01 qlx02vintro


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01 qlx02vintro

  1. 1. Unit 1 Introduction to Linux
  2. 2. Objectives After completing this unit, you should be able to: • Discuss the history of Linux • Name some important people in the history of Linux • Discuss the GNU General Public License
  3. 3. A Short History of Linux (1) • 1984: Richard Stallman starts GNU project • GNU's Not UNIX • http://www.gnu.org • Purpose: Free UNIX •"FREE AS IN FREE SPEECH, NOT FREE BEER" • First step: re-implementation of UNIX Utilities •C COMPILER, C LIBRARY •EMACS • bash •To fund the GNU project, the Free Software Foundation is founded • http://www.fsf.org
  4. 4. A Short History of Linux (2) • 1991: Linus Torvalds writes 1st version of Linux kernel • Initially a research project about the 386 protected mode • Linus' UNIX -> Linux •Combined with the GNU and other tools forms a complete UNIX system • 1992: First distributions emerge • Linux kernel •GNU and other tools • Installation procedure •The rest is history...
  5. 5. What's So Special About Linux? • Most software (including the Linux kernel) is GPL'ed (GNU General Public License) • http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html ► IS CALLED "COPYLEFT" (INSTEAD OF "COPYRIGHT") • You may copy the software •You get the source code • You may alter the source code and recompile it • You may distribute the altered source and binaries • You may charge money for all this You only may not change the license •SO all your customers have the same rights as you • So you really cannot make money from selling the software alone ► OTHER OPEN SOURCE LICENSES (E.G. BSD) ARE ALSO USED
  6. 6. Effects of the License Model • Everybody has access to the source • Volunteer software development on the Internet, with central coordination • LINUS TORVALDS COORDINATES KERNEL DEVELOPMENT •OTHERS COORDINATE OTHER PIECES OF THE OS • Peer reviews possible • Security • Performance • License cannot change •SO your changes (and name) will stay in forever
  7. 7. Linux has become a Way of Life Culture Celebrities -Linus Torvalds -Richard Stallman -Eric Raymond Humor -USER- FRIENDLY - Segfault Mascot -Tux
  8. 8. Linux Today • Linux covers the whole spectrum of computing • Embedded devices • Linux is used by home users •... and by some of the largest companies in the world • IBM • Boeing • NASA • Laptops • Desktop systems • Development systems • Small and large servers • Megaclusters/supercomputers • Linux is used throughout the world • ... and in space
  9. 9. Linux Hardware Support xSeries (Intel) iSeries (PowerPC) pSeries zSeries (PowerPC) (Mainframe) ...also supported: Compaq Alpha, ARM, Hitachi SuperH, Hewlett Packard, DEC VAX, MIPS...
  10. 10. Checkpoint T/F 1. Linus Torvalds wrote the Linux Operating System all by himself. 2. Which of the following statements is NOT true about software licensed under the GNU GPL? a. You have the right to obtain and review the source code b. You may not charge any money for the software c. You may not change the license statement d. You may modify the source code and subsequently recompile it 3. Who is the mascot of Linux?
  11. 11. Unit Summary •The Linux kernel, combined with the GNU and other tools, form a complete UNIX-like operating system •A distribution adds an installation procedure and a convenient format for distribution • Most software in a Linux distribution is licensed under Open Source licenses such as the GNU GPL • Linux has been ported to more than ten hardware architectures and supports virtually all PC hardware • Linux is used in a variety of small and large applications