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Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013
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Digital history, evolution or revolution ? Some definitions - 13 -6 -2013

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Digital History an evolution or a revolution ? …

Digital History an evolution or a revolution ?
Some slides prepared for the Digital History Day - http://instruhist.hypotheses.org/
Université de Toulouse II - Le Mirail
Laboratoire FRAMESPA
Jeudi 13 Juin 2013

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  • 1. Digital History :Digital History :essais de définitionessais de définition--some definitions ?some definitions ?Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?122/02/2013
  • 2. Digital Turn, Digital HistoryDigital Turn, Digital History ouou Digital HumanitiesDigital Humanities?? Faut-il voir la révolution du numérique seulement comme une nouvelle “boîte à outils” commele carnet de recherche (blog) d’Emilien Ruiz et de Franziska Heimburger auteurs de l’essai:“Has the Historian’s craft gone digital?“ quand ils affirment que “we do not have theimpression that the “digital revolution” will lead to a change in the fundamental epistemologyof historical research. That said, the historian’s craft is changing and it is subject to profoundevolution in [its] practices ….” Ou avec Claire Lemercier, qui, dans son interview à la revue Diacronie, parle des instrumentsqui organisent l’écriture de l’histoire, un concept très restrictif qui ne tient pas compte desattentes réelles et des accomplissements des Digital Humanities et de la Digital History? Les Digital Humanities naissent dans les trasformations des Humanities Computing quirencontrent le web: nouvelles demandes, nouvelles recherches grâce à de nouveauxinstruments, de nouveaux paradigmes critiques et de nouvelles modalités de communicationdes résultats dans la toile permettent la naissance d’une transdisciplinetransdiscipline qui est aussi la DigitalHistory. La digital history est discipline “autogérée” -certes grâce aux boîtes à outils-, parfois avec desformations spécifiques pour concevoir et utiliser les instruments nouveaux. Au niveau académique pourtant les digital humanities sont “officiellement» une nouvellediscipline et la sous-discipline de la Digital History n’est toujours pas considérée. Des hiérarchies de l’approfondissement disciplinaire existent: de l’usage des instrumentsnumériques au fait de penser de manière différente la recherche et ses produits à travers lenumérique (communication) et grâce au numérique (conception) et, enfin, ce qui intéresse leplus les historien publics: grâce à la participation à l’écriture de l’histoire et à ses différentslangages dans le numérique.Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?222/02/2013
  • 3. First time usedFirst time used Digital HistoryDigital History ??In 1997 in Charlottesville, University of Virginia:In 1997 in Charlottesville, University of Virginia:“So far few historians have tried to define “digitalhistory”. We were probably the first to use the termwhen Ed Ayers and I founded and named the VirginiaCenter for Digital History (VCDH) in 1997-1998. We usedthe term in essays and talks to describe The Valley ofthe Shadow. In 1997 was taught an undergraduateseminar”Digital History of the Civil War”. We begancalling such courses “digital history seminars”[...].Later Steve Mintz started his site (in effect a digitaltextbook) using the name Digital History.”,(Willian G.Thomas III in “Interchange: The Promise of Digital History, in TheJournal of American History, 95/2, September 2008, pp.452-491).13/06/13 3322/02/2013Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?
  • 4. Edward L.Ayers in 1999Edward L.Ayers in 1999Why becoming a Digital Historian ?Why becoming a Digital Historian ?“Historians need to understand the new media and itsimplications as fully as possible, for both defensive andhopeful reasons. We need to resist the dilution anddistortion of historical knowledge brought by the erosionof our authority in a widely dispersed new medium. Thebest way to wage that resistance is to seize for ourselvesthe opportunities the medium offers, opportunities totouch the past, present, and future in new ways.”In: The Pasts and Futures of Digital History, URL:[http://www.vcdh.virginia.edu/PastsFutures.html]Edward L. Ayers. University of Virginia, 1999 (Later, from 2002, VCDH,Virginia Center for Digital History)4Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?22/02/2013
  • 5. VCDH – Virginia Center for Digital HistoryVCDH – Virginia Center for Digital HistoryProgramme:Programme:•Aider à confectionnerdes publicationsnumériques•Développer unetechnologie innovativepour la digital history•Comprendre commentl’histoire est enseignée,apprise et accédée àl’époque du numériqueDigital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?513/06/13 522/02/2013
  • 6. Digital Historian: Roy A. RosenzweigDigital Historian: Roy A. Rosenzweig• “Roy A. Rosenzweig, 57, a social and culturalhistorian at George Mason University […]became a prominent advocate for "digitalhistory," a field combining historical scholarshipwith digital medias broad reach and interactivepossibilities….”• At GMUs Center for History and New Media, Roy A. Rosenzweig oversawthe creation of online history projects (Links to Washington Post articleby Adam Bernstein, Washington Post Staff Writer, Saturday, October 13,2007)6Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?22/02/2013
  • 7. What is Digital History ?What is Digital History ?CHNM, George Mason UniversityCHNM, George Mason University• “Digital history is an approach toexamining and representing thepast that takes advantage of newcommunication technologies suchas computers and the Web. Itdraws on essential features of thedigital realm, such as databases,hypertextualization, andnetworks, to create and sharehistorical knowledge.• Digital history complements otherforms of history—indeed, it drawsits strength and methodologicalrigor from this age-old form ofhuman understanding while usingthe latest technology.”Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?722/02/2013
  • 8. Digital History, Department of History,Digital History, Department of History,University of Nebraska-LincolnUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln“An emerging field of practice, DigitalHistory is at the forefront of the so-called"digital turn" in the humanities, a genreof scholarship engaged in conceiving,researching, and developing historicalinterpretations by creating a new kind ofanalysis using digital tools and data. …”Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?822/02/2013
  • 9. BeyondBeyond Valley of the Shadow Project:Valley of the Shadow Project:new research queries for the (digital) historiannew research queries for the (digital) historian« Using digital media, we wantedto give readers full access to ascholarly argument, thehistoriography about it, andthe evidence for it.[…].”William G. Thomas III et Edward L. Ayers: “AnOverview: The Differences Slavery Made: AClose Analysis of Two AmericanCommunities.”, dans American HistoricalReview, 108/5, 2003, pp.1299–1307.Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?922/02/2013
  • 10. Modification des outils ou rénovationModification des outils ou rénovationde la science historique ?de la science historique ?“it already had altered modes of learning and teaching,access to original sources and to information”Jordanova ajoute“it remains unclear in 2005 precisely how internet willradically transform, if at all, the nature of historicalscholarship”. (Ludmilla Jordanova: History in practice., London,Hodder Arnold - Bloomsbury Academic, 2006, 2nd edition, p.189(Bloomsbury 2013, 3rdedition).Est-ce toujours d’actualité ? Est-ce que ce l’était en 2005lors de la 2ème édition de son livre ?Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?1022/02/2013
  • 11. Quels changements épistémologiques avecQuels changements épistémologiques avecla digital history 2.0?la digital history 2.0?• L’histoire numérique 2.0, en fonction de l’histoire elle-même, mais aussid’une digital history 1.0 préexistante, offre des changementstechnologiques, peut-être de changements épistémologiques, mais sansdoute pas de changements ontologiques.• Si l’on reste avec la digital history 1 ou 2, dans le domaine d’un champ del’histoire, se pose alors le problème de la révision des méthodes utilesdans ce champ en tant historien.• Les éléments d’une critique interne et externe de la documentationnumérisée, propres à l’approche que les médiévistes adoptent pouraffronter leurs documents, sont les points forts d’une méthode critiquenouvelle à déployer dans les contextes numériques.• Le passage au Web 2.0 ne change pas les problèmes posés dès le départ aumétier d’historien par l’introduction du numérique, ni les nécessités del’élaboration d’une méthode critique adaptée au nouveau média internet.Authentifier, mettre en contexte, décrire les sources avec précision, sontdes moments obligés de la recherche historique également dans ledomaine numérique.Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?1122/02/2013
  • 12. La Digital History: nouvelles sources,La Digital History: nouvelles sources,nouveaux instruments, nouveaux historiensnouveaux instruments, nouveaux historiens• Pouvoir à l’utilisateur final, (end-user)• P2P interactive communication• Nouvelles formes d’écriture: blog, vlog, médiassociaux, wiki, etc.• Nouveaux instruments grâce aux codes open source:mashup, etc. pour qui est capable techniquementde les exploiter et aussi de les construireDigital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?1222/02/2013
  • 13. Digital Turn in History ?Digital Turn in History ?Jennifer Rutner and Roger C.Schonfeld: Supportingthe changing research practices of historians:Final Report from ITHAKA S+R, December 10,2012“Based on interviews with dozens of historians,librarians, archivists, and other supportservices providers, this project has foundthat the underlying research methods ofmany historians remain fairly recognizableeven with the introduction of new tools andtechnologies, but the day to day researchpractices of all historians have changedfundamentally […]. The findings andrecommendations from the present projectconnect directly to efforts to best educatePhD students for the field of history […].We hope they will suggest opportunities atboth a field and a campus level to ensurethat academic historians and the field ofhistory is well served in its digital turn.”(p.5).Analysed Impact on: Archives Libraries Providers of digital/digitizedResources Research notes managementsystems History Departments Scholarly Societies FundersDigital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?1322/02/2013
  • 14. Public and Digital HistoryPublic and Digital HistoryKirsten Sword, (“Interchange: The Promise of Digital History”, Journalof American History, 95/2, 2008, pp.452-491)3 reasons:• “New Archives/New Inquiry: Digital resources are expanding andredefining the archival base for most fields and thereby redefiningthe fields themselves. (This is driven more by libraries and thetech industry than by historians.)• Audience: New bridges between academic and popular/publichistory.• Collaboration: […] The best digital projects are collaborative,involving multiple scholars and a technical team, and ideally aninstitution committed to keeping the project alive after itscreators move on to other things. …”Digital History: Histoire et Mémoire àla portée de tous ?1422/02/2013

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