ObjectivesAfter completing this unit, you should be able to:• Discuss the history of Linux• Name some important people in the history of Linux• Discuss the GNU General Public License
A Short History of Linux (1)• 1984: Richard Stallman starts GNUproject• GNUs Not UNIX• http://www.gnu.org• Purpose: Free UNIX•"FREE AS IN FREE SPEECH,NOT FREE BEER"• First step: re-implementation ofUNIX Utilities•C COMPILER, C LIBRARY•EMACS• bash•To fund the GNU project, the FreeSoftware Foundation is founded• http://www.fsf.org
A Short History of Linux (2)• 1991: Linus Torvalds writes 1stversion of Linux kernel• Initially a research projectabout the 386 protected mode• Linus UNIX -> Linux•Combined with the GNU andother tools forms a completeUNIX system• 1992: First distributions emerge• Linux kernel •GNU and othertools• Installation procedure•The rest is history...
Whats So Special About Linux?• Most software (including the Linux kernel) is GPLed(GNU General Public License) •http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html► IS CALLED "COPYLEFT" (INSTEAD OF "COPYRIGHT")• You may copy the software •You get the sourcecode• You may alter the source code and recompile it• You may distribute the altered source and binaries• You may charge money for all thisYou only may not change the license •SO all yourcustomers have the same rights as you• So you really cannot make money from selling thesoftware alone► OTHER OPEN SOURCE LICENSES (E.G. BSD) ARE ALSOUSED
Effects of the License Model• Everybody has access to the source• Volunteer software development on the Internet, withcentral coordination• LINUS TORVALDS COORDINATES KERNEL DEVELOPMENT•OTHERS COORDINATE OTHER PIECES OF THE OS• Peer reviews possible• Security• Performance• License cannot change•SO your changes (and name) will stay in forever
Linux has become a Way of LifeCultureCelebrities -LinusTorvalds -RichardStallman -EricRaymondHumor-USER-FRIENDLY -SegfaultMascot -Tux
Linux Today• Linux covers the whole spectrum of computing •Embedded devices• Linux is used by home users•... and by some of the largest companies in the world• IBM• Boeing• NASA• Laptops• Desktop systems• Development systems• Small and large servers• Megaclusters/supercomputers• Linux is used throughout the world • ... and in space
Linux Hardware SupportxSeries(Intel)iSeries(PowerPC)pSeries zSeries(PowerPC) (Mainframe)...also supported: Compaq Alpha, ARM,Hitachi SuperH, Hewlett Packard, DEC VAX,MIPS...
CheckpointT/F 1. Linus Torvalds wrote the Linux Operating System allby himself.2. Which of the following statements is NOT true aboutsoftware licensed under the GNU GPL?a. You have the right to obtain and review the sourcecodeb. You may not charge any money for the softwarec. You may not change the license statementd. You may modify the source code and subsequentlyrecompile it3. Who is the mascot of Linux?
Unit Summary•The Linux kernel, combined with the GNU and other tools,form a complete UNIX-like operating system•A distribution adds an installation procedure and aconvenient format for distribution• Most software in a Linux distribution is licensed underOpen Source licenses such as the GNU GPL• Linux has been ported to more than ten hardwarearchitectures and supports virtually all PC hardware• Linux is used in a variety of small and large applications