13 qlx02vgui


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13 qlx02vgui

  1. 1. Unit 13 The Linux GUI
  2. 2. Objectives After completing this unit, you should be able to: • List the main components of the X Window System • LIST THE FUNCTION OF THE X SERVER • List the function of a Window Manager • List the main characteristics of Desktop Environments • Switch between GNOME and KDE
  3. 3. The Linux Graphical User Interface •The "X Window System" is the GUI of Linux • Developed at MIT in 1984 • Current standards body: X Consortium • Shortname: X •X uses client-server model with network connections • Highly flexible • Easy exchange of components •SUPPORTS NETWORKED APPLICATIONS AND SESSIONS, INDEPENDENT OF THE OS
  4. 4. Client/Server Architecture VIV.'.Ï.V /"»S IT TTIFI VIVI'IVIV .'.V ! MI OIIJ X Window System Server Window Manager Application 1
  5. 5. X Components •An X Server •CONTROLS KEYBOARD, MOUSE AND ONE OR MORE SCREENS •CONTROLS RESOLUTION, REFRESH RATE AND COLOR DEPTH • Allows simultaneous access by several clients • Performs basic graphic operations • Forwards keyboard and mouse events to the correct clients •An X Client • Is for instance an application • Receives keyboard and mouse inputs from server •Sends output to be displayed to server •A Window Manager • Is a special X Client • Performs "windows dressing" on other clients • Allows other client windows to be moved, iconified and so forth
  6. 6. X Servers in Linux • Most distributions use XFree86 (www.xfree86.org) as their X Server •OPEN SOURCE • Supports most video adapters • Other X Servers for Linux are available as well • Metro-X (http://www.metrolink.com) • Xi Graphics (http://www.xig.com)
  7. 7. XFree86 Configuration •XFree86 needs to be configured for your hardware • KEYBOARD •MOUSE • Graphical adapter • Monitor •Things to configure: refresh rate, resolution, color depth • Config file: /etc/X11/XF86Config • Manual configuration possible, but hard • See XFree86-HOWTO for details •Automated configuration tools available: • During installation of distribution • XFree86 tools: xf86config, X -configure • Distribution tools: redhat-config-xfree86 (Red Hat and Fedora), sax2/yast2 (SuSE)
  8. 8. Desktop Environments •A Desktop Environment is: •A set of tools, libraries and standards that allows rapid development of X clients • A set of X clients (including one or more window managers) that are developed with these tools, libraries and standards • Examples: • GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) • KDE (K Desktop Environment) •... •Advantages of Desktop Environments • Integration (cut & paste via clipboard, drag & drop) • Common look (themes)
  9. 9. The K Desktop Environment (KDE)
  10. 10. The GNOME Desktop Environment FM GNOME - Computing made easy - Mozilla {BUILD ID: 2002040813] T- 3H S File Edit View Search Go Bookmarks Tasks Help 4 - 4 II Back Forward Reload Stop | http:ZAvww.gnonie.org/ F^HOME | ^BOOKMARKS ^RED HAT NETWORK [^SUPPORT K^SHOP [§FPRODUCTS I_JTRAINING G N O M EWhat would you like? TASKS: Find out what GNOME is See GNOME in action Get GNOME Learn to use GNOME Get more software Develop with GNOME Contribute to GNOME Sections: Latest GNOME news Calendar Developer interviews GNOME Office GNOME Gnome is... Computing made easy. File Xtns Help □ P « P / Q T S ] 9 M & £ & 6 ✓ & A ^ The GNOME project has built a complete, free and easy-to-use desktop environment for the user, as ^ as a powerful application framework for the software developer. GNOME is part of the GNU project, and is free software (some times referred to as open source software). IT is included in almost every BSD and GNU/Linux distribution and works on many other UNIX systems. Check in on the GNOME 2,0 development process, and get involved today.GNOME News: GNOME 2.0 Desktop Beta 5: Now Available on Free. BS D [Mon, May 20 2002] T*I Guikachu 1.2.0: " The O Inevitable Return" [Sat, Map 18 2002] II GNOME 2.0 Desktop Beta 5: "Reciprocity" Recent software: Yelp * [Mon, May 20 2002] IL Sagasu " [Mon, May 20 2002] 4 oggdoctor » [Sat, May 18 2002] gtkgrepmail " [Fïi, May 17 2002] IJ File Roller » [Fïi, May 17 2002] -JSFC ||Z| SSJ Document: Done (18.753 sees) M A -WA - 6 3 M The GIMP ' GNOME - COMPUTING MADE EASY... A 09:50 AM Tue May 21
  11. 11. Starting X • If logged in on a text terminal, run startx •ONLY STARTS A SINGLE SESSION • When session ends, you are back in your text terminal • If you want to enable the graphical login screen, bring the system into runlevel 5 • To switch manually use init 5 command • To make change permanent, edit /etc/inittab: id:5:initdefault:
  12. 12. Choosing your Desktop Environment • Most distributions provide multiple desktop environments •To choose between them, select from the Login prompt • Every user can have his/her own preference
  13. 13. Checkpoint T/F 1. The main configuration file of KDE is /ETC/X11/XF86CONFIG 2. WHAT STATEMENT DESCRIBES THE FUNCTION OF THE X server best? a. It receives input from the keyboard and mouse and forwards this to the appropriate client, and it receives output from the clients and displays this on the screen. b. It performs the "window dressing": It makes sure that every application has a border around its windows so that the window can be resized, moved and iconified. c. It allows the user to type commands while in a graphical environment. d. It shows a set of eyes looking at the cursor. 3. How do you start X?
  14. 14. Unit Summary •The GUI of Linux is based on the X Window System (X for short) •X uses a client-server model •The most common X server under Linux is XFree86 •A Desktop Environment is a set of tools, libraries and standards that allow development of X clients, and a set of X clients developed with this •The most common Desktop Environments on Linux are KDE and GNOME •To switch between Desktop Environments, use the pull-down menu from the graphical login prompt
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