEV K^ XK^)QTEUYIXEV ] GSQTVMQMV XEV ^ZGJ EVGLMZS XK^ HMVIGXSVMSCECGSQTVMQMV(IWIQTEUYIXEV ] HIWGSQTVMQMV XEV ^ZJ EVGLMZS XK^:IV GSRXIRMHS XEV ^ZXJ EVGLMZS XK^*MGLIVSW XEV F^ XF^)QTEUYIXEV ] GSQTVMQMV XEV NZGJ EVGLMZS XF^ HMVIGXSVMSCECGSQTVMQMV(IWIQTEUYIXEV ] HIWGSQTVMQMV XEV NZJ EVGLMZS XF^:IV GSRXIRMHS XEV NZXJ EVGLMZS XF^3TGMSRIW HI XEVG GVIE YR RYIZS EVGLMZSJ GYERHS WI YWE GSR PE STGMzR G YWE IP RSQFVI HIP JMGLIVS IWTIGMJMGEHS TEVE PE GVIEGMzR HIP JMGLIVS XEVGYERHS WI YWE GSR PE STGMzR VIXMVE HIP EVGLMZS IP JMGLIVS IWTIGMJMGEHS 4SV RSQFVI IRXIRHIVj PS UYIZE]E E GSRXMRYEGMzR HI PE JX QYIWXVE PE PMWXE HI PSW JMGLIVSW UYI WI IRGYIRXVER IR IP JMGLIVS XEVZ QYIWXVE IP TVSGIWS HI EVGLMZS HI PSW JMGLIVSW IXVEI PSW JMGLIVSW HI YR EVGLMZS^ GSQTVMQI IP JMGLIVS XEV GSR K^MTN GSQTVMQI IP JMGLIVS XEV GSR F^MTSQSHMRIWb 7YWXMXY]I IP HMVIGXSVMS LSQI HI QERIVE UYIb GSQERHSW XX IUYMZEPI E LSQI TEGS GSQERHSW XX WM IWXEQSW IR RYIWXVS TVSTMS HMVIGXSVMSbTITI GSQERHSW XX IUYMZEPI E LSQI TITI GSQERHSW XX TITI IW SXVS YWYEVMS# 7YWXMXY]I YR WSPS GEVEGXIV )NIQTPSWPW T#TI QSWXVEVuE XSHSW PSW JMGLIVSW GY]SW Ÿ Ÿ ] Ÿ GEVEGXIVIW JYIWIR T T ] IPW #ITI QSWXVEVuE XSHSW PSW JMGLIVSW EGEFEHSW IR ITI7YWXMXY]I GYEPUYMIV WYGIWMzR HI GEVEGXIVIW )NIQTPSWPW FE QYIWXVE XSHSW PSW HMVIGXSVMSW S JMGLIVSW UYI GSQMIRGIR GSRFEPW QYIWXVE XSHSW PSW EVGLMZSW SGYPXSWVQ V SXVE QERIVE HI HIWMRWXEPEV IP WMWXIQE STIVEXMZSVQ NTK FSVVE XSHEW PEW MQjKIRIW NTKSKKHIG SKK TEWE HI SKK E [EZ XSHSW PSW SKK HIP HMVIGXSVMS IR IP UYI IWXEQSW4YIWXS IRXVI HSW GSQERHSW LEGI UYI XVEW IP TVMQIVS WI INIGYXI IP WIKYRHS )NIQTPSWRERS RYIZS XX GEX RYIZS XXRSW EFVMVj IP IHMXSV RERS TEVE UYI IWGVMFEQSW PS UYI UYIVEQSW IR YR RYIZS EVGLMZS UYI WI PPEQEVjRYIZS XX ] XVEW KYEVHEV ] WEPMV HIP IHMXSV GEX RSW QSWXVEVj IP GSRXIRMHS HI PS UYI EGEFEQSW HIGVIEVWPIIT Q QQW GERGMzR QT XVEW QMRYXSW WI MRMGMEVj IP QQW%PMEW)W IP QSXI UYI WI PI TSRI E YR GSQERHS HI QERIVE UYI PE TVzMQE ZI^ UYI UYIVEQSW INIGYXEVPS FEWXE GSRPPEQEVPS TSV WY QSXI )WGVMFMIRHS EPMEW WMR TEVjQIXSW RSW ETEVIGIR PE PMWXE HI EPMEW UYI XIRIQSW )NIQTPSW7M INIGYXS
  5. 5. EPMEW VQ! QZ XEVKIX HMVIGXSV]! LSQI TEGS TETIPIVECVQ PI LITYIWXS IP QSXI VQ E QZ XEVKIX HMVIGXSV]! LSQI TEGS TETIPIVECVQ %Wu PE TVzMQE ZI^UYI FSVVI EPKS GSR VQ MVj E TEVEV EP HMVIGXSVMS TETIPIVECVQ4IVS WM PS IWGVMFS EWu @VQ PSUYIWIE IP EPMEW WIVj MKRSVEHS3XVSEPMEW GHVMT! GHHE [EZ & ( HIZ LHH W GEHE ZI^ UYI IWGVMFE IR YRE GSRWSPE GHVMT QI VMTIEVj IP ( UYI XIRKE IR HIZ LHH 4EVE UYI PSW EPMEWTIVQERI^GER HI YRE WIWMzR E SXVE LE] UYI TSRIVPSW IR IP EVGLMZS LSQI FEWLVG EP JMREPRSXE IP QSXI ] IP GSQERHS EP UYI WYWXMXY]I FMIR TIKEHMXSW EP WMKRS MKYEPRSXE IP GSQERHS IRXVI GSQMPPEW WMQTPIWSRGITXSW HI IRXVEHE WEPMHE - 3 ) 7WXHMR IRXVEHE IWXERHEV TEVE HEXSW IP XIGPEHSWXHSYX WEPMHE IWXERHEV TEVE PSW TVSKVEQEW PE TERXEPPEWXHIVV WEPMHE IWXERHEV TEVE PSW QIRWENIW HI IVVSV PE TERXEPPE6IHMVIGGMSRIW YR VIHMVIGGMSREHSV VIHMVMKI PE WEPMHE HI YR GSQERHS E YR JMGLIVS→ GSQERHS JMGLIVS" `→ 7Y WMRXEM WYIPI WIV → GSQERHS " JMGLIVS"" → GSQERHS "" JMGLIVS)NIQTPSWHTOK KIX WIPIGXMSRW " TVSKVEQEWCMRWXEPEHSW XX)R ZI^ HI QSWXVEV PE WEPMHE TSV TERXEPPE RSW PE ZYIPGE EP JMGLIVS TVSKVEQEWCMRWXEPEHSW XX7M IWI JMGLIVS ]E IMWXuE LE WMHS WSFVIIWGVMXS WY GSRXIRMHS TIVS WM YWEQSW "" RS FSVVEVj REHE ] EyEHMVEWY WEPMHE EP JMREP HIP JMGLIVS 3XVS INIQTPS GSR IGLSIGLS JMR HI PE PMWXE HI TVSKVEQEW MRWXEPEHSW "" TVSKVEQEWCMRWXEPEHSW XX IR ZI^ HI QSWXVEVIR TERXEPPE IP XIXS PS EyEHI EP JMREP HIP JMGLIVS TVSKVEQEWCMRWXEPEHSW XX4EVE HIWTMWXEV PSW HI 9RM WI LER MRZIRXEHS IP QMWQS GEVEGXIV TIVS EP VIZqWGEX TVSKVEQEWCMRWXEPEHSW XXIR HSRHI TVSKVEQEWCMRWXEPEHSW LEGI RS HI WEPMHE WMRS HI IRXVEHE TEVE GEX IP GYEP PS QYIWXVE IR TERXEPPE]E UYI PE WEPMHE REXYVEP HI GEX IW PE IWXERHEV WXHSYX S TERXEPPE7M UYIVIQSW UYI PE WEPMHE HI IVVSV RS ETEVI^GE IR TERXEPPE WMRS UYI ZE]E E YR EVGLMZS HI XIXSGSQERHS " JMGLIVS XX INIQTPS QQW " IVVSVCQQW XX8YFIVuEW 9RE XYFIVuE LEGI UYI PE WEPMHE HI YR TVSKVEQE WIE PE IRXVEHE HI SXVS 7Y WMRXEMW WYIPI WIVGSQERHS ` GSQERHS)NIQTPSWGEX TVSKVEQEWCMRWXEPEHSW XX ` KVIT QS^MPPE%UYu PI LIQSW GEQFMEHS PE WEPMHE REXYVEP E GEX ] WI PE LIQSWQERHEHS E KVIT TEVE UYI FYWUYI PE TEPEFVE QS^MPPE HIRXVS HIP JMGLIVS TVSKVEQEWCMRWXEPEHSW XXTV P H GSQERHSW XX ` PTV 9RE ZI^ JSVQEXIEHS IP HSGYQIRXS TV PS QERHE E PE GSPE HI MQTVIWMzRPTV-QjKIRIWQOMWSJW 6 . 8 S MQEKIR MWS JMGLIVS VIE YRE MQEKIR HI YR JMGLIVS HIP HMWGS HYVSHH MJ! HIZ GHVSQ SJ!MQEKIR MWS VIE YRE MQEKIR HIP GHVSQ ] PE ZYIPGE IR IP JMGLIVSMQEKIR MWSRVK MWS MQEKIR RVK MQEKIR MWS SRZMIVXI YRE MQEKIR RVK E MWSFMR MWS MQEKIR GYI SRZMIVXI YRE MQEKIR FMR GYI E MWSGGH MWS MQEKIR MQK MQEKIR MWS SRZMIVXI YRE MQEKIR MQK GGH WYF GYI E MWSQHJ MWS MQEKIR QHJ MQEKIR MWS SRZMIVXI YRE MQEKIR QHJ QHW E MWSQSYRX X MWS S PSST MQEKIR MWS T QSRXENI 1SRXE YRE MQEKIRYQSYRX T QSRXENI (IWQSRXEV YRE MQEKIRQH WYQ EVGLMZS MWS " EVGLMZS MWS XX +IRIVEV PE WYQE GSRXVSP 1( HI YR EVGLMZSQH WYQ [ G EVGLMZS MWS XX :IVMJMGEV PE WYQE GSRXVSP 1( HI YR EVGLMZS2SXE EVGLMZS MWS ] EVGLMZS MWS XX HIFIR IWXEV IR IP QMWQS HMVIGXSVMS
  6. 6. 7-78)1%1ERYEPIW GSQERHSWQER GSQERHSQER LIPT `→ 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR WSFVI IP GSQERHSMRJS GSQERHSLIPT GSQERHS 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR WSFVI YR GSQERHS MRXIVRS HIP WLIPP FEWLETVSTSW TEPEFVECGPEZI &YWGE HIRXVS HI PEW HIWGVMTGMSRIW HI QER PE TEPEFVE GPEZIETVSTSW I TEPEFVECGPEZI &YWGE PE TEPEFVE IEGXE,SVE JIGLE ] GEPIRHEVMSGEP Q] 1YIWXVE IP GEPIRHEVMSYTXMQI 1YIWXVE PE LSVE XMIQTS HI JYRGMSREQMIRXS RŸ YWYEVMSW GSRIGXEHSW ] PEGEVKE QIHMEX^GSRJMK X^WIPIGX 4VSKVEQEW MRXIVEGXMZSW UYI TIVQMXIR WIPIGMSREV PE ^SRE LSVEVMEKVIT 98 IXG HIJEYPX VG7 SQTVSFEQSW WM IP VIPSN LEVH[EVI QERXMIRI PE LSVE PSGEP SYRMZIVWEP 98HEXI 1YIWXVE PE JIGLE ] LSVE HIP WMWXIQE IR JSVQEXS PSGEPHEXI Y 1YIWXVE PE JIGLE ] LSVE IR JSVQEXS 98 8MIQTS 9RMZIVWEPSSVHMREHSL[GPSGO WLS[ 1YIWXVE IP VIPSN LEVH[EVI XEQFMqR PPEQEHS VIPSN HI PE &-37 ] VIPSN137L[GPSGO W]WXSLG 4SRI IP VIPSN LEVH[EVI E PE LSVE HIP WMWXIQERXTHEXI WIVZMHSV 284 %NYWXE HMVIGXEQIRXI PE LSVE HIP WMWXIQE WMRGVSRM^jRHSPE GSR PE HIYR WIVZMHSV 284RXTH (IQSRMS UYI ENYWXE IP VIPSN HI JSVQE KVEHYEP WMRGVSRM^jRHSPS GSRWIVZMHSVIW 284[EXGL R XMIQTS GSQERHS )NIGYXE YR GSQERHS GEHE R WIKYRHSW TSV HIJIGXS[EXGL R HEXI -KYEP UYI HEXI TIVS IR IWXI GEWS ZIVuEQSW GSVVIV PSW WIKYRHSW9WYEVMSW ] KVYTSWWY )RXVEV E PE WIWMzR GSQS VSSX Y SXVS YWYEVMSWY RSQCYWYEVMS )WXERHS GSQS VSSX IRXVEQSW GSQS SXVS YWYEVMSTEWW[H EQFMS HI GSRXVEWIyE[LS E , 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR HI PSW YWYEVMSW GSRIGXEHSW EP WMWXIQEYWIVW 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR HI PSW YWYEVMSW GSRIGXEHSW EP WMWXIQEMH 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR HIP YWYEVMS EGXYEP KVYTSW E PSW UYI TIVXIRIGI YMH KMHKVSYTW 1YIWXVE PSW KVYTSW E PSW UYI TIVXIRIGI YR YWYEVMSEHHYWIV YWYEVMS VIE YR RYIZS YWYEVMSEHHYWIV YWYEVMS KVYTS %yEHI YR YWYEVMS IMWXIRXI E YR KVYTS ]E IMWXIRXIEHHYWIV RS GVIEXI LSQI YWYEVMS VIE YR YWYEVMS TIVS WMR HMVIGXSVMS TIVWSREP LSQIEHHKVSYT KVYTS VIE YR RYIZS KVYTSHIPYWIV YWYEVMS )PMQMRE YR YWYEVMSHIPYWIV YWYEVMS KVYTS )PMQMRE YR YWYEVMS HIP KVYTS IWTIGMJMGEHSHIPYWIV VIQSZI LSQI YWYEVMS )PMQMRE YR YWYEVMS ] WY HMVIGXSVMS LSQIHIPKVSYT KVYTS )PMQMRE YR KVYTSHIPKVSYT KVYTS SRP] MJ IQTX] )PMQMRE YR KVYTS WzPS WM RS XMIRI RMRK•R YWYEVMSYWIVQSH P RYIZSCPSKMR EQFME IP RSQFVI HIP YWYEVMS 7IVuE FYIRS GSQFMREVPS GSR HYWIVQSH H RYIZECLSQI Q PSKMR EQFME IP LSQI EP YWYEVMS GVIjRHSPS WM RS IMWXMIWI ]XVERWJMVMIRHS IP GSRXIRMHSYWIVQSH I PSKMR *IGLE IR UYI PE GYIRXE HIP YWYEVMS WIVj HIWEGXMZEHE ITVIWEHE IRJSVQEXS %%%% 11 ((KVSYTQSH R RYIZSCRSQFVI KVYTS EQFME IP RSQFVI HI YR KVYTS:EVMSWGPIEV 0MQTME PE TERXEPPEVIWIX 6IWXEYVE PE SRWSPE ÓXMP TEVE GYERHS IQTMI^ER E ETEVIGIV GEVEGXIVIWVEVSWYREQI E :IVWMzR HIP OIVRIPLSWXREQI :MWYEPM^E IP RSQFVI HI PE QjUYMREXX] 1YIWXVE IP RSQFVI HI JMGLIVS HI PE XIVQMREP GSRIGXEHE E PE WEPMHEIWXjRHEV
  7. 7. IXG MRMX H WIVZMGMS WXST 4EVE YR WIVZMGMS HIQSRMSIXG MRMX H WIVZMGMS WXEVX -RMGME YR WIVZMGMS HIQSRMSIXG MRMX H WIVZMGMS VIWXEVX 6IMRMGME YR WIVZMGMS HIQSRMSWXEVX %VVERGE IP IRXSVRS KVjJMGS GSR IP KIWXSV IWTIGMJMGEHS IR IP MRMXVG HI XYLSQIWXEVX YWV FMR < MGI[Q %VVERGE IP IRXSVRS KVjJMGS GSR IP MGI[Q WM IW UYI RS JYIVE IPTVIHIXIVQMREHSXVP 8IVQMRE YR TVSGIWSXVP > 7YWTIRHI XIQTSVEPQIRXI PE INIGYGMzR HI YR TVSKVEQEXVP 7 4EVE PE XVERWJIVIRGME HI HEXSW E PE XIVQMREPXVP 5 6IWYQI VIMRMGME PE XVERJIVIRGME HI HEXSWXVP %PX * 7EPMV HIP IRXSVRS KVjJMGS E YR XIVQMREP *RŸ WIK•R KIXX]W EGXMZEHSW IRIXG MRMXXEFXVP %PX 7YTV )WXERHS IR YRE XIVQMREP VIMRMGME WM RS WI MRHMGE SXVE GSWE IRIXG MRMXXEFWGVMTX )NIGYXE YR WGVMTX HI WLIPPNEZE NEV JMGLIVS NEV )NIGYXE YR TVSKVEQE NEZEGSRWSPIGLEVW J JYIRXI TWJ K^ EQFMEV PE JYIRXI HI PE GSRWSPE 0EW JYIRXIW WI IRGYIRXVER IRYWV WLEVI GSRWSPIJSRXWFEWI GSRJMK SRJMKYVE IP WMWXIQE FEWIKTQ 4VSKVEQE UYI HE WSTSVXI HI VEXzR E PE GSRWSPE ] ETPMGEGMSRIW UYIGSVVIR WSFVI IPPEIMX 8IVQMRE PE INIGYGMzR HIP TVSKVEQE IR GYVWSMRMX %TEKE PE QjUYMREMRMX 6IMRMGME PE QjUYMREWLYXHS[R X L RS[ %TEKE PE QjUYMREWLYXHS[R X V RS[ 6IMRMGME PE QjUYMRE(MWGS HYVSHJ 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR WSFVI TEVXMGMSRIW QSRXEHEWGJHMWO 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR WSFVI TEVXMGMSRIW ,IVVEQMIRXE TEVE TEVXMGMSREV IRRGYVWIWJHMWO P 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR WSFVI TEVXMGMSRIW ,IVVEQMIRXE TEVE TEVXMGMSREVQSYRX :IQSW IP PMWXEHS HI HMWTSWMXMZSW QSRXEHSWQSYRX T HI QSRXENI 1SRXE YR HMWTSWMXMZS ]E IWXEFPIGMHS IR IP JWXEFYQSYRX T HI QSRXENI (IWQSRXE YR HMWTSWMXMZS ]E IWXEFPIGMHS IR IP JWXEFQSYRX X IX HIZ LHE QMGEEWE 1SRXE IP HMWTSWMXMZS HIZ LHE GY]S WMWXIQE HI JMGLIVSW IW IXIR IP TYRXS HI QSRXENI QMGEEWEYQSYRX HIZ LHE (IWQSRXE IP HMWTSWMXMZS HIZ LHEJWGO HIZ LHE LIUYIE ] VITEVE IP WMWXIQE HI EVGLMZSW HI YRE TEVXMGMzR 231328%(%JWGO IX ZTJ HIZ LH LIUYIE ] VITEVE IP WMWXIQE HI EVGLMZSW HI YRE TEVXMGMzR IX 231328%(%JWGO IX ZTJ HIZ LH LIUYIE ] VITEVE IP WMWXIQE HI EVGLMZSW HI YRE TEVXMGMzR IX 231328%(%QOJW IX HIZ LHF VIE YR WMWXIQE HI JMGLIVSW 0MRY IX IR PE TVMQIVE TEVXMGMzR HIPWIKYRHS HMWGS HYVSQOJW IX HIZ LHF VIE YR WMWXIQE HI JMGLIVSW 0MRY IX IR PE TVMQIVE TEVXMGMzR HIPWIKYRHS HMWGS HYVSQOJW IX HIZ JH VIE YR WMWXIQE HI JMGLIVSW 0MRY IX IR IP JPSTT]QOW[ET HIZ LHE VIE YR WMWXIQE HI JMGLIVSW 0MRY W[ET MRXIVGEQFMS IR LHEXYRI JW 3 BLEWCNSYVREP HIZ LHE SRZMIVXI LHE HI IX E IXXYRI JW N HIZ LHE SRZMIVXI LHE HI IX E IX
  8. 8. UYSXE 4VSKVEQE UYI KIWXMSRE PMQMXE IP YWS UYI LEGIR HIP HMWGS PSWYWYEVMSW KVYTSW-RWXEPEGMzR HI WSJX[EVI 7zPS TEVE (IFMER PS ERXIVMSV IW GSQ•R E XSHEW PEW HMWXVMFYGMSRIWHTOK ,IVVEQMIRXE HI RMZIP QIHMS TEVE MRWXEPEV GSRWXVYMV FSVVEV ] KIWXMSREV PSW TEUYIXIW HI (IFMERHTOK M TEUYIXI -RWXEPEGMzR HI TEUYIXIW HIFHTOK V TEUYIXI (IWMRWXEPE YR TEUYIXIHTOK TYVKI TEUYIXI (IWMRWXEPE YR TEUYIXI ] WYW EVGLMZSW HI GSRJMKYVEGMzRHTOK JSVGI V TEUYIXI *YIV^E PE HIWMRWXEPEGMzR HI YR TEUYIXI 1jW MRJSVQEGMzRHTOK JSVGI LIPTHTOK JSVGI EPP V TEUYIXI *YIV^E E•R QjW PE HIWMRWXEPEGMzR HI YR TEUYIXI 7Y YWS TYIHI HEyEVIP WMWXIQEHTOK G TEUYIXI 1YIWXVE IP GSRXIRMHS JMGLIVSW HI YR TEUYIXIHTOK 0 TEUYIXI 1YIWXVE XSHSW PSW JMGLIVSW UYI WI MRWXEPEVSR GSR YR TEUYIXIHTOK 7 JMGLIVS 1YIWXVE E UYq TEUYIXI TIVXIRIGI YR JMGLIVSHTOK KIX WIPIGXMSRW 1YIWXVE XSHSW PSW TEUYIXIW MRWXEPEHSW IR IP WMWXIQEHTOK VIGSRJMKYVI TEUYIXI 6IGSRJMKYVE TEUYIXIW MRWXEPEHSW )NIQTPS HTOK VIGSRJMKYVIPSGEPIW%48 ,IVVEQMIRXE %ZER^EHE HI )QTEUYIXEQMIRXS %HZERGIH 4EGOEKMRK 8SSP UYI KIWXMSRE IP WMWXIQEHI TEUYIXIW HI (IFMER MRWXEPERHS HIWMRWXEPERHS EGXYEPM^ERHS ] GSRJMKYVERHS PSW QMWQSW 0E WMRXEMWIW ETX KIX ?STGMSRIWA EGGMzRETX KIX YTHEXI (IWGEVKE ] EREPM^E PE PMWXE HI RYIZSW TEUYIXIW HIWHI PSW VITSWMXSVMSWHIP WSYVGIW PMWXETX KIX YTKVEHI %GXYEPM^E XSHSW PSW TEUYIXIW MRWXEPEHSW RS MRWXEPE RM IPMQMRETEUYIXIWETX KIX HMWX YTKVEHI %GXYEPM^E XSHSW PSW TEUYIXIW VIWSPZMIRHS PEW HITIRHIRGMEWETX KIX MRWXEPP TEUYIXI -RWXEPEGMzR HI TEUYIXIW TSV VIH GSR VIWSPYGMzR HI HITIRGMEW ETX KIX WEGGMzR 7MQYPE WMR PPIZEV E GEFS PE EGGMzR 4SV INIQ ETX KIX W MRWXEPP TEUYIXIETX KIX H EGGMzR 7zPS HIWGEVKE PSW TEUYIXIW HIF IR ZEV GEGLI ETX EVGLMZIW WMR MRWXEPEV SHIWMRWXEPEV REHEETX KIX MRWXEPP VIMRWXEPP TEUYIXI 6IMRWXEPE YR TEUYIXIETX KIX VIQSZI TEUYIXI (IWMRWXEPE YR TEUYIXIETX KIX VIQSZI TYVKI TEUYIXI (IWMRWXEPE YR TEUYIXI ] WYW EVGLMZSW HI GSRJMKYVEGMzRETX KIX GPIER )PMQMRE XSHSW PSW TEUYIXIW HIF HIWGEVKEHSW ] EPQEGIREHSW IRZEV GEGLI ETX EVGLMZIWETX KIX EYXSGPIER )PMQMRE PSW TEUYIXIW SFWSPIXSW HI ZEV GEGLI ETX EVGLMZIWETX GEGLI IW YRE YXMPMHEH UYI QERMTYPE PE GEGLq HI TEUYIXIW HI %48 IR FYWGE HI MRJSVQEGMzRETX GEGLI WIEVGL TEPEFVE &YWGE IR PSW TEUYIXIW ] IR PEW HIWGVMTGMSRIW PE TEPEFVEETX GEGLI WLS[ TEUYIXI 1YIWXVE PE HIWGVMTGMzR GSQTPIXE HIP TEUYIXIETX GEGLI WLS[TOK TEUYIXI 1YIWXVE WY VIPEGMzR GSR SXVSW TEUYIXIWETX GEGLI HITIRH TEUYIXI 1YIWXVE PEW HITIRHIRGMEW HIP TEUYIXIETX GEGLI VHITIRH TEUYIXI 1YIWXVE PEW HITIRHIRGMEW MRZIVWEW HIP TEUYIXI GYEPIW HITIRHIRHI qP%TXMXYHI +IWXSV HI TEUYIXIW GSR EPKYREW QINSVEW GSR VIWTIGXS E ETX GSQS PE MRWXEPEGMzR EYXSQjXMGE HIPSW TEUYIXIW UYI WMR WIV HITIRHIRGMEW JSVQER TEVXI HI PSW WYKIVMHSW S VIGSQIRHEHSW ] PEEYXSHIWMRWXEPEGMzR HI PSW TEUYIXIW MRWXEPEHSW IR WY QSQIRXS GSQS HITIRHIRGMEW HI SXVSWEYXSQjXMGEQIRXI IR GSRXVETSWMGMzR E QERYEPQIRXI WM RMRK•R SXVS TEUYIXI PSW RIGIWMXEWI 7I TYIHI YWEVHI JSVQE MRXIVEGXMZE WM RS WI IWTIGMJMGE RMRKYRE EGGMzR S HIWHI PE PMRIE HI GSQERHSW YWERHS PEW QMWQEWSTGMSRIW ] EGGMSRIW HI ETX 0E WMRXEMW IW ETXMXYHI ?STGMSRIWA EGGMzR%GGMSRIWYTHEXI (IWGEVKE ] EREPM^E PE PMWXE HI RYIZSW TEUYIXIW WIK•R PSW VITSWMXSVMSW HIPWSYVGIW PMWXYTKVEHI 6IEPM^E YRE EGXYEPM^EGMzR WIKYVE RS MRWXEPE RM IPMQMRE TEUYIXIWHMWX YTKVEHI 6IEPM^E YRE EGXYEPM^EGMzR MRWXEPERHS ] IPMQMRERHS TEUYIXIW WM JYIVETVIGMWSMRWXEPP TEUYIXI W -RWXEPE EGXYEPM^E TEUYIXIW
  9. 9. VIMRWXEPP TEUYIXI W 6IMRWXEPE YR TEUYIXIVIQSZI TEUYIXI W )PMQMRE TEUYIXIWTYVKI TEUYIXI W )PMQMRE TEUYIXIW ] WYW JMGLIVSW HI GSRJMKYVEGMzRHS[RPSEH TEUYIXI W 7I PMQMXE E HIWGEVKEV PSW TEUYIXIW HIF EP HMVIGXSVMS IR IP UYIIWXEQSWLSPH TEUYIXI W &PSUYIE TEUYIXIWYRLSPH TEUYIXI W (IWFPSUYIE YR TEUYIXIYRQEVOEYXS TEUYIXI W (IWQEVGE TEUYIXIW GSQS MRWXEPEHSW QERYEPQIRXIQEVOEYXS TEUYIXI W 1EVGE TEUYIXIW GSQS MRWXEPEHSW QERYEPQIRXI IPIKMHSW TSVRSWSXVSWWIEVGL ITVIWMzR &YWGE YR TEUYIXI TSV RSQFVI ] S ITVIWMzRWLS[ TEUYIXI 1YIWXVE MRJSVQEGMzR HIXEPPEHE HI YR TEUYIXIGPIER )PMQMRE PSW JMGLIVSW HIF HIWGEVKEHSWEYXSGPIER )PMQMRE PSW TEUYIXIW HIF SFWSPIXSW3TGMSRIWW 7MQYPE PEW EGGMSRIW TIVS IR VIEPMHEH RS PEW VIEPM^EH 7zPS HIWGEVKE TEUYIXIW RS MRWXEPE S HIWMRWXEPE REHET 7MIQTVI TMHI GSRJMVQEGMzR HI PEW EGGMSRIW] 7YTSRI UYI PE VIWTYIWXE E TVIKYRXEW WMQTPIW HIP XMTS Wu RS IW ªWu«J 8VEXE HI EVVIKPEV TEUYIXIW VSXSW HI JSVQE EKVIWMZE: 1YIWXVE PE ZIVWMzR HI PSW TEUYIXIW E MRWXEPEV( 1YIWXVE PEW HITIRHIRGMEW HI PSW TEUYIXIW GEQFMEHSW EYXSQjXMGEQIRXIX VEQE )WXEFPIGI PE VEQE HI (IFMER HIWHI PE UYI WI MRWXEPER PSW TEUYIXIW

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