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ObjectivesAfter completing this unit, you should be able to:• Prepare a system for installation• Install Linux from CD-ROM
Preparing a System for Installation• Know your hardware-CPU, memory, keyboard, mouse -Harddisks, CD-ROM players -Graphicaladapters, monitor capabilities -Networkadapters, IP addresses -Printers• Is all your hardware supported? -LinuxHardware-HOWTO -Distributors HardwareCompatibility List -Hardware manufacturer-If unsure, just try it!• Make space for Linux partitions
Know your HardwareObtain information from -Manuals-Windows Control Panel
Partitioning Theory»PARTITIONING IS NECESSARY ON INTEL-BASED COMPUTERS»MAXIMUM OF FOUR PRIMARY PARTITIONS»ONE PRIMARY PARTITION MAY BE AN EXTENDED PARTITION»AN EXTENDED PARTITION CAN HOLD AN UNLIMITED AMOUNTOF LOGICAL PARTITIONS (BUT THE OS MAY POSE A LIMITANYWAY)ICmaster bootrecord partitiontableWindows 95Linux/Linux/homeLinuxswaphda: The first sector of the disk contains the MBR and Partition Tablehdal: First primary partition holds a Windows 95 filesystem hda2:Second primary partition is an extended partition and holds three logicalpartitionshda5: First logical partition holds a Linux filesystem that will be mountedas /hda6: Second logical partition holds a Linux filesystem that will bemounted as /homehda7: Third logical partition holds a Linux swap space
Partitioning Tools• PartitionMagic-Commercial program from PowerQuest -Runs underMS-DOS and Windows -Cancreate/resize/move/delete partitions• GNU parted-Can create/resize/move/delete partitions -QTPartedis a graphical frontend for parted• fdisk-Virtually every PC OS (Windows, OS/2, Linux) comeswith a tool "fdisk" to create partitions for that OS• Disk Druid, YaST and others-PARTITIONING PROGRAMS INTEGRATED IN INSTALL PROGRAM
Installing Linux• Boot system from bootable media-All modern PCs can boot from CD-ROM directly• MUST BE ENABLED IN BIOS -OTHERWISE BOOT FROMFLOPPY• Some distributions require additional disks-All disk images are usually stored on the CD-ROM•After booting, install from: -Local CD-ROM/DVD -Local Hard Disk -Network
Installation Steps•All installation programs need to perform essentially thesame steps:1. Choose language, keyboard type, mouse type2. Create partitions3. Set up a boot loader4. Configure network5. Configure users and authentication6. Select package groups7. Configure X8. Install Packages9. Create Boot Disk• Order of steps may vary from distribution to distribution• Other steps may also be included•e.g. firewall, printers, sound
Select Language, Keyboard, Mouse• Select the language to be used during installation process• DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTIONS SUPPORT DIFFERENTLANGUAGES• Select the keyboard layout• DIFFERENT COUNTRIES USE DIFFERENT KEYBOARDLAYOUTS1• DEAD (COMPOSE) KEYS ALLOW YOU TO INPUT ACCENTEDOR SPECIAL CHARACTERS SUCH AS é, ç, & AND SO FORTH.• Select your mouse• A mouse can be connected using a PS/2, USB or serialconnector• IF YOUR MOUSE HAS ONLY 2 BUTTONS, YOU CAN EMULATETHE THIRD (MIDDLE) BUTTON BY CLICKING BOTH BUTTONSSIMULTANEOUSLY
Install Class• Most distributions have default installation "classes" fortypical users• Workstation• Laptop• SERVER •...•A "custom" class allows you to make all decisions yourself• PACKAGES TO BE INSTALLED• Various configuration optionsMIL!■
Disk Partitioning• Linux installation requires you to create Linux partitions •Ata minimum, create:/Recommended:750 MB min./BOOT 16 MB MIN.May need/want to create other partitions:/USR /USR/LOCAL /VAR /TMP /opt /HOME
Configure a Boot Loader•A Boot Loader loads and starts the Linux kernel• Can boot other operating systems as well• OS/2, Windows, BeOS, ... •Giveeach OS a unique label!• Can be password protected• Prevents users from passing boot parameters toLinux or booting any OS• Should generally be configured in the MBR, unlessanother boot loader is used• Common Boot Loaders:LILO: Linux LoaderGRUB: GRand Unified Boot Loader
Configure Network• Most distributions configure your network adapter as part ofthe installation process• Ethernet• Token Ring• Need the following information:• IP ADDRESS• Subnetmask• NETWORK ADDRESS• BROADCAST ADDRESS• HOSTNAME• DEFAULT ROUTER/GATEWAY• DNS SERVER ADDRESSES• May also be configured to use DHCP
Configure Root and User Accountsroot is the superuser of the system•Can do anything• Needs a strong passwordDo not use your system as root unless you need to!• Most distributions allow you to add user accounts duringinstallation too:• Create a user account for every individual user that isgoing to use the system• Hint: You should enable shadow passwords and MD5encryption if available for additional security
Select Package Groups• Most distributions have grouped individual packages inpackage groups• Only select the package groups you need on yourworkstation• Selecting individual software packages is usually stillpossible but tedious•A typical distribution has over 1000 packages...
Configure X•X (X Window System) is the graphical user interface ofLinux• Needs to be configured for your system• Graphical adapter• Monitor• Most adapters and monitors can be autodetected• If not autodetected, select manually or use a"Generic" adapter or monitor• Usually customization allowed:•RESOLUTION, REFRESH RATE• Color Depth•Test settings if possible!• If nothing works, skip X configuration
Other (Optional) Installation Screens• Some distributions offer additional installation screens:• PRINTER CONFIGURATION• FIREWALL CONFIGURATION• Sound card configuration• Modem configuration• Time Zone configuration• Usually straightforward
Installing Packages• Installing packages may take 5 mins to several hours• MOST DISTRIBUTIONS PROVIDE A PROGRESS BAR AND/ORTOTAL TIME INDICATION• Some distributions provide some entertainment whileinstalling•While installation is going on, various virtual terminalsprovide information on the progress• Switch between VTs using Ctrl-Alt-F1, Ctrl-Alt-F2, ...• Feed additional CDs when asked for
Create Boot Disk•After installation, most distributions allow you to create acustom boot disk• Used to boot the system in case of LILO/GRUB/kernelproblems• System specific to some degree- - ^* N
Post-install Configuration•After installation has finished, your system will reboot toactivate the newly installed kernel•SUSE WILL PERFORM THE REBOOT DURING INSTALLATION• For almost all Linux distributions, this is the only rebootthat is ever required•After reboot, some post-installation configuration mayhappen• Configure graphics• Configure sound card•INSTALL DOCUMENTATION, UPDATES, DRIVERS•CREATE USER ACCOUNTS• Registration
CheckpointT/F 1. Linux can coexist with Windows on the same harddisk.2. Which of the following steps is NOT essential in theinstallation process:a. Create partitions for Linuxb. Configure your printerc. Select your keyboard typed. Identify the packages to install.3. What is the best source of information about yourhardware?
Unit Summary• Preparing a system for installation• Booting the installation program• Installing Linux and basic configuration