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13 qlx02vgui 13 qlx02vgui Presentation Transcript

  • Unit 13 TheLinux GUI
  • ObjectivesAfter completing this unit, you should be able to:• List the main components of the X Window System• LIST THE FUNCTION OF THE X SERVER• List the function of a Window Manager• List the main characteristics of Desktop Environments• Switch between GNOME and KDE
  • The Linux Graphical User Interface•The "X Window System" is the GUI of Linux• Developed at MIT in 1984• Current standards body: X Consortium• Shortname: X•X uses client-server model with network connections• Highly flexible• Easy exchange of components•SUPPORTS NETWORKED APPLICATIONS AND SESSIONS,INDEPENDENT OF THE OS
  • Client/Server ArchitectureVIV..Ï.V /"»S IT TTIFIVIVIIVIV ..V ! MIOIIJX Window System ServerWindowManagerApplication 1
  • X Components•An X Server•CONTROLS KEYBOARD, MOUSE AND ONE OR MORE SCREENS•CONTROLS RESOLUTION, REFRESH RATE AND COLOR DEPTH• Allows simultaneous access by several clients• Performs basic graphic operations• Forwards keyboard and mouse events to the correctclients•An X Client• Is for instance an application• Receives keyboard and mouse inputs from server •Sendsoutput to be displayed to server•A Window Manager• Is a special X Client• Performs "windows dressing" on other clients• Allows other client windows to be moved, iconified and soforth
  • X Servers in Linux• Most distributions use XFree86 (www.xfree86.org) as theirX Server•OPEN SOURCE• Supports most video adapters• Other X Servers for Linux are available as well• Metro-X (http://www.metrolink.com)• Xi Graphics (http://www.xig.com)
  • XFree86 Configuration•XFree86 needs to be configured for your hardware• KEYBOARD •MOUSE• Graphical adapter• Monitor•Things to configure: refresh rate, resolution, color depth• Config file: /etc/X11/XF86Config• Manual configuration possible, but hard• See XFree86-HOWTO for details•Automated configuration tools available:• During installation of distribution• XFree86 tools: xf86config, X -configure• Distribution tools: redhat-config-xfree86 (Red Hat andFedora), sax2/yast2 (SuSE)
  • Desktop Environments•A Desktop Environment is:•A set of tools, libraries and standards that allows rapiddevelopment of X clients• A set of X clients (including one or more windowmanagers) that are developed with these tools,libraries and standards• Examples:• GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment)• KDE (K Desktop Environment)•...•Advantages of Desktop Environments• Integration (cut & paste via clipboard, drag & drop)• Common look (themes)
  • The K Desktop Environment (KDE)
  • The GNOME Desktop EnvironmentFM GNOME - Computing made easy - Mozilla {BUILD ID: 2002040813]T-3HSFile Edit View Search Go Bookmarks Tasks Help4 - 4 IIBack Forward Reload Stop| http:ZAvww.gnonie.org/F^HOME | ^BOOKMARKS ^RED HAT NETWORK [^SUPPORT K^SHOP [§FPRODUCTS I_JTRAININGG N OM EWhat wouldyou like?TASKS:Find out whatGNOME isSee GNOMEin action GetGNOMELearn to useGNOME Getmore softwareDevelop withGNOMEContribute toGNOMESections:Latest GNOMEnews CalendarDeveloperinterviewsGNOME OfficeGNOMEGnomeis...Computingmade easy.File Xtns Help□P«P / QT S ]9 M & £ &6 ✓ & A^ The GNOME project has built a complete, free and easy-to-usedesktop environment for the user, as ^ as a powerful applicationframework for the software developer.GNOME is part of the GNU project, and is free software (sometimes referred to as open source software). IT is included inalmost every BSD and GNU/Linux distribution and works onmany other UNIX systems.Check in on the GNOME 2,0 development process, and getinvolved today.GNOMENews:GNOME 2.0Desktop Beta 5:Now Available onFree. BS D[Mon, May 20 2002]T*I Guikachu1.2.0: " TheOInevitable Return"[Sat, Map 18 2002]II GNOME 2.0Desktop Beta 5:"Reciprocity"Recentsoftware:Yelp* [Mon, May 20 2002]IL Sagasu" [Mon, May 20 2002]4 oggdoctor» [Sat, May 18 2002]gtkgrepmail" [Fïi, May 17 2002]IJ File Roller» [Fïi, May 17 2002]-JSFC ||Z| SSJ Document: Done (18.753 sees)M A -WA- 6 3 MTheGIMP GNOME - COMPUTING MADE EASY...A09:50AM TueMay 21
  • Starting X• If logged in on a text terminal, run startx•ONLY STARTS A SINGLE SESSION• When session ends, you are back in your textterminal• If you want to enable the graphical login screen, bring thesystem into runlevel 5• To switch manually use init 5 command• To make change permanent, edit /etc/inittab:id:5:initdefault:
  • Choosing your Desktop Environment• Most distributions provide multiple desktop environments •Tochoose between them, select from the Login prompt• Every user can have his/her own preference
  • CheckpointT/F 1. The main configuration file of KDE is/ETC/X11/XF86CONFIG 2. WHAT STATEMENTDESCRIBES THE FUNCTION OF THEX server best?a. It receives input from the keyboard and mouse andforwards this to the appropriate client, and it receivesoutput from the clients and displays this on thescreen.b. It performs the "window dressing": It makes sure thatevery application has a border around its windows sothat the window can be resized, moved and iconified.c. It allows the user to type commands while in agraphical environment.d. It shows a set of eyes looking at the cursor.3. How do you start X?
  • Unit Summary•The GUI of Linux is based on the X Window System (X forshort)•X uses a client-server model•The most common X server under Linux is XFree86•A Desktop Environment is a set of tools, libraries andstandards that allow development of X clients, and a set of Xclients developed with this•The most common Desktop Environments on Linux are KDEand GNOME•To switch between Desktop Environments, use the pull-downmenu from the graphical login prompt