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  • 1. Editor’s Note E Editor-in-Chief Samiullah Sami Learning from an adversary ducation, education education………..anybody con- Managing Editor Shaista Sami nected in some way to promotion of education in Pak- Editor istan has stepped on the same bandwagon with a cargo Javaid Saleem Chattha of promises, promises that are never meant to be ful- Editorial Board Dr Zafar Cheema filled. No wonder the countries which were never so M. Nawaz Saleem Kiani well placed as Pakistan is, surpassed us and have an Nadeem Qadir enviable rate of literacy. In contrast to this, we in Pak- Resident Editor (Islamabad) Saifullah Khan istan have not only a poor but a shameful record. And Artwork/Designing to that comes the standard of our education. Serfraz Qadir Almani Communication Manager Shazia Kausar There were times when students from far and near Marketing Executives flocked our institutions of higher learning but now even Manzoor Ahmed the local employers prefer students who graduate from G.M Bajwa Shahnawaz Kiani abroad. There are ghost institutions of basic education Abrar Ahmed and ghost colleges. Every three or fours years a “bullar” Legal Advisor university is unearthed, a few persons given a token Hashmat Ali Habib Advocate, Supereme Court punishment as an eyewash, a food for thought for our Circulation learned Dr. Ata-ur-Rehman, our education Guru and Ghulam Rasool presently the Chairman, Higher Education Commission Photographers Nadeem Khawar Pakistan. Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro M Yaqoob Bhatti A large number of US universities are now trying to Sagheer Ahmed Kamboh Sajjad Butt woo their Indian counterparts. Jointly, universities are being set up with US curricula and faculty members Head Office derived partly from the US universities and partly from 394, Hunza Block, Allama Iqbal Town, India. The concept of satellite campuses in antiquated Lahore - Pakistan now. The Indian Academics now see eye to eye with Tel: +92 42 5296754 their US and European counterparts, do we? Fax: +92 42 5296755 Mobile: 0300 9452755 We consider India as our adversary but some times Islamabad Office learning from an adversary’s strategy can pay off. Can’t Saifullah Khan Office # 8, Israr Plaza we learn from them? Can’t we set up jointly run univer- G-10 Markaz, Islamabad sities with curricula and faculty from Pakistan, USA or Tel: 051 2110020 even European continental universities? Will our educa- Mobile: 0333 5278862 tions pundits give some though to this? UK Correspondent Rashid Ahmed Bushra Muzammal 102-Montague Road, Slough Berks SL. 3RN UK Tel: 017 53-535289
  • 2. 14 M An exclusive chat with Hasibe Sahoglu CONTENTS ‘Pakistanis are very friendly people and good hosts.’ s Hasibe Sahoglu, the ambassador of the Turkish Republic of North- ern Cyprus (TRNC) to Pakistan since September 2006, graduated from Ankara University and received his Masters degree in Interna- tional Relations from the Near East University in TRNC. He then had two years’ training on ‘Conflict Resolution’ on the Fulbright scholarship. He had a strange thrill of good feelings while he talked about as to how he felt the moment he learnt that he had been assigned a magnificent job he had long cherished as a diplomat in a brother-country like Pakistan. I Panel interview 16 Study in new zealand for pakistani students t was a heated roundtable discussion when Education Scenario Interna- tional (ESI) took the opportunity to meet with a panel of visiting Interna- tional Marketing Managers from five New Zealand tertiary institutes at the Serena Hotel in Islamabad. The interview started with a question posed by ESI, and turned into an interesting and knowledgeable debate on internation- al education, punctuated by the visiting managers. The visitors were joined by two Pakistani women education agents that specialize in New Zealand educa- tion, one from Karachi and the other from Islamabad. E Environmental scientist What is this job like? nvironment is a global issue in today’s world and both developed and developing countries have now begun to feel concerned about the greenhouse effect. Environmental scientists find and fix pollution and other environmental problems. They figure out what is in the air, water, and soil to make sure that the environment is safe. They also give advice on how to clean the environment. For example, they might design a safe way to get rid of trash. Some of these workers mix environmental science with other sci- ences, such as chemistry or biology. 19 W Seven simple steps to discovering Who, what, and why you are. hat am I? Who am I? Why am I here? These are questions we some- times ask ourselves. When we answer these questions to our satisfac- tion, we lead happy, fulfilling, and rewarding lives. That being so, wouldn’t it help if they taught us the answers in school? Well, life itself is the most important school we will ever attend, and the teacher is experience. Life will gladly answer our questions if we follow seven simple steps. 25
  • 3. 27 T Global MBA Rankings 2009 Hopefully, 2009 will be year when business schools change funda- mentally his year marks the publication of the 11th annual Financial Times sur- vey of non-degree executive education programmes. The survey includes three business school rankings: of schools which offer open w w w . e d u c a t i o n s c e n a r i o . c o m enrolment programmes, those offering customised programmes and a com- bined table featuring schools ranked for both. Perhaps the most difficult ques- tion of all for MBA students is where they will work on graduation. “If there’s a global market in automobiles there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a global market in talent as well,” Joe Thomas, dean of the Johnson school at Cornell University, USA, remarked. 35 New Point-based UK Student F Visa- PBS Tier 4 System Just a simple guide for Pakistani students rom 31st March 2009, UK Border and Immigration Agency (UKBIA) has launched Points Based System (PBS, Tier 4) for international stu- dents, who wish to apply and obtain UK Study Visa. Students wish to study in UK and need student visa, would require obtaining 40 points to be able to apply and gain the visa. P Working While Studying New permission to work arrangement for student visa holders eople granted student visas on or after 26 April 2008 will receive per- mission to work with their visa grant. This applies to both the primary student and any family members travelling with them on their student visa. As a result, most student visa holders are no longer need to apply sepa- rately in Australia for permission to work. The new arrangement saves student visa holders time and money. However, work rights for student visa holders haven’t changed. Students are still not allowed to work until they have started W e b s i t e : their course and the hours they can work have not changed. T Global MBA Rankings 2009 Hopefully, 2009 will be year when business schools change fundamentally his year marks the publication of the 11th annual Financial Times survey of non-degree executive education programmes. The survey includes three business school rankings: of schools which offer open enrolment programmes, those offering customised programmes and a combined table featuring schools ranked for both. Perhaps the most dif- ficult question of all for MBA students is where they will work on gradua- tion. “If there’s a global market in automobiles there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a global market in talent as well,” Joe Thomas, dean of the Johnson school at Cornell University, USA, remarked.
  • 4. INTERVIEW Education Scenario International (ESI): ESI: Pakistan and Turkey enjoy strong diplo- Would you like to through light on your pro- matic and trade relations. Do you think there fessional background and successful career? is still a lot to do to further cement these existing bonds of relationship between Hasibe Sahoglu: I completed my high school Pakistan and TRNC? education in Lefkofla, Cyprus. I also attended Aberdeen High School, Dakota, in USA for one year. I HS: The relations between the TRNC and Pakistan graduated from the Department of Political Science of are exemplary at the political level, but our economic Ankara University and received my Masters degree in relations are very weak in spite of the fact that there are International Relations from the Near East University in tremendous possibilities to enhance the trade relations TRNC. between our countries. We are working hard to further I had two years’ training on ‘Conflict Resolution’ on grow the trade relations. I should mention here that a Fulbright scholarship. I also worked for a private there are so many Pakistanis who are living in North construction company in Libya for four or five years Cyprus. There are students studying in our universi- and then at the TRNC Milk Industry Association for 12 ties; and there are professors teaching at these univer- years. Then, I joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of sities apart from ordinary workers contributing to the the TRNC as a diplomat in 1994 and served my first TRNC economy. overseas post in Azerbaijan between the years 1999- 2003. After serving as the private secretary with deputy ESI: It may not be a matter of surprise for newspapers which have a large circulation. prime minister and at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs you to believe that Education Scenario In terms of tourism, a package tour which covers for a brief period, I worked as director of protocol for International and Tourism Scenario both Turkey and Northern Cyprus, can be organised by 15 months. International act as a major revenue genera- tourism agencies. I already know that there are so tor for TRNC, and there is a lot of potential in many Pakistanis who visit Turkey. The distance ESI: When did you take over as head of the Pakistan for your universities and tourism. In between Turkey and Northern Cyprus by air is only one Mission to Pakistan and what were your view of the present privileged and wholesome hour. For instance, if a family goes to Turkey for a week feelings? situation, what plans have you got on your they can spend two days of the week in Northern mind to promote these very sectors? Cyprus. This is the first option strikes my head. HS: Since September 2006, I have been serving as Ambassador of the Turkish Republic of Northern HS: In terms of education, I believe that our univer- ESI: How do you find the flow of students Cyprus (TRNC) in Pakistan. When I was told that I was sities should attach more importance to marketing in from Pakistan to your country? Did that appointed to the Mission in Pakistan, I became over- Pakistan. Representatives from our universities attend decreased or increased during the last five joyed because Pakistan is our brother-country and I education exhibitions held in Pakistan every year. years? always had a dream to visit Pakistan some day. So, However, this is not sufficient from the point of view of ultimately, my dream came true. I am very pleased to marketing. Another alternative to increase the number HS: Unfortunately, the number of Pakistani students learn about Pakistanis and their way of life. of Pakistani students is to give advertisements in studying in our universities came down in the last five 2 4 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 5. HS: The training on `Conflict Resolution` was a great experience. Initially, we were trained as trainers and then we organised bi-communal workshops for students, occupational groups, young people etc. I believe that as a result of all those workshops both the peoples, name- ly the Turkish Cypriots and the Greek Cypriots in the island of Cyprus have come to a point that there must be a solution for the long existing problem. ESI: You have been in Pakistan since 2006. How do you find Pakistan as a country and what are your views about its people? HS: As I have mentioned earlier, Pakistan is a coun- try that I have always wanted to visit. It has a very rich culture. Every province has its own culture in terms of clothing, dance, music etc. I find Pakistani people very friendly and good hosts. Whenever we say that we are Turks a friendly and warm smile plays upon their lips. In fact, the amity and respect are mutual feelings that the people of these two countries enjoy. ESI: How and in what way Education Scenario International and its Event Management team can support TRNC to pro- mote its universities? HS: Well, I think that Education Scenario International can support the TRNC universities by publishing information about universities in our coun- try. For instance, our universities can be promoted one by one in this magazine’s subsequent issues. ESI: Would you like to comment on the role of Pakistan’s first and the only magazine on education? HS: I congratulate you for publishing Education years. The main reason for this is that some of the Scenario International. You are doing a great job Asian countries are offering good opportunities as well. because this is a kind of encouragement for young peo- ple who wish to get good international education. You ESI: Why should students choose TRNC as know education is the most important thing in one’s their study destination? life. The more you educate people, the more you become successful in life and useful in your society. I HS: First of all, some of our most important uni- believe education plays an important role in the versities have a high standard of education. progress and development of a nation. Secondly, the annual fees compared to the European and American universities are quite low. ESI: Anything else that we may have missed Thirdly, some of our universities have protocol which you would like to share with our valued agreements with universities in the UK and USA. readers? So, students always stand a chance to have double degrees. HS: Personally, I believe that Northern Cyprus is a And, finally, TRNC is a Muslim country and peo- ESI: You have been awarded Fulbright schol- paradise. I am sure all students will enjoy their staying ple can perform their religious duties and obliga- arship for training on ‘Conflict Resolution’. in this country. Therefore, I would like to invite all tions without any hesitation or fear. How was your experience? Pakistani students to apply for TRNC universities. | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 5
  • 6. It was a heated roundtable discussion when “So why should Pakistani students consider here satisfy this desire. And very importantly, New Education Scenario International (ESI) took the studying in New Zealand?” was the question Zealand has one of the least expensive costs-of-liv- opportunity to meet with a panel of visiting posed by ESI. ing in the Western world.” International Marketing Managers from five New Zealand tertiary institutes at the Serena Hotel in Mr Brett Muir, (representing the University of Ms Robyn McCollum, (Waikato Institute of Islamabad. Waikato) responded that New Zealand is a very Technology) added: New Zealand has 21 Institutes strong market for undergraduate and postgraduate of Technology and 8 Universities. The Institutes of The interview started with a question posed by students. “New Zealand offers unique opportunities Technology are mainly undergraduate, and very ESI, and turned into an interesting and knowledge- for Pakistani students who would normally be think- focused on preparing students for employment. able debate on international education, punctuated ing of studying in the UK, Australia, US or Canada.” Universities are more research focused.” Ms Robyn by the visiting managers. The visitors were joined by “All of the institutions visiting here today are state continued, “In the current global recession, students two Pakistani women education agents that special- run and academically very strong. Students want to are very cost conscious, and particularly concerned ize in New Zealand education, one from Karachi and graduate with qualifications that are very internation- with their employment prospects after graduation. the other from Islamabad. ally respected. All of the New Zealand institutions New Zealand offers an applied education system that 1 6 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 7. is focused on resourcefulness and problem solving in the future workplace.” Ms Carol Allen, (Western Institute of Technology): “New Zealand certificates, diplomas and degrees in subjects including business, engineering, nursing, teaching, agriculture, horticulture, construction, hospitality, biotechnology, medical and health are taught as good as anything in Australia or the UK and with lower tuition fees. If you are looking for (From left to right) Rubeena N I Hoodbhoy, (CEO RMT Enterprises) and Mrs S Rajput, (Director, Islam- abad Auspak International) during interview session. environmental studies or water resources or roading technology engineering...or if you are looking for dairy farm technology, then New Zealand has excel- Parents can be reassured that New Zealand is a safe lent programmes.” country. Male and female Muslim students are wel- comed with none of the unreasonable discrimination ESI: What about the social situation for our you experience in other countries of the world. The students? This is something parents are political situation in Pakistan makes it more difficult particularly concerned about...” for students to get visas, but the New Zealand entry Ms Helen Kemp (Eastern Institute of Technology): requirements are fair and honest. | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 1 7
  • 8. Parents can be reassured that ‘‘ New Zealand is a safe country. New Zealand offers unique oppor- Male and female Muslim stu- tunities for Pakistani students dents are welcomed with none who would normally be thinking of the unreasonable discrimi- of studying in the UK, Australia, ’’ nation you experience in other US or Canada. countries of the world. The political situation in Pakistan makes it more difficult for stu- dents to get visas, but the New Zealand entry requirements are fair and honest. Interview Panel Universities (1) University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand (2) Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier, New Zealand (3) Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand (4) Western Institute of Technology at Taranaki, New Zealand (5) Wellington Institute of Technology, New Zealand that New Zealand is a very strong option for stu- institution. dents.” We have a much better understanding of the Ms Helen continued, “Students need to know education system here in Pakistan and are able to that the agents know what they are talking about. counsel the student on where they should be ESI: You people have agents in Pakistan. Recently the news has been full of reports about going.” They have their name; they have a reputa- inaccurate information relating to poor quality UK tion built on doing business with schools. ESI interrupted: On the basis of reality, Australian institutions. Why should an We work closely with three four agencies in the basic objective is for you to reap a agent who works for Australia choose to Pakistan: RMT, Auspak, HR Consultants, and maximum benefit... work for New Zealand institutions? Horizon..They have all personally visited our cam- Ms Rubeena Hoodbhoy, RMT Enterprises, puses in New Zealand, and also visited the New Karachi responded, “Of course. Education is like Ms Prabha Ravi (Wellington Institute of Zealand Immigration Office in Bangkok to have a cloth. A student may choose silk, cotton, or syn- Technology): “When we are developing a market clear picture of the visa scenario for local stu- thetic. But not everyone can choose silk, and not such as Pakistan we have to depend on the people dents.“ every student can enter an Ivy League school. The who represent us when we are not present. Ms S Rajput, Director of Auspak International in first choice is that the study should be cost effec- Thankfully we have some really capable agents Islamabad jumped into the discussion. “Whether tive. Students have opportunities from all over the assisting us in Pakistan. They have historically in America, the UK, or New Zealand we agents are world but our decision as agents is that New favoured Australian institutions, but now believe the middle person between the student and the Zealand is the right place to go to.” 1 8 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 9. EMERGING SUBJECT | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 1 9
  • 10. E EMERGING SUBJECT nvironment is a global issue in Environmental scientists find read books about rocks, the earth, and the today’s world and both developed environment. and developing countries have and fix pollution and other now begun to feel concerned about the environmental problems. They How much does this job pay? greenhouse effect. Environmental scientists figure out what is in the air, find and fix pollution and other environ- water, and soil to make sure The middle half of all environmental sci- mental problems. They figure out what is in that the environment is safe. entists earned between $42,840 and the air, water, and soil to make sure that the They also give advice on how $74,480 in 2006. The lowest-paid 10 per- environment is safe. They also give advice cent earned less than $34,590. The highest- on how to clean the environment. For paid 10 percent earned more than $94,670. to clean the environment. For example, they might design a safe way to example, they might design a get rid of trash. Some of these workers mix safe way to get rid of trash. How many jobs are there? environmental science with other sciences, such as chemistry or biology. Environmen- Environmental scientists held about tal chemists find out if different chemicals 83,000 jobs in 2006. Many worked for gov- hurt the environment. Environmental biolo- ernments. Others worked for science and gists focus on protecting animals and engineering companies, oil and gas compa- plants. Some environmental scientists help nies, and other places. Some had their own make laws about protecting the environ- businesses. ment. They also help companies follow the laws. Environmental scientists work in lab- What about the future? oratories and offices. They also work out- side, taking measurements. They use maths The number of jobs for environmental and computers. Environmental scientists scientists is expected to grow much faster sometimes work long hours. Some travel to than the average for all occupations through far away places in trucks and helicopters. 2016. That’s because people want the envi- They might dig dirt, chip rocks, or do other ronment to be cleaner, and more businesses physical things. Scientists who look for oil and governments will hire these scientists often work in foreign countries. In addition to help do that. to doing science, many of these workers write reports and help find money for their Are there other jobs like this? projects. Astronomer Atmospheric scientist How do you get ready? Chemist Engineering technician All of these workers need a college Mathematician degree. Most need an advanced degree Petroleum engineer either masters, which takes 1 or 2 more Physicist years after finishing college, or a doctoral Science technician degree, which takes longer. In college, these workers study geography, environ- mental science, chemistry, biology, earth Environmental scientists and science, and physics. They also study math In college, these workers hydrologists and statistics so that they can understand study geography, environmen- measurements and data. People who want tal science, chemistry, biolo- Environmental scientists and hydrologists to make laws about protecting the environ- gy, earth science, and often work in offices, laboratories and field ment also take law classes. In addition to sites. Federal, State and local governments taking classes, scientists have to learn how employ 43 per cent of all environmental physics. They also study math to work with other people. They also need and statistics so that they can scientists and hydrologists. Although a to practice speaking and writing so that they understand measurements and bachelor’s degree in an earth science is ade- will be able to explain their research. Work- data. quate for a few entry-level jobs, employers ers also need computer skills. And they prefer a master’s degree; a PhD. degree need to know about the latest tools and generally is required for research or college technology for studying the earth. Students teaching positions. Job prospects are can start getting ready by taking science, expected to be favourable, particularly for math, and computer classes. They can also hydrologists. 2 0 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 11. EMERGING SUBJECT Nature of work Environmental scientists and hydrologists in research positions with the Environmental scientists and hydrologists Federal Government or in colleges and universities often have to find fund- use their knowledge of the physical makeup ing for their work by writing grant proposals. Consultants face similar pres- and history of the Earth to protect the envi- sures to market their skills and write proposals so that they will have ronment, study the properties of under- steady work. ground and surface waters, locate water and energy resources, predict water-related geo- disciplinary engineering companies, the logic hazards, and provide environmental largest of which may employ thousands of site assessments and advice on indoor air workers, and small niche firms that may quality and hazardous-waste-site remedia- employ only a few workers. When looking tion. Environmental scientists conduct for jobs, environmental scientists and research to identify, abate and eliminate hydrologists should consider the type of hazards that affect people, wildlife, and firm and the scope of the projects it under- their environments. These workers analyze takes. In larger firms, environmental scien- measurements or observations of air, food, tists are more likely to engage in large, water, and soil to determine the way to long-term projects in which they will work clean and preserve the environment. Under- with people in other scientific disciplines. standing the issues involved in protecting In smaller specialty firms, however, they the environment—degradation, conserva- work more often with business profession- tion, recycling, and replenishment—are als and clients in government and the pri- central to the work of environmental scien- vate sector. tists. They often use this understanding to design and monitor waste disposal sites, Environmental scientists who work on preserve water supplies, and reclaim con- policy formation may help identify ways taminated land and water to comply with that human behaviour can be modified in Federal environmental regulations. They the future to avoid such problems as also write risk assessments, describing the ground-water contamination and depletion likely affect of construction and other envi- of the ozone layer. Some environmental sci- ronmental changes; write technical propos- entists work in managerial positions, usual- als; and give presentations to managers and ly after spending some time performing regulators. Hydrologists study the quantity, research or learning about environmental distribution, circulation, and physical prop- laws and regulations. erties of bodies of water. Often they spe- cialize in either underground water or sur- Many environmental scientists do work face water. They examine the form and and have training that is similar to other intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltra- physical or life scientists, but they focus on tion into the soil, its movement through the environmental issues. Many specialise in Earth, and its return to the ocean and atmos- subfields such as environmental ecology phere. Hydrologists use sophisticated tech- and conservation, environmental chemistry, niques and instruments. For example, they Many environmental scientists and environmental biology, or fisheries science. may use remote sensing technology, data hydrologists work at consulting firms, help- Specialties affect the specific activities that assimilation, and numerical modelling to ing businesses and government agencies environmental scientists perform, although monitor the change in regional and global comply with environmental policy, particu- recent understandings of the interconnect- water cycles. Some surface-water hydrolo- larly with regard to ground-water deconta- edness of life processes have blurred some gists use sensitive stream-measuring mination and flood control. They are usual- traditional classifications. For example, devices to assess flow rates and water qual- ly hired to solve problems. Most consulting environmental ecologists study the relation- ity. firms fall into two categories: large multi- ships between organisms and their environ- ments and the effects of factors such as population size, pollutants, rainfall, temper- ature, and altitude, on both. They may col- lect, study, and report data on air, soil, and water using their knowledge of various sci- entific disciplines. Ecological modellers study ecosystems, pollution control, and resource management using mathematical | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 1
  • 12. EMERGING SUBJECT modelling, systems analysis, thermodynam- A bachelor’s degree in ics, and computer techniques. Environmen- environmental science tal chemists study the toxicity of various offers an interdisciplinary chemicals, that is, how those chemicals approach to the natural affect plants, animals, and people. (Infor- sciences, with an empha- mation on geoscientists who also study the Earth, is located elsewhere in the Hand- sis on biology, chemistry, book.) and geology. Undergraduate environ- Environmental scientists and hydrologists mental science majors in research positions with the federal gov- typically focus on data ernment or in colleges and universities analysis and physical often have to find funding for their work by writing grant proposals. Consultants face geography, which are par- similar pressures to market their skills and ticularly useful in study- write proposals so that they will have ing pollution abatement, steady work. water resources, or ecosystem protection, Most entry-level environmental scientists restoration, and manage- and hydrologists spend the majority of their time in the field, while more experienced ment. workers generally devote more time to office or laboratory work. Many beginning most entry-level applied research positions chemistry, fluid mechanics, and geologic hydrologists and some environmental sci- in private industry, in state and federal logging, which is the gathering of geologic entists, such as environmental ecologists agencies, and at State geological surveys. A data. An understanding of environmental and environmental chemists, often take doctoral degree generally is necessary for regulations and government permit issues field trips that involve physical activity. college teaching and most research posi- also is valuable for those planning to work Environmental scientists and hydrologists tions. in mining and oil and gas extraction. in the field may work in warm or cold cli- Students interested in hydrology should mates, in all kinds of weather. In their Some environmental scientists have a take courses in the physical sciences, geo- research, they may dig or chip with a ham- degree in environmental science. Many, physics, chemistry, engineering science, mer, scoop with a net, come in contact with however, earn degrees in life science, soil science, mathematics, aquatic biology, water, and carry equipment. Travel often is chemistry, geology, geophysics, atmospher- atmospheric science, geology, oceanogra- required to meet with prospective clients or ic science, or physics and then apply their phy, hydrogeology, and the management or investors. education to the environment. They often conservation of water resources. In some need research or work experience related to cases, a bachelor’s degree in a hydrologic Researchers and consultants might face environmental science. A bachelor’s degree science is sufficient for positions consulting stress when looking for funding. Occasion- in environmental science offers an interdis- about water quality or wastewater treat- ally, those who write technical reports to ciplinary approach to the natural sciences, ment. business clients and regulators may be with an emphasis on biology, chemistry, For environmental scientists and hydrol- under pressure to meet deadlines and thus and geology. Undergraduate environmental ogists who consult, courses in business, have to work long hours. science majors typically focus on data finance, marketing, or economics may be analysis and physical geography, which are useful. In addition, combining environ- Training, other qualifications and particularly useful in studying pollution mental science training with other disci- advancement abatement, water resources, or ecosystem plines such as engineering or business, protection, restoration, and management. qualifies these scientists for the widest Most environmental scientists and range of jobs. Computer skills are essential hydrologists need a master’s degree. A PhD Understanding the geochemistry of inor- for prospective environmental scientists and is usually necessary for jobs in college ganic compounds is becoming increasingly hydrologists. Students who have some expe- teaching or research. A bachelor’s degree in important in developing remediation goals. rience with computer modelling, data analy- an earth science is adequate for a few entry- Students interested in working in the envi- sis and integration, digital mapping, remote level positions, but environmental scientists ronmental or regulatory fields, either in sensing, and Geographic Information Sys- increasingly need a master’s degree in envi- environmental consulting firms or for fed- tems (GIS) will be the most prepared to enter ronmental science, hydrology, or a related eral or state governments, should take the job market. Familiarity with the Global natural science. A master’s degree also is courses in hydrology, hazardous-waste Positioning System (GPS)—a locator system the minimum educational requirement for management, environmental legislation, that uses satellites—is vital. 2 2 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 13. EMERGING SUBJECT Certification and advancement Job outlook Environmental scientists and hydrolo- Employment of environmental scientists gists often begin their careers in field and hydrologists is expected to grow much exploration or, occasionally, as research faster than the average for all occupations. assistants or technicians in laboratories or Job prospects are expected to be offices. They are given more difficult favourable, particularly for hydrologists. assignments as they gain experience. Even- Employment of environmental scientists is tually, they may be promoted to project expected to increase by 25 percent between leader, programming manager, or some 2006 and 2016, much faster than the aver- other management and research position. age for all occupations. Over the same peri- (Information on engineering and natural od, employment of hydrologists should sciences managers is located elsewhere in increase by 24 percent, also much faster the Handbook.) than the average. Job growth for environ- The American Institute of Hydrology mental scientists and hydrologists should offers certification programmes in profes- be strongest in private-sector consulting sional hydrology. Certification may be ben- firms. Growth in employment of environ- eficial for those seeking advancement. mental scientists and hydrologists will be spurred largely by the increasing demands Employment placed on the environment and water resources by population growth. Environmental scientists and hydrolo- gists held about 92,000 jobs in 2006. Jobs Further demand should result from the for hydrologists accounted for only 9 per- need to comply with complex environmen- cent of the total. Many more individuals tal laws and regulations, particularly those Employment of environmental sci- held environmental science faculty posi- regarding ground-water decontamination, tions in colleges and universities, but they clean air, and flood control. Much job are classified as postsecondary teachers. growth will result from a continued need to entists and hydrologists is expected to grow much faster than the aver- (See the statement on teachers postsec- monitor the quality of the environment, to age for all occupations. Job ondary elsewhere in the Handbook.) interpret the impact of human actions on prospects are expected to be favor- terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and to able, particularly for hydrologists. About 35 per cent of environmental sci- develop strategies for restoring ecosys- Employment change. Employment entists were employed in State and local tems. In addition, environmental scientists governments; 21 percent in management, will be needed to help planners develop scientific, and technical consulting servic- and construct buildings, transportation cor- of environmental scientists is expected to increase by 25 percent es; 15 percent in architectural, engineering ridors, and utilities that protect water between 2006 and 2016, much and related services; and 8 percent in the resources and reflect efficient and benefi- faster than the average for all occu- Federal Government. About 2 percent were cial land use. pations. self-employed. Demand for hydrologists should also be Among hydrologists, 26 per cent were strong as the population increases and employed in architectural, engineering, and moves to more environmentally sensitive Environmental scientists and hydrologists related services, and 18 per cent worked for locations. As people increasingly migrate must have good interpersonal skills, management, scientific, and technical con- toward coastal regions, for example, because they usually work as part of a team sulting services. In 2006, the Federal hydrologists will be needed to assess build- with other scientists, engineers, and techni- Government employed about 28 percent of ing sites for potential geologic hazards and cians. Strong oral and written communica- hydrologists, mostly within the US Depart- to mitigate the effects of natural hazards tion skills also are essential because writ- ment of the Interior for the US Geological such as floods, landslides, and hurricanes. ing technical reports and research propos- Survey (USGS) and within the US Depart- Hydrologists also will be needed to study als and communicating results to company ment of Defence. Another 21 percent hazardous-waste sites and determine the managers, regulators, and the public are worked for State agencies, such as State effect of pollutants on soil and ground important aspects of the work. Because geological surveys and State departments water so that engineers can design remedi- international work is becoming increasing- of conservation. About 2 percent of hydrol- ation systems. Increased government regu- ly pervasive, knowledge of a second lan- ogists were self-employed, most as con- lations, such as those regarding the man- guage can be an advantage. Those involved sultants to industry or government. agement of storm water, and issues related in fieldwork must have physical stamina. to water conservation, deteriorating coastal | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 3
  • 14. EMERGING SUBJECT environments, and rising sea levels also 2007 for graduates with bachelor’s degrees in Job prospects will stimulate employment growth for an environmental science averaged $38,336 a these workers. In addition to job openings due to year. In 2007, the Federal Government’s Many environmental scientists and growth, there will be additional demand for average salary for hydrologists was $82,217. hydrologists work in consulting. Consult- new environmental scientists and hydrolo- ing firms have hired these scientists to help gists to replace those who retire, advance Related occupations businesses and government address issues to management positions, or change related to underground tanks, land disposal careers. Job prospects for hydrologists Environmental scientists and hydrologists areas, and other hazardous-waste-manage- should be favourable, particularly for those perform investigations for the purpose of ment facilities. Currently, environmental with field experience. Demand for hydrol- abating or eliminating pollutants or hazards consulting is evolving from investigations ogists who understand both the scientific that affect the environment or plants, ani- to creating remediation and engineering and engineering aspects of waste remedia- mals, and humans. solutions. At the same time, the regulatory tion should be strong. Few colleges and Many other occupations deal with preserv- climate is moving from a rigid structure to universities offer programmes in hydrolo- ing or researching the natural environment, a more flexible risk-based approach. gy, so the number of qualified workers may including conservation scientists and be limited. foresters, atmospheric scientists, and some These factors, coupled with new Federal biological scientists, science technicians, Federal executive branch $82,490 and State initiatives that integrate environ- and engineering technicians. Environmental Management services $57,280 mental activities into the business process Engineering services $56,080 scientists and hydrologists have extensive itself, will result in a greater focus on waste Local government $52,100 training in physical sciences, and many minimization, resource recovery, pollution State government $50,590 apply their knowledge of chemistry, physics, prevention, and the consideration of envi- biology, and mathematics to the study of the ronmental effects during product develop- Job prospects for environmental scien- Earth, work closely related to that of geosci- ment. This shift in focus to preventive tists also will be good, but less favourable entists. management will provide many new oppor- than for hydrologists because of the larger Using problem-solving skills, physicists; tunities for environmental scientists and number of workers seeking to enter the chemists; engineers; mathematicians; survey- hydrologists in consulting roles. field. ors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and Funding for Federal and State geological surveying technicians; computer systems surveys depend largely on the political cli- analysts; and computer scientists and data- Currently, environmental con- mate and the current budget. Thus, job base administrators may also perform similar security for environmental scientists and work related to the environment. hydrologists may vary. During periods of Sources of additional information: Infor- sulting is evolving from investi- gations to creating remediation economic recession, layoffs of environ- mation on training and career opportunities and engineering solutions. At the mental scientists and hydrologists may for environmental scientists is available same time, the regulatory cli- occur in consulting firms; layoffs are much from: American Geological Institute, 4220 mate is moving from a rigid less likely in government. King St., Alexandria, VA 22302. Internet: structure to a more flexible risk- Earnings For information on careers in hydrology, contact: American Institute of Hydrology, based approach. These factors, coupled with new Federal and Median annual earnings of environmental 300 Village Green Circle, Suite #201, Smyr- State initiatives that integrate scientists were $56,100 in May 2006. The na, GA 30080. Internet: http://www.aihy- environmental activities into the middle 50 percent earned between $42,840 Information on obtaining a position business process itself, will and $74,480. The lowest 10 percent earned as a hydrologist or an environmental pro- result in a greater focus on waste less than $34,590, and the highest 10 percent tection specialist with the Federal Govern- earned more than $94,670. ment is available from the Office of Per- Median annual earnings of hydrologists sonnel Management through USAJOBS, minimization, resource recovery, pollution prevention, and the were $66,260 in 2006, with the middle 50 the Federal Government’s official employ- consideration of environmental percent earning between $51,370 and ment information system. effects during product develop- $82,140, the lowest 10 percent earning less This resource for locating and applying ment. than $42,080, and the highest 10 percent for job opportunities can be accessed earning more than $98,320. Median annual through the Internet at earnings in the industries employing the or through an largest number of environmental scientists in interactive voice response telephone sys- 2006 were as follows: According to the tem at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461- National Association of Colleges and 8404. These numbers are not toll free, and Employers, beginning salary offers in July charges may result. 2 4 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 15. PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT W hat am I? Who am I? Why am I uncooperative, he could have been studying surprise, he suddenly became one. here? These are questions we some- how to get along with others. Rather than As he trotted to the garrison, Michihiro times ask ourselves. When we whining about having too much to do, he could cursed the blazing sun, for the long robes he answer these questions to our satisfaction, we have been studying how to get organized and was wearing caused him to be drenched in lead happy, fulfilling, and rewarding lives. manage his time. Rather than demanding sweat. “I wish I was as powerful as the sun.” he That being so, wouldn’t it help if they taught respect from his company, he could have been said. No sooner said than done. Thrilled by his us the answers in school? Well, life itself is the studying how to earn it. Rather than bellyach- new power, he started to scorch the earth. But most important school we will ever attend, and ing about tedious tasks, he could have been a menacing storm cloud appeared and blocked the teacher is experience. Life will gladly developing self-discipline. And rather than the sun. “That cloud is more powerful than I,” answer our questions if we follow seven sim- grumbling about lack of advancement, he he thought, “I wish I were a cloud.” Soon he ple steps. could have been busily creating his own oppor- was. But he felt himself being pushed away by tunities. the wind. “The wind is more powerful than I. I Step 1. Accept and appreciate your wish I were the wind.” he said. Michihiro present situatuin Step 1 is important because it is only when laughed as he blew the tiles off house tops and we are satisfied with where we are that we will fell trees. But there was something he could not be ready to move beyond it. To bring this point budge. It was a mountain made of solid stone. Sure, life is a school, but how can you learn home, I will share a zen story and a poem. First “That mountain is more powerful than I.” he anything if you don’t attend classes and fail to the zen story: thought, “I wish I were the mountain.” study? Let’s use Tom as an example. Perhaps A long time ago, a Japanese stone cutter Michihiro stood tall and erect, for he was you know someone like him. He is unhappy named Michihiro was unhappy with his lot in now a mighty mountain. But then he heard a and always changing jobs. He always has an life. He was envious of his neighbor, a wealthy clinking sound from down below. And with excuse for quitting. “I can’t stand the petty merchant. “I wish I could be as rich as he.” he each clink, he felt a little weaker. “Is there office politics. The boss is too demanding. The said to himself. After making the wish, he was something more powerful than I?” he thought. people I have to work with refuse to cooperate. magically transformed into a wealthy mer- Looking down, he saw a stone cutter chipping I don’t get chant. away slabs of stone. Perhaps, like Michihiro, the recognition I deserve. This job is too bor- One day a nobleman and his accompanying we can learn that we don’t have to look else- ing. There is no opportunity for advancement.” warriors walked by on horseback. All the vil- where for power, contentment, and success, but Tom wants to graduate from the school of lagers had to prostrate before the procession. we can find it right where we are. Here is a life, but he isn’t willing to do the homework. “How powerful that nobleman is!” thought poem by H.C. Jensen that teaches the same les- Rather than complaining about people being Michihiro. “I wish I were a nobleman.” To his son. | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 5
  • 16. PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT Why God put me here Now that you have some helpful ideas, how will you bring them about? What steps do you I don’t know how to say it But somehow it need to take? What resources are necessary? seems to me, That maybe we are stationed When will you start and when will you com- where God wants us to be. That little place I’m plete your plan? filling is The reason for my birth And just to do the work I do, God sent me down to earth. Step 5. Start taking action If God had wanted otherwise I reckon He’d have made, Me just a little different Of a worse The most difficult part of a new plan is start- or better grade. And since God knows and ing. Don’t allow yourself to get stalled. Simply understands All things of land and sea, I fancy choose the simplest step you can take and do it. that He placed me here Just where He wanted No matter how small your baby steps may be, me. Sometimes I get to thinking As my labors each one moves you closer to your goal. Also, I review, That I should like a higher plane With you will find that as you repeatedly take baby greater things to do. But I come to the conclu- steps, you will pick up momentum and baby sion when the envying is stilled, That the post steps will gradually grow into giant steps, until, add to life, to e are here to to which God sent me Is the one he wanted at last, you sprint to the finish line. The only W ue filled. So I plod along and struggle In the hope thing separating us from where we are to where it in our uniq contribute to a here to make when day is through, That I’m really necessary we can be is action. So, act now. way. We are e the ere to chang To the things God wants to do. And there isn’t any service I can give which I should scorn, difference; h er king it a bett world by ma Step 6. Follow through For it may be just the reason God allowed that o here to cel- e. We are als I be born. A good plan isn’t enough. We have to follow plac it through to completion if we wish to succeed. are in and In fact, the original meaning of SUCCEED is ebrate life, sh . spread its joy Step 2. Listen to your inner voice to MAKE THE NEXT MOVE, or follow Attending school isn’t helpful if you refuse to through. Here’s what a very successful woman listen to the teacher. After all, the first stage of has to say about follow through, “Those who learning is listening. All of us get bright ideas are blessed with the most talent don’t necessar- and good intentions, but most of the time they ily outperform everyone else. It’s the people are set aside, and later forgotten, making them with follow-through who excel.” Mary Kay worthless. We need to listen to these urgings Ash (1918 ~ 2001). And Sir Walter Scott (1771 because it is life’s way of showing us what can ~ 1832) cut my seven step plan to just two: be. Accepting and appreciating what we have “Think things through - then follow through.” should not be mistaken for passivity. Just because we are happy with our present situa- Step 7. Discover who, what and why tion doesn’t mean it cannot improve. Life is you are by the actions you take synonymous with change and evolution. It is always stretching, reaching out, trying to Who, what, or why we are here has nothing become more today than it was yesterday. We to do with our occupation, which is just one of can either join in the call of life and march for- many ways we express ourselves. It is not what he is gone.” or will they say, “Good riddance!” ward, or we can sit by the wayside as mere job we have that counts, but what kind of father Can you see how we discover who and what spectators. or mother, son or daughter, wife or husband, we are by listening to the promptings of our friend, relative, neighbor, employer, worker, inner voice and following through? As we Step 3. Write down your bright ideas coworker, or citizen that I am. In a word, it is awaken to our power, we discover why we are and good intentions as they occur not what I DO but what I AM that defines me. here as well. We are here to add to life, to con- Reworded, it is not my position, but my dispo- tribute to it in our unique way. We are here to There is magic in the written word. By jot- sition that counts. Am I generous or selfish, make a difference; here to change the world by ting down our ideas we transform intangible caring or cold, helpful or troublesome, encour- making it a better place. We are also here to thoughts into something concrete. Once we aging or demeaning, cheerful or grumpy, arro- celebrate life, share in and spread its joy. The write them down, we can refer to them again gant or modest, resentful or forgiving, truthful two great personal moments in our lives are the and again, clarifying and building on them. or dishonest, demanding or understanding, moment we were born and the moment we dis- patient or hot-headed, courteous or rude, gentle covered why (we were born). Step 4. Change your ideas into an or cruel, moody or even-tempered, aggressive Chuck Gallozzi Toronto, Canada action plan or friendly, thoughtful or thoughtless? In other Email: words, when I die, will others say, “I’m sorry 2 6 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 17. RANKINGS | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 7
  • 18. T RANKI NAL P E R S ON G S D E V E L O P M E N T his year marks the publication of the 11th annual Financial Times survey of non-degree executive education programmes. The survey includes three business school rankings: of schools which offer open enrolment pro- grammes, those offering customised pro- grammes and a combined table featuring schools ranked for both. Perhaps the most difficult question of all for MBA students is where they will work on graduation. “If there’s a global market in automobiles there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a global market in talent as well,” Joe Thomas, dean of the Johnson school at Cornell University, USA, remarked. “We will have to rethink the basis of finance. We will need to understand how to adjust globalisation to a more regulated world. We need to give our students more insights into what the new role of business in society will be and how business has to take the rest of society more into account in its strategies.” Professor De Meyer said. Open programmes are open to employees from any company or organisation. Those included here last for at least three days. The data collected is used to assess the first 11 criteria on the table. Customised programmes are tailor-made These make up 80 per cent of the school’s final score. The other five cri- for organisations that want to offer specific training to employees. This year 60 schools teria in the customised ranking are compiled using the statistical data participated in the open stream and 78 in supplied by the business schools. More than 5,600 senior and general the customised stream. To be eligible, a participants replied to the survey in 2009 school must have had income of at least $2 million from the programme type during the previous year. weightings. In descending order these are: customised ranking are compiled using the For the customised ranking, business statistical data supplied by the business schools are asked for details of a number of • Strategic: Designed to determine and influ- schools. The open enrolment ranking is also top clients, who are invited to complete an ence the strategy of the company; calculated using data gathered from two • General: Delivered to management on opera- online survey (primary survey). They can types of surveys: an online questionnaire tional aspects of the company; also give feedback about a second school completed by programme participants and a • Functional: Relating to a specific function – they have used in the past 12 months (sec- survey of data supplied by participating for example, marketing. ondary survey). This ranking is compiled schools. using data from two sets of surveys; one is Different weightings are also assigned to Online questionnaires are distributed in completed by the clients and the other by questionnaires according to the seniority of English, French, Spanish and Italian to two the business schools. the person responsible for specifying the groups of participants: those who took part Surveys are distributed in English, programme, the size of the company, and in senior management programmes, and French, German, Italian, Spanish, Por- the number of business schools the client those who participated in general-level tuguese and Mandarin. Clients are asked to has used for customised programmes. management programmes. rate aspects of the programme on a 1 to 10- In total, 838 business school clients com- More than 5,600 senior and general par- point scale: 1 is “poor” and 10 is “excel- pleted the survey. The data collected is used ticipants replied to the survey in 2009. After lent”. Furthermore, the Financial Times to assess the first 11 criteria on the table. the online questionnaire closes, data gath- defines three categories of customised pro- These make up 80 per cent of the school’s ered from the senior and general level par- grammes, which are assigned different final score. The other five criteria in the ticipants are collated. Calculations for the 2 8 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 19. RANKINGS two data sets are completed separately and edge the perception that their MBA gradu- the results are then combined using a 50/50 ates are seen as part of the problem. “It’s a weighting. These results are used to com- bit superficial but it is there,” says Michael pile the first 10 criteria of the open ranking Osbaldeston, director of Cranfield School and account for 80 per cent of the school’s of Management in the UK. “Yes, business final score. The data from the business schools will be blamed for some of the school are used to calculate the other six excesses that we have recently observed criteria. For both rankings, calculations for and for some of the mistakes made by busi- the first section of the table include data ness leaders,” says Arnoud de Meyer, direc- (collected from participants or clients) from tor of the Judge Business School at the previous years, where applicable. The Cambridge University, England. “We prob- weightings are 55:45 if a school has partic- ably deserve some of that blame.” ipated for two years. If they have taken part Luis Palencia, associate dean for the for three years, the weighting is: 40:33:27. MBA at Iese Business School in Spain agrees. “I believe by omission we are To create the final rankings, results from responsible.” One of the undoubted ironies the various calculations are converted into is the effect the financial crisis has had on Z-scores. These take into account the differ- ences between each business school and the distribution of scores between the highest and lowest scorers. The schools’ Z-scores for each of the cri- teria are then weighted. The weightings for the first section of the table are determined by the level of importance that respondents attach to each criterion. The weightings applied in the second section (statistical The weightings for the first section of the table are determined by the data collected from the schools) are decided level of importance that respondents attach to each criterion. The by the Financial Times. The sum of the weighted Z-scores deter- weightings applied in the second section (statistical data collected mines a school’s overall position. The rank- from the schools) are decided by Financial Times ing is calculated on the basis of the average Z-score for schools that appear in both rankings. The replacement of the MBA graduate by the younger lawyer in some way reflects one of their recent concerns: the perception of business among those in their 20s – potential MBA applicants. US business schools have been reporting for the past the business school funding model. of their income from short non-degree pro- five years that these students “generation In November last year, Harvard Universi- grammes there are clear signs that corpora- Y” are increasingly focused on manage- ty President Drew Gilpin Faust issued a tions will no longer support this expense. ment rather than business. statement that sent a chill through every Figures circulating in the industry suggest They are eschewing the 80-hour working university in the US. “We need to be pre- business has already declined by between week of the investment banker or manage- pared to absorb unprecedented endowment 15 and 20 per cent, particularly in open ment consultant for more time with their losses and plan for a period of greater finan- enrolment programmes. families and more socially rewarding jobs cial constraint,” she wrote. The problems for US schools do not stop in not-for-profit companies or government. The devaluation of endowments is one of there. The credit crunch has affected both Business school professors are worried the three financial pitfalls for business schools, scholarships and student loans, says Larry suspicions that surrounded big business fol- particularly those in the US. Schools also Mueller, director of financial aid at the Dar- lowing the Enron and Worldcom bankrupt- face a reduction in the annual fund – the den School of Business at the University of cy listings in 2001 and 2002 have been money students and alumni give to help in Virginia. exacerbated by the credit crunch and finan- the day-to-day running of the school. These A sharp drop in endowment income cial crises of the past year. gifts often count for between 10 and 15 per means a sharp drop in money for scholar- Though most business schools plead cent of the operating budget. ships. Mr Mueller says the school is contin- innocence over the crisis, they acknowl- And for schools that earn large amounts uing to put money behind its scholarship | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 2 9
  • 20. RANKINGS programme. But he points out: “Continuing pean business school – London Business Beth Flye, head of admissions at the Kel- to pour money into scholarships is unsus- School – has been ranked number one logg school at Northwestern University, tainable.” (jointly with the Wharton School at the believes that many potential applicants see And while domestic US students can University of Pennsylvania) for the first the market as too competitive so are stick- receive loans through government-financed time. And there are three Asian schools in ing to their jobs for the foreseeable future, schemes, those applying to US business the top 20, including one, Ceibs in Shang- while others are concerned that the reces- schools from overseas have to get their hai, in the top 10. sion will last longer than the two-year money from private funding schemes and Domestic US applications continue to rise degree. those have evaporated. The result has been dramatically. GMAC, the council that Perhaps the most difficult question of all that the number of international applica- administers the Graduate Management for MBA students is where they will work tions this year to US schools has plummet- Admission Test, had its best year in 2008: on graduation. The schools likely to be ed, often by about 20 per cent. 262,000 tests were taken. hardest hit are those that place large num- With the prospect of people “hiding out” bers of students in the finance sector, such With business schools in Europe and Asia for two years, the US MBA has traditional- as NYU Stern and Columbia Business growing in reputation, many non-US stu- ly been seen as an attractive proposition School in New York. dents are opting instead to study there. In during a recession. But not everyone is con- Gina Resnick, who heads the career man- this year’s Financial Times ranking, a Euro- vinced this will hold true this year. agement centre at Columbia, where half the students usually go into finance-related jobs, says that recruiting is down and there is a lot of uncertainty. She predicts that stu- Domestic US students can receive loans through government-financed schemes, dents will face a protracted job search this those applying to US business schools from overseas have to get their money from year and there will be a lot more hiring for private funding schemes and those have evaporated. The result has been that the one-off specific jobs. But, she adds, stu- number of international applications this year to US schools has plummeted, often dents are “very pragmatic”. In Europe the first health indicators of the job market came from IMD and Insead both by about 20 per cent of which graduate a class in December. At IMD the news is good. Katty Ooms-Suter, director of admissions and careers, says that 82 per cent of the 90-strong class had a job offer on graduation, but she points out that most of those went into industry, where IMD has a particularly strong recruitment record. It is an attitude that needs to be adopted in US schools too, says Joe Thomas, dean of the Johnson school at Cornell University . “If there’s a global market in automobiles there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a global market in talent as well.” While business schools are fighting the twin fires of funding and recruitment, many of them will have little time to reflect on the bigger question of whether the MBA is doing its job – teaching the right subjects to the right people. Others are already ponder- ing these issues. A solution to the current malaise, argues Prof De Meyer, will involve significant changes. “We will have to rethink the basis of finance; we will need to understand how to adjust globalisation to a more regulated world. We need to give our students more insights into what the new role of business in society will be and how business has to 3 0 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 21. RANKINGS With business schools in Europe and Asia growing in reputation, many non-US stu- dents are opting instead to study there. In this year’s Financial Times ranking, a European business school – London Business School – has been ranked num- ber one (jointly with the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania) for the first time. And there are three Asian schools in the top 20, including one, Ceibs in Shanghai, in the top 10 Perhaps the most difficult question of all for MBA students is where they will work on graduation. “If there’s a global market in automobiles there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a global market in talent as well.” Joe Thomas, dean of the Johnson school at Cornell University. take the rest of society more into account in salary from before the MBA to today as a per- centage of the class for which the school its strategies.” Other European schools, too, centage of the pre-MBA salary. This figure was able to provide employment data. The believe the time is right for a sea-change in includes data for the current year and the one alumni were asked to name three business business education. “We are in a changing or two preceding years where available. Value schools from which they would recruit paradigm,” says Laurent Bibard, dean for for money: MBA graduates. MBA programmes at Essec in France. “Stu- This is calculated using the salary earned by The ranking is calculated according to the dents don’t believe what we teach anymore, alumni today, course length, fees and other votes for each school. Data for the current if we don’t take into account the value costs, including the opportunity cost of not year and the one or two preceding years are questions.” Perhaps 2009, then, will be the working for the duration of the course. included where available. year when business schools change funda- Women faculty: Percentage of female faculty; mentally. If not, potential MBA students in Career progress Women students: Percentage of female students; the US might vote with their feet and go to Women board: Percentage of female mem- bers of the advisory board; law school instead. This is calculated according to changes in International faculty: Percentage of faculty the level of seniority and the size of the whose citizenship differs from their country of company alumni are working in now versus Salary employment; before their MBA. Data for the current year International students: Percentage of stu- The average alumni salary three years after and the one or two preceding years are dents whose citizenship differs from the coun- graduation. (The 2009 ranking surveyed the included where available. try in which they are studying; MBA class that graduated in 2005). This figure International board: Percentage of the board includes alumni salary data for the current year Aims achieved whose citizenship differs from the country in and the one or two preceding years, where avail- which the business school is based; able. The figure is NOT used in the ranking. The extent to which alumni fulfilled their International mobility: This is calculated goals or reasons for doing an MBA. Place- according to whether alumni worked in different countries before the MBA, on graduation and Weighted salary ment success (2) Alumni who used the also where they are employed today; careers service at their business school International experience: Weighted average The average alumni salary with adjustment were asked to rank its effectiveness in their of four criteria that measure international expo- for variation in the industry sector: this fig- job search. This figure includes data for the sure during the MBA programme. ure includes data for the current year and the current year and the one or two preceding Languages: The number of extra languages one or two preceding years where available. years where available. required on completion of the MBA. Where a The percentage of the most recent gradu- proportion of students require a further lan- Salary percentage increase ating class that found employment or guage due to an additional diploma, that figure accepted a job offer within three months of is included in the calculations but not present- The percentage increase in average alumni graduating: the figure in brackets is the per- ed in the final table. | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 3 1
  • 22. Global MBA Rankings 2009 FT home > Business School Rankings > Global MBA Rankings 2009 Rank in 2009 3 year average rank School name Country Weighted salary (US$) Salary percentage increase Employed at three months (%) 1 1 University of Pennsylvania: Wharton U.S.A. 169784 119 89 ( 98) 2 3 London Business School U.K. 146565 121 90 ( 97) RANKINGS 3 4 Harvard Business School U.S.A. 163637 115 93 ( 99) 4 3 Columbia Business School U.S.A. 164310 132 92 ( 93) 5 6 Insead France / Singapore 147908 108 89 ( 95) 6 4 Stanford University GSB U.S.A. 170340 105 93 ( 99) 7 8 IE Business School Spain 132925 169 91 ( 86) 8 10 Ceibs China 151641 179 92 ( 94) 9 10 MIT Sloan School of Management U.S.A. 156451 121 90 ( 95) 10 10 New York University: Stern U.S.A. 144125 133 93 ( 96) 11 9 University of Chicago: Booth U.S.A. 150272 113 94 ( 100) 12 13 Iese Business School Spain 124645 135 98 ( 98) 13 12 Dartmouth College: Tuck U.S.A. 156124 121 94 ( 100) 3 2 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 14 14 IMD Switzerland 151624 97 93 ( 100) 15 Indian School of Business India 148339 160 100 ( 93) 16 Hong Kong UST Business School China 108364 128 93 ( 86) 17 14 University of Cambridge: Judge U.K. 130160 121 93 ( 95) 18 21 Esade Business School Spain 121776 137 89 ( 100) 19 15 Yale School of Management U.S.A. 140803 134 95 ( 98) 20 19 University of Oxford: Saïd U.K. 135502 109 89 ( 87) 21 21 Northwestern University: Kellogg U.S.A. 142645 103 96 ( 97) 22 24 Duke University: Fuqua U.S.A. 128692 102 92 ( 97) 23 23 University of Michigan: Ross U.S.A. 132522 105 90 ( 93) 24 28 Emory University: Goizueta U.S.A. 126262 136 86 ( 98) 25 46 Nanyang Business School Singapore 104294 131 92 ( 100) 26 30 Rotterdam School of Management Netherlands 109997 107 97 ( 90) 27 26 Lancaster University Management School U.K. 106960 128 92 ( 83) 28 29 University of Virginia: Darden U.S.A. 137215 119 91 ( 100) 29 22 HEC Paris France 117630 103 82 ( 97) 30 24 UCLA: Anderson U.S.A. 141065 110 89 ( 92) 31 29 University of California at Berkeley: Haas U.S.A. 137699 80 91 ( 98) 32 25 Manchester Business School U.K. 109066 104 95 ( 95) 33 40 Australian School of Business Australia 127474 100 89 ( 74) 34 33 Cornell University: Johnson U.S.A. 127858 104 93 ( 98) 35 National University of Singapore Singapore 95926 122 87 ( 88) 35 34 Cranfield School of Management U.K. 127004 95 97 ( 100) 37 34 Warwick Business School U.K. 114653 92 88 ( 80) 38 43 SDA Bocconi Italy 104859 111 81 ( 89) 39 43 Imperial College Business School U.K. 117119 96 100 ( 85) 40 37 Georgetown University: McDonough U.S.A. 121786 112 98 ( 88) 41 University of Strathclyde U.K. 118683 114 93 ( 73) 42 44 University of Arizona: Eller U.S.A. 101066 138 60 ( 100) 43 52 City University: Cass U.K. 124026 87 95 ( 91) 44 37 University of Maryland: Smith U.S.A. 108404 95 90 ( 98) 45 39 University of North Carolina: Kenan-Flagler U.S.A. 120198 98 86 ( 99) 46 44 University of Rochester: Simon U.S.A. 115867 116 92 ( 91) 47 38 University of Toronto: Rotman Canada 97413 92 90 ( 92) 48 47 University of Western Ontario: Ivey Canada 104456 98 91 ( 94) 49 49 York University: Schulich Canada 88609 97 90 ( 93) 50 62 University of Texas at Austin: McCombs U.S.A. 114761 92 89 ( 96)
  • 23. Rank in 2009 3 year average rank School name Country Weighted salary (US$) Salary percentage increase Employed at three months (%) 51 47 Carnegie Mellon: Tepper U.S.A. 116773 96 96 ( 99) 52 69 Melbourne Business School Australia 110290 83 96 ( 87) 53 55 Rice University: Jones U.S.A. 109302 101 90 ( 96) 53 77 University of Pittsburgh: Katz U.S.A. 95633 111 89 ( 95) 55 52 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign U.S.A. 92863 112 89 ( 88) 56 64 Vanderbilt University: Owen U.S.A. 110768 106 90 ( 98) 57 66 Leeds University Business School U.K. 100918 105 91 ( 90) 57 68 Boston University School of Management U.S.A. 105532 101 95 ( 93) 57 68 Texas A & M University: Mays U.S.A. 98647 111 98 ( 100) 60 62 Indiana University: Kelley U.S.A. 107653 98 90 ( 100) 60 64 University of Southern California: Marshall U.S.A. 116258 87 94 ( 94) 60 65 Washington University: Olin U.S.A. 109507 88 90 ( 96) 63 University of Florida: Hough U.S.A. 101343 104 94 ( 88) 63 50 Michigan State University: Broad U.S.A. 102897 96 91 ( 100) 63 54 University of Iowa: Tippie U.S.A. 92166 116 95 ( 98) 63 55 Pennsylvania State University: Smeal U.S.A. 105728 88 93 ( 99) 67 56 University of Washington Business School U.S.A. 105558 92 96 ( 99) 67 62 Thunderbird School of Global Management U.S.A. 99187 94 67 ( 85) 67 65 University of South Carolina: Moore U.S.A. 91774 109 86 ( 89) 70 SMU: Cox U.S.A. 109052 106 95 ( 96) 71 65 University of Cape Town GSB South Africa 143693 72 79 ( 84) 71 67 University of Minnesota: Carlson U.S.A. 98451 102 86 ( 97) 71 80 University of British Columbia: Sauder Canada 89682 83 92 ( 93) 74 64 University of California at Irvine: Merage U.S.A. 102010 91 77 ( 97) 75 Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Belgium 101180 66 100 ( 100) 76 74 Arizona State University: Carey U.S.A. 99624 97 92 ( 88) 77 Aston Business School U.K. 86364 99 100 ( 98) 77 University of Alberta Canada 75084 95 98 ( 100) 77 74 University of Notre Dame: Mendoza U.S.A. 106487 110 91 ( 95) 80 Durham Business School U.K. 104282 81 93 ( 88) 80 64 Purdue University: Krannert U.S.A. 100856 92 86 ( 99) 80 86 Ohio State University: Fisher U.S.A. 93744 105 95 ( 93) 83 Birmingham Business School U.K. 82624 99 100 ( 60) 83 75 University of Bath School of Management U.K. 107613 79 81 ( 77) 85 74 George Washington University U.S.A. 101530 91 88 ( 93) 86 Wake Forest University: Babcock U.S.A. 100727 108 88 ( 100) 87 Grenoble Graduate School of Business France 83516 80 86 ( 81) 87 70 Bradford School of Management U.K. / Netherlands 96144 89 92 ( 59) 89 71 Boston College: Carroll U.S.A. 108162 85 91 ( 97) 89 87 Babson College: Olin U.S.A. 109541 87 83 ( 88) 91 95 Eada Spain 89786 103 88 ( 73) 92 Coppead Brazil 96938 98 42 ( 100) 92 63 University of Edinburgh Business School U.K. 101884 75 94 ( 92) 92 77 Brigham Young University: Marriott U.S.A. 97789 104 95 ( 100) 95 92 Case Western Reserve University U.S.A. 99238 95 72 ( 92) 95 92 Wisconsin School of Business U.S.A. 99138 88 94 ( 100) 97 Hult International Business School U.S.A. / U.K. / U.A.E 96915 85 89 ( 96) 98 University of Miami School of Business U.S.A. 92064 95 74 ( 84) 99 98 University College Dublin: Smurfit Ireland 104934 66 97 ( 97) 100 90 Nottingham University Business School U.K. 99647 62 94 ( 88) | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 3 3 RANKINGS
  • 24. Online MBA 2009 Listing FT home > Business School Rankings > Online MBA 2009 Listing School name Principle country Programme name Enrolled online MBA students International accreditation Pc complete in 5 years Pc of teaching materials online (AACSB, Amba, Equis, EFMD Cel) University of Phoenix US MBA 67700 65 100 Edinburgh Business School, Heriot - Watt University UK MBA 8403 70 100 RANKINGS Open University Business School UK MBA 5500 AACSB, Amba, Equis 70 n/a* Henley Business School UK MBA by Distance Learning 4093 AACSB, Amba, Equis 70 65 U21Global Singapore MBA 3700 EFMD Cel 90 100 Tec de Monterrey - Egade Mexico MBA 2354 80 80 University of Maryland University College US MBA 2272 93 50 University of Liverpool UK MBA 2162 EFMD Cel 81 100 Manchester Business School UK MBA for Financial Managers 1998 AACSB, Amba, Equis 75 90** Kaplan University US MBA 1943 n/a 100 Walden University US MBA 1837 100 100 Warwick Business School UK MBA by Distance Learning 1716 AACSB, Amba, Equis 80 50 Indiana University: Kelley US Kelley Direct Programs 1240 AACSB 96 95 Robert Kennedy College Switzerland The University of Wales MBA 1114 85 100 Manchester Business School UK MBA for Engineering Business Managers 1086 AACSB, Amba, Equis 75 90** Swiss Management Center Switzerland MBA 891 91 100 3 4 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | Athabasca University Canada Executive MBA 870 88 n/a* Ellis University US MBA 736 n/a 100 Northeastern University US Online MBA 650 AACSB n/a 100 Bradford University School of Management UK Distance Learning MBA 633 Amba, Equis 93 35 Royal Holloway, University of London UK MBA in International Management 609 Amba 78 70 Babson College: Olin US Fast Track MBA 577 AACSB, Equis 95 60 Durham Business School UK MBA 511 Amba, Equis 74 80 RDI - Resource Development International UK University of Wales MBA at RDI 481 n/a 100 Open University Business School UK MBA (Technology Management) 400 AACSB, Amba, Equis 70 n/a* Arizona State University: Carey US MBA - Online 365 AACSB 96 100 Imperial College Business School UK MBA (Distance Learning) 360 Amba, Equis, EFMD Cel 80 90 Thunderbird School of Global Management US Global MBA for Latin American Managers 335 AACSB 97 75 SBS Swiss Business School Switzerland MBA Program 324 82 100 Oxford Brookes University UK Global MBA 318 Amba 98 n/a* University of Texas at Dallas US Global MBA On-line 293 AACSB 95 100 Syracuse University: Whitman US iMBA 250 AACSB 75 90 University of Strathclyde Business School UK Strathclyde flexible learning MBA 250 AACSB, Amba, Equis 80 20 RMIT Australia MBA (Executive) 217 n/a 100 George Washington University US Health Care MBA 198 AACSB 87 100 IE Business School Spain International Executive MBA 197 AACSB, Amba, Equis 95 n/a* University of Nebraska-Lincoln US UNL Distance MBA 182 AACSB 59 90 University of Florida: Hough US Internet 2-year MBA 180 AACSB 90 95 Thunderbird School of Global Management US Global MBA - On Demand 162 AACSB n/a 100 IE Business School Spain Global MBA Online 161 AACSB, Equis 98 n/a* Open University Business School UK MPA (Master of Public Administration) 150 AACSB, Amba, Equis 70 n/a* Manchester Business School UK MBA for Construction Executives 146 AACSB, Amba, Equis n/a 90** Aberdeen Business School UK eMBA 125 Amba 95 100 Drexel University: LeBow US MBA Anywhere 109 AACSB 85 85 University of Florida: Hough US Internet one-year MBA 109 AACSB 90 95 Open University Business School UK MBA (Life Sciences) 100 AACSB, Amba, Equis 70 n/a* Isead Spain MBA 99 79 100 University of Maryland University College US Executive MBA 97 88 90 University of Surrey School of Management UK MBA 88 AACSB, Amba 97 50 Aston Business School UK Distance-Learning MBA 80 AACSB, Amba, Equis 95 70 Isead Spain Executive MBA 74 90 100 Drexel University: LeBow US MBA in Pharmaceutical Management 72 AACSB 100 85 Euro*MBA Consortium Netherlands Euro*MBA 72 AACSB, Amba, Equis 98 20 Aberdeen Business School UK MBA Oil and Gas Management 67 Amba 98 100 Thunderbird School of Global Management US MBA Dual Degree with Indiana University 51 AACSB 100 90 Durham Business School UK MBA (Finance) 12 Amba, Equis 74 80 George Washington University US The World Executive MBA n/a*** AACSB n/a 76 Table Note 42 of the top distance learning and online MBA providers. Schools are listed by the number of enrolled distance learning MBA students. This is not a comprehensive list.
  • 25. STUDY IN UK (International Students) year duration, your sponsor must show his/her From 31st March 2009, UK Border and Fee can be paid by following payment methods; ability to have enough financial resources to Immigration Agency (UKBIA) has launched Banker’s Draft payable to the college or bear your expenses (living and tuition) for the Points Based System (PBS, Tier 4) for inter- Telex Transfer into Institution’s Bank Account or entire duration such as 2 yrs, 3 yrs etc Cash (only at UK Office) Sponsor’s Bank Statement is not required national students, who wish to apply and obtain UK Study Visa. Students wish to study in UK and need student visa, would B. Financial resources can give you 10 points. NOTE: Please be aware that meet- require obtaining 40 points to be able to ing 40 points does not guarantee apply and gain the visa. You are required to produce the following documents to show your financial firmness; your visa approval or issuance. Your own (Student’s) bank statement for the Points can be obtained by completing last 28 days showing the clear balance of 7200 the following; pounds (first year expense) plus the amount balance of course fee (if not paid in full). This A. Successful admission and issuance of amount shall not be reduced on any day since visa letter by a UK Sponsor Licensed last 28 days College/University can give you 30 points. You are required to provide the following Origin of Funds; Sponsorship Declaration Certificate / Letter to gain admission and visa letter from any licensed institution from UK for 30 points; stating your exact relation and consent to bear your living and tuition expense in UK Filled and Signed Application Form of the Sponsor’s income proof such as Employment institution proof and salary slips OR Business proof along Copies of all Educational Documents with letterhead, Tax Number and Company Copy of Work Experience Certificate(s) (if Registration Certificate etc. applicable) Any other document showing sponsor’s Copy of Valid Passport income would be beneficial Fee deposit of minimum first year fee Proof of funds transfer into your account Registration fee of the institution (non-refund- such as copy of cheque, online transfer or bank able) letter confirming the transfer Awarding Body Registration - 52 Pounds for If your proposed course is of more than one | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 3 5
  • 26. AUSTRALIA 3 6 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 27. AUSTRALIA Type of Applicant Work Entitlement Students granted You can work a maximum of 20 hours per week during Permission to Work the term and unlimited hours when your course is not in session. Note: Permission to Work Work that is a formal registered part of your course is not included in the limit of 20 hours per week. If you are doing voluntary or unpaid work you must apply for Permission to Work. It is included in the limit of 20 hours per week. research or Doctoral degree (visa 576). Conditions for Working While Studying There are restrictions on the number of hours you can work. Students visa information is held electron- ically and they you can access it at any time The table below outlines the work enti- using the Visa Entitlement Verification tlements for students and their dependent Family members of students who have Online (VEVO) system. Employers, banks family members. P started a masters or doctorate course and government services can also check may work unlimited hours. details about visa entitlements on VEVO once they have consent to do so. For infor- Important eople granted student visas on or mation on how to access VEVO go to You must also comply with the State after 26 April 2008 will receive per- and Territory laws of Australia. Under all mission to work with their visa grant. State and Territory laws, you cannot work This applies to both the primary student and during school hours if you are under the any family members travelling with them on school leaving age, which in most states is their student visa. As a result, most student 15 years of age. visa holders are no longer need to apply sep- week at all times. Family members of stu- When is your course in session? arately in Australia for permission to work. dents who have started a masters or doctorate The department considers your course The new arrangement saves student visa course may work unlimited hours. to be ‘in session’: holders time and money. However, work Previously most student visa holders paid a for the duration of the advertised rights for student visa holders haven’t total of $490 – an initial $430 for their visa semesters (including periods when exams changed. Students are still not allowed to application and $60 in Australia for the sepa- are being held) work until they have started their course and rate permission to work. Now student visa if you have completed your studies and the hours they can work have not changed. holders will pay only one charge of $450 for your Confirmation of Enrolment is still in They can work up to 20 hours a week while the combined visa application and permis- effect their course is in session (excluding sion to work. if you are undertaking another course, any work undertaken as a reg- Students visa information is held electroni- during a break from your main course and istered component of cally and they you can access it at any time the points will be credited to your main their course of study or using the Visa Entitlement Verification course. training) and they can Online (VEVO) system. Employers, banks work unlimited hours dur- and government services can also check Research students ing scheduled course details about visa entitlements on VEVO You can work unlimited hours if you are a breaks. Family members once they have consent to do so. For informa- PhD student and you have submitted your of students are not tion on how to access VEVO go to thesis for marking. allowed to work until the You must student begins their obtain a Tax File Number to be able to work For further information on working in Australia, course. They are allowed to in Australia. This is available from the Aus- visit DIACs website work up to 20 hours per tralian Tax Office. at | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 3 7
  • 28. PREPARATIONS YOU CAN COMMAND ENGLISH rates and comprehension scores. Here ADEFINITE TIME QUICKER! then, for the first time, are these famous practice tests in easy to fol- Set aside a specific time in your This article low and use book form. You’ll dis- daily schedule which shall be will show you cover our secrets and short cuts to known and observed as your how; you read better, faster, more effective learning. “Official Study Period”. Also set a sentences, para- Learning that helps you command Eng- minimum and a realistic maximum graphs and entire lish in the quickest way. mount of time to spend in study. Observe these pages in a limits. sequence. And you learn how to remember YOU CAN STUDY BETTER! You can never truthfully say, “The teacher more, understand more, and enjoy more of didn’t make a specific assignment for next what you read. And that means increased To study English is our first step to class, so there is nothing to study”. If there is no pleasure, social and business success. achieve success. Lot of students try to read “assignment” for the following class or meting, This article reveals to you our own books. Attend language schools and aca- use your study time for a good review. Then method. A method which stands in contrast demics but ultimately land with a frustrated you won’t have to “cram” for your next big test. to conventional methods taught in schools feeling, “I can’t do it”. But YOU can do it. You can’t afford to allow non-study activities to and academies- often expensive, time con- How? Let us show you. take any part of your study period. Tell your suming, and inconvenient. Now you can Do you know how to regulate and control friends not to call or come by for a visit during double your learning skills with us or at your study time? Do you know how to your study hours. Don’t answer the telephone. home, at your leisure, with the complete squeeze the last drop of advantage from that practice tests. time you spend “hitting the old books”? A DEFINITE PLACE This is the method we have been using in This article contains some valuable limits our language school with great success to about “how and why” of studying. Learn Where should you study? Any place—-a over 500 students and adults, who upon the hints and use them; you will be pleas- desk in your room, a kitchen table—-where completion of the course, showed impres- antly surprised with your upgraded study you can be reasonably comfortable and away sive improvements in individual learning efficiency. from the mainstream of activity in your home, 3 8 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 29. PREPARATIONS office, or dormitory. Get away from the televi- periods of study with the minimum amount of TESTS ARE ROUTINE sion set, little brother, and friend. It is important fatigue and maximum efficiency. Try it and see. that the spot you select be one which you nor- When the test is given mally do not use except for study. If it’s the HIGHER TEST SCORES to you, remember that it is table, where you play cards, it’s very easy to really no different from a think about the last game there rather than about Now that you’ve done daily assignment. The only what you’re trying to study. enough to go for the test, real difference is that here are some tips on how to you will have to budget STUDY PROPS score high in he tests: your time more carefully. To make high scores on Preview the est. note You use specific items for a bath – soap, tow- tests and examination, you the number and type of els, etc. as a mater of fact, if you don’t use the must 1) know your subject questions, and the marks or right things, your bath won’t be much of a suc- well; and 2) know how to band value of each. Pro- cess. The same is true for study. take tests. ceed steadily through the Use a desk or table of adequate size and Test scores are very impor- test. Don’t panic if you are a height. And its most important . . . clear it of tant even though they may not accurately meas- little behind on your time budget. every thing except the actual book or materials ure what you really know – they measure only Just work a little faster. Once you have com- you require to properly study that particularly what you put on paper. But it is a fact that very pleted your answers, be specially alert to correct one subject you are working on. You can’t con- often, in school and industry; you either suc- and technical or grammatical weaknesses – centrate very well on writing a theme in English ceed or fail because of what you put on paper. incomplete sentences, punctuation, spelling, if you have in front of you a math book with 20 Too after low test scores on examinations are unclear writing, numbers etc. problems awaiting you, and half a dozen other caused by lack of skill in test taking rather than tasks and assignments. Work and worry only any real lack of study or lack of knowledge of ESSAY/REPORT TYPE TESTS about what you have before you at the moment. the subject. What can you do to get those The other subject can be taken care of easier scores up and keep them up? This type of test calls for more originality and after you complete one assignment more satis- creativity and organizational ability than do factorily because you are giving it your full PREPARE MENTALLY AND PSYCHO- objective tests. Review the test and carefully attention. Sit in a straight chair, not one that’s LOGICALLY determine time allowance for each portion or too comfortable – unless you plan to snooze. question. Concern yourself with only one ques- First make certain that you have done every- tion at a time. Start a answering only after you LIGHT thing reasonably possible to know your subject. are certain what is asked for. Are you to define? Keep up with assignments and homework pre- Compare? Contrast? Explain? Discuss/outline? Concentrate good light on your ceding the test. Review thoroughly, study notes, List? Give details or what? desk. The rest of the room should and test yourself. This sort of thorough prepa- be lighted very softly. With a soft light in the ration will help instil confidence – an important IT MAKES SENSE background, distant objects –paintings, wall- prerequisite for making better scores. Secondly, paper, decorations, etc won’t have as much after you’ve thoroughly prepared and done all For all tests, prepare adequately in advance, chance of stealing your interest and attention. you reasonably could do before the test, don’t don’t worry, relax, begin work promptly, budg- worry. What’s the worst thing that could hap- et your time, read each question carefully, be DURATION OF STUDY pen? You could fail. Of course you don’t want concerned with only one question at a time, to fail, but ask yourself, if I do fail. Will it real- recheck your work if time permits. How long can you study effectively at one ly make much difference, Now will it? Don’t AN EXCERT FROM A GUIDE TO PRACTICE TESTS FOR IELTS sitting? It depends on several factors, but it is worry. Worry is a non profit institution. Devel- & SPOKEN ENGLISH (SELF-STUDY TUTORIALS) relatively safe to say that 30 to 45 minutes is op a little faith and confidence in yourself. BY: DR. NAYYAR HASHMEY, Ph.D about the maximum you can study without taking a bread, whether scheduled or not. So, it is wise to schedule in five minutes break about every half to three quarter hour. When you do break, get completely away from your work, both physically and men- tally. Take a walk through or around the house. Get a drink of water, a glass of milk, or a cup of tea. Take your choice. Reward your self. After five minutes you’ll return to your study mentally and physically refreshed. This study bread habit can enable you to study for linger | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International | 3 9
  • 30. Government Restricts Study Abroad Awards to Stem Brain Drain Job prospects for Algerian university graduates have been poor for years, and not surprisingly stu- dents have increasingly sought study and work opportunities abroad. Now, in an effort to slow this trend, the Algerian government has said it will restrict the study-abroad scholarships it awards to high- achievers in baccalaureate examinations, Algeria’s school-leaving assessment. Officials are also acting to improve working conditions for researchers and will double grant funds for university students start- ing next September. Restrictions on study abroad scholarships were being imposed, said Education Minister Boubakeur Benbouzid, because “the majority of top baccalaureate students who previously received scholarships did not return to Algeria after completing their university studies”. New Zealand Herald With an Eye on the US Students Choosing Qatar as Study Destination International Market, New Zealand The emergence of U.S. campuses in the oil-rich Persian Gulf nation of Qatar has been well Considers Fast-track Master’s publicized in recent years, yet the movement of US students to study at these campuses has Looking to increase lucrative enrollments from abroad, uni- been less visible. Six U.S. universities have opened branch campuses in Doha’s academic versities in New Zealand may change their rigid structures to hub, a 2,500-acre campus known as Education City, that are thriving because of generous allow students to earn master’s degrees in a shorter period than financial support from the government of Qatar. In addition to funding the operation of U.S. they currently can. Under the country’s current system, such campuses, the government is also offering substantial financial aid to most foreign students degrees are awarded only after five years of study. However, the who need it — often chopping tuition to a quarter of what it costs at home, according to the shorter and more flexible alternatives available at universities government. Qatar has struggled to diversify its economy away from oil and gas revenue. It abroad, including in Australia and the UK, have given pause for sees the university sponsorships as a way to build its academic credentials — locals also thought. Under proposals being considered, shorter, more attend classes — and bolster its workforce. The government offers foreign students the option intensive programs - which are often a more attractive option to of repaying each year of study with a year of work in Qatar. overseas students on tight budgets and timetables - may be According to campus officials interviewed by USA Today, the number of U.S. citizens introduced, the New Zealand Herald newspaper reported. attending classes at Education City is relatively low — Weill Cornell tops the list with 26 Raewyn Dalziel, deputy vice-chancellor of the University of Americans among its 239 students this academic year — but the number of university appli- Auckland, said: “We have to preserve the core of the prestige cations has gone up and is likely to keep rising. masters degree and create some flexibility around it so that the students who want to have it for other purposes can have one.” Canadian Recruiting Efforts Come up Short in UAE Australia has increased university enrollments from the UAE six-fold in the last six years from Tunisia and Egypt Sign Research 200 to 1200; however, the number of students from the Gulf nation heading to Canada has Agreements with France remained relatively static. In interviews with The National newspaper, UAE students currently studying in Canada appear positive about Canadian universities, however, they state that little is The Egyptian Science and Technological Development Fund known about them in comparison to institutions in more aggressive competitor countries such as and the French Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Australia and the United States, which have spent much more time and money advertising in the have signed a four-year scientific cooperation agreement UAE. Part of the reason for this view could be that Canada’s efforts to promote its universities have focused on environmental concerns; agriculture and fisheries; been limited at a federal level. health and life sciences; space; and social and human sci- Education is the responsibility of the provinces, so the country does not have a central education ences. According to a joint statement from Valérie Pécresse, ministry to organize marketing. However, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade French Minister for Higher Education and Research, and her has now launched the country’s first international education marketing campaign, and the universi- Egyptian counterpart, Dr Hany Helal, the cooperative agreement ties hope that one effect will be a marked increase in students from the Gulf. Officials say tuition will be conducted on a “basis of strict parity” in launching joint costs are lower than in the US and UK, although they acknowledge that their universities may not bids, forming French-Egyptian research teams and co-funding be seen as quite so prestigious as some of the big names elsewhere. However, one factor over which a total sum of EUR1.8 million (US$2.3 million) a year for four governments and faculties have no control is climate, and Canadian universities admit that con- years. cerns about the weather can put off students from warm weather countries such as the UAE. 40 Education Scenario International |
  • 31. Overseas Universities Increase New Institutional Accreditation Measures in the Works Efforts to Recruit Turkish Students Recognizing the need to improve standards within the higher education sector, Nigerian university leaders According to a recent report from Turkey’s have agreed to establish an institutional quality-assurance system. At a workshop organized by the National Ministry of Education, international universi- Universities Commission (NUC), the sector’s regulator, in late April, university vice-chancellors agreed to intro- ties have increased their efforts to recruit duce a national system of institutional accreditation, in addition to the 20-year-old system of accrediting indi- Turkish students through the global economic vidual programs. The delegates also set a target for Nigeria to have at least two institutions among the top 200 downturn. universities in world university rankings by 2020 - the so-called 2/200/2020 vision. The report states that 150 universities from 22 countries are now offering special incen- The Utility of Rankings tives to enroll Turkish students in a bid to com- Foreign Scholarship Program pensate for dropping international enrollments While university ranking systems come in for Reinstated by attracting a fraction of the 1.5 million frequent criticism, there can be little doubt that Turkish students who were not accepted into Pakistan’s Higher Education Commission has they impact the decision-making processes of university in Turkey — only 300,000 out of the resumed its graduate-level foreign scholarship pro- university leaders and government officials. Now approximately 1.8 million students who take gram, which it had put on hold last November a new study of four countries with influential the Student Selection Examination (ÖSS) are because of a cut in funds by the federal government, rankings - Australia, Canada, Germany and Japan accepted into a university in Turkey. The News reported in May. – conducted by the Washington D.C.-based The report says over 150 international uni- The commission’s executive director, Sohail H. Institute for Higher Education Policy, has placed a versities and language schools have contacted Naqvi, told the newspaper that the government had more positive light on the role of university the Turkish Ministry of Education’s General released the equivalent of US$100 million for the league tables, suggesting they can prompt insti- Directorate of Study Abroad. The Ministry of overseas scholarship program. Mr. Naqvi said about tutions to work in innovative and more productive Education closely monitors the offers of inter- 340 students’ scholarships had been put on hold, ways. national universities and informs Turkish stu- even though most had been admitted to universities in The May report, “Impact of College Rankings dents about the opportunities available to New Zealand, Germany, Italy, and other European on Institutional Decision Making: Four Country them. countries. The November cancellation was widely Case Studies,” states that rankings can “trigger a According to data provided by Ministry of condemned. In addition, the commission had not paid shift of institutional resources for such productive Education’s General Directorate of Study the tuition for students already enrolled at foreign uni- uses as faculty profile, research collection and Abroad, there are currently 44,204 Turkish stu- versities. analysis, and student learning outcomes. These dents studying abroad, while 16,656 interna- changes can also be integrated into broader tional students study in Turkey. The first choice Short, Sharp Marketing Drive to strategic planning initiatives to change national of Turkish students seeking to study abroad is Bump Quality Reputation of and international higher education policy con- Germany, followed by the United States and the texts.” United Kingdom. Approximately 27,000 Universities The report is based on interviews with key insti- Turkish students attend German universities, In March, the Australian government launched a tutional stakeholders in the four countries, and 12,000 attend universities in the United States A$3.5 million (US$2.7 million) marketing initiative finds that while national and international rank- and 1,600 attend British universities. to boost perceptions of Australian higher education ings come in for serious criticism as relates to in the increasingly competitive global market for goals, uses and outcomes, it is important also to International Students Double in educational services. understand the ways rankings influence the work a Decade The government body responsible for overseeing of institutions. and promoting the country’s international education Some key findings on the positives of rankings: The number of students from abroad enrolling sector, Australian Education International (AEI), is Improved data-based decision making; greater at Japanese institutions of higher education has leading the campaign. The focus of the nine-month participation in discussions about measuring more than doubled in the last decade, reports initiative is on China, India, South Korea, Indonesia, institutional success in broader national and the Daily Yomiuri, while the number of Japanese Malaysia and Thailand, and it will seek to raise international discussions; improved teaching and students headed the other way has dropped off. Australia’s profile as a safe and welcoming study learning practices; the identification and model- In 2008, 123,829 foreign students were destination. The campaign focuses on four themes: ing of successful programs; increased institution- studying at Japan’s universities and colleges, a Student experience, showcasing excellence, posi- al collaboration, especially internationally; 240 percent increase over the 1998 figure, tioning Australia (Promote and communicate increased outreach to international students. according to data from the Japan Student Australia’s international education reputation in key The report concludes by stating that rankings Services Organization. The number of markets), sector support (improving communication have become an established force in the national Japanese students studying abroad has been of key strategic advice and analysis on market trends and international education arenas, and it is thus dropping since 2004 when a record 82,945 and opportunities, supporting education agents in important to understand how they can best be students were studying overseas. In 2002, training and development to align agents more to leveraged in combination with other tools to nearly 46,000 Japanese were studying in the Australia and ensure that students are given the best encourage positive competition and accountabili- United States; but by 2007, that number had possible counseling on their education choices). ty. shrunk to 34,000. - The institute for Higher Education Policy | Education Scenario International 41
  • 32. CAREER COUNSELLING H ave you been searching long and hard Put your tools together. Once again, it’s time to a lasting impression is by being aggressive. for a job, only to keep hitting road- dust off your resume and make sure it is in tip top Approach the companies that interest you, make blocks when you try to make contact condition. Make sure it is current and that it sends eye contact and introduce yourself with a firm with companies in your community? If a clear, concise picture of who you are and what handshake. Take the initiative and tell them about so, it’s time to start utilizing another you have to offer. Double check for spelling and yourself and why you are interested in their compa- great job searching resource - the career fair. grammatical errors and make sure your contact ny. Answer questions succinctly, with solid exam- Career fairs are great places to get your foot in information is correct. ples of your strengths and qualifications. Ask your the door. These events provide job seekers with Practice, practice, practice. Get together with a prepared questions and listen intently to the important face time with dozens of companies that friend or family member and practice answering answers. Tie in what you know about their compa- are actively looking for candidates, and do so all in typical interview questions such as “Tell me about ny from your research to the type of job you are one place. yourself,” or “What kind of position are you look- seeking. Making your mark at a career fair doesn’t happen ing for?” Additionally, develop a list of questions Ask for information. Whatever you do, don?t just by showing up. A successful career fair expe- you want to ask each company. One of the best leave a company booth without getting a business rience takes planning, preparation and the confi- ways to look prepared and professional is showing card and company brochure. This might be the only dence to sell yourself. If you want to use this up with thoughtful, intelligent questions. opportunity you have to meet with the hiring man- resource to help jump start your search, follow ager face to face and you will want his or her con- these tips before, during and after the fair. During the Fair - Put On Your Best tact information later. Show Before the Fair - It All Comes After the Fair - Close the Deal Down to Homework Dress the part. When you go to the career fair, you will undoubtedly see people walking around in Follow up. Just like a job interview, it is impor- Get a guest list. Your first step is to find out jeans and t-shirts. Don?t be one of those people. A tant to follow up after a career fair. Using the busi- which companies will be participating. You can do career fair is your chance to make a good first ness cards you collected, write letters to key com- this by contacting the career fair organizers or by impression with a potential new employer. Wear a pany representatives. Thank them for taking the doing your own research. Many career fairs have conservative business suit, make sure you look time to speak with you, reiterate your strengths, Web sites that list participating companies or list well groomed, and carry your materials in a profes- and let them know that you will call them to follow the companies on brochures and other advertising sional folder or portfolio. up in a couple of days. Then, be true to your word materials. Once you have the list, highlight several Don’t forget your ammo. You spent all that time and call. Just make sure you don’t waste the oppor- companies that are of interest to you. making sure your resume was ready to go, so don’t tunity you had at the career fair. Your due diligence Do your research. Research the companies that blow your chances by forgetting to bring it. Bring afterwards can be as important as your preparation. will be attending the fair. Look at their Web sites, many copies printed out on professional resume Kate Lorenz is the article and advice editor for read their press releases, and search your local paper, as well as a few copies of your references She researches and writes newspaper for stories. Look for recent acquisitions list. Be prepared to hand these out many times about job search strategy, career management, hir- that indicate that the company is growing, new throughout the day. ing trends and workplace issues. Other writers con- products that have been introduced, or any other Be confident and proactive. A career fair is no tributed to this article. business news that gives you an idea of where the Make sure your resume is ready for the Career place to be shy and demure. The best way to make company is headed and how you can play a role. Fair 4 2 | E d u c a t i o n S c e n a r i o International |
  • 33. T Editor’s Note w w w . e d u c a t i o n s c e n a r i o . c o m Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Sami Ullah Sami Editor Dr. Zafar Cheema Executive Editor hough immigration is a fairly vast subject and it is not possible M. Nawaz Saleem Kiani Associate Editors to scale this wide-ranging topic in a single article, we will still try to give you a vivid account and a clear and graphic picture Javed Saleem Chattha Resident Editor (Islamabad) of what it is all about as far as immigration to various coun- tries of the world is concerned – in a series of issue-based Saif Ullah Khan Communication Manager articles being published for genuine migrants. It is crystal-clear to all and sundry that the market is flooded Shazia Kausar with information on immigration, so are agents doing this Designer/Layout business. Obviously, that means that there is a mushroom of Sarfraz Qadir Almani people — both professionals and non-professionals — who Marketing Executive Manzoor Ahmed deal with their clients, even though unsuccessfully some- times, most of whom are quite ignorant but pose to be Legal Advisor Hashmat Ail Habib experts in the field. Or perhaps they have little knowledge W e b : (Advocate Supereme Court) Circulation about the subject. Yet, there is no doubt about it, that just as the clients there are skilled professionals also who reach out Ghulam Rasool to those aspiring to proceed abroad for the purpose of stud- i n f o @ e d u c a t i o n s c e n a r i o . c o m Photographers ies, medical treatment, family reunion or those wishing to Nadeem Khawar Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro M Yaqoob Bhatti attend conferences and seminars etc. The Scenario Group of Publications (SGP) has mustered up Sagheer Ahmed Kamboh Sajjad Butt courage and ventured on guiding all those interested in going abroad for any purpose mentioned above, or some other pur- Head Office: 394, Hunza Block, pose. The aim is to guide genuine seekers of genuine guid- Allama Iqbal Town, ance through publication of our monthly Immigration Scenario Lahore - Pakistan Tel: +92 42 5296754 International so our valued readers and clients can keep Fax: +92 42 5296755 Mobile: 0300 9452755 themselves abreast of the latest developments taking place around the world concerning this very important topic. Each Islamabad Office: Saifullah Khan time our valued readers will find information on countries Office # 8, Israr Plaza offering immigration. The categories may vary from time to G-10 Markaz, Islamabad Tel: 051 2110020 time, yet the information supplied therein will be comprehen- Mobile: 0333 5278862 UK Correspondent sive and quite useful. The other purpose of this series will be to help all those Rashid Ahmed Bushra Muzammal 102-Montague Road, aspirants to choose from amongst the best lot of profession- als who are experts in the field and can also offer something Slugh Berks SL. 3RN UK E m a i l : Tel: 017 53-535289 genuine to make their clients’ destination really fruitful and worthwhile.
  • 34. E N T R E P R E N E U R S H I P Business experience Medical, security and other You must have managed a qualifying business and have had control of a percent- requirements You and your family members must pass age of equity of the qualifying business for a medical examination and security and I at least two years in the period that begins criminal checks. five years before you submit your applica- tion and ends when a decision is made on How to apply? your application. Your business must not There are two application processes for mmigrating to Canada permanently is be operated primarily for the purpose of entrepreneurs who want to apply to become an exciting and most thrilling opportu- deriving investment income, such as inter- permanent residents: the simplified appli- nity. However, there are several things est, dividends or capital gains. cation process and the regular application you should consider before you apply to be process. Most applicants must use the sim- a permanent resident. The Entrepreneur Net worth requirements plified process. However, you must use the Program seeks to attract experienced busi- You must be able to satisfy the visa offi- regular process if: ness persons who will own and actively cer that the fair market value of all your • You have been selected by Quebec or manage businesses in Canada that con- assets and the assets of your spouse or • You have been lawfully admitted to tribute to the economy and create jobs. common-law partner were obtained legally. Canada for a period of at least one year and Entrepreneurs must: Your assets must exceed the fair market • You are submitting your application at value of all your liabilities and the liabili- • Show that they have business experience; ties of your spouse or common-law partner the Canadian visa office in Buffalo or • Have a minimum net worth of C$300,000 that was • You have been lawfully admitted into by at least C$300,000. the United States for a period of at least obtained legally and You must be able to prove that no portion one year and you are submitting your • Respect the conditions for entrepreneurs after they of your net worth was obtained through application at the Canadian visa office in criminal activity. You will be asked to arrive in Canada. Buffalo. If none of the situations described explain any discrepancies between your net above applies to you, you must use the Who can apply? income over the years and your present net To be eligible under the Entrepreneur simplified application process. Choose the worth. The visa officer who assesses your Program, you must meet the following application process that applies to you: The net worth may ask you for documents to requirements: simplified application process, or regular confirm both your income sources and your application process. • Have at least two years of business experience; net worth. • Have a net worth of at least C$300,000 that was After applying Selection criteria Your application will be processed at the obtained legally; You will be assessed on the selection cri- visa office where you have applied. The • Meet the selection criteria for the Entrepreneur Pro- teria that include your experience, educa- process may vary depending on the visa gram; tion, age, language abilities and adaptabili- office. However, some processing steps are ty. • Meet medical, security and other requirements. common to all offices. March 2009 | Immigration Scenario International
  • 35. E N T R E P R E N E U R S H I P The application assessment process may Processing time include the following: • Processing time The length of time it takes to process • Medical examination applications varies depending on where you applied. You may be able to avoid unneces- • The decision on your applications sary delays by: • Change of address • Making sure that all the necessary information is includ- • Confirmation of permanent residences ed with your application notifying the visa office of any • Meeting the conditions of the Entrepreneur Program changes to personal information on your application, such • The overall application assessment process as your address, phone and fax numbers or a change in the After you submit your application, a Citi- zenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) offi- makeup of your family avoiding repeated inquiries to the cer will verify that you have submitted all visa office the required documentation with your appli- • Ensure that the photocopies and documents you have cation. The officer will make sure that: provide are clear and legible • You have completed your application form correctly and • Provided certified English or French translations of the signed it original documents that you have submitted in other lan- • Paid your processing fee and guages • Included the required supporting documentation if you • And applied from a country where you are a citizen or used the regular application process. permanent resident. If you applied using the Simplified Appli- Your application will be delayed if the cation Process, the visa office will contact visa office has to take extra steps to assess you and ask you to provide the required your case. Your application will take longer documentation about four months before if: your application is processed. If your appli- • There are criminal or security problems related to your cation is not complete, the visa office will application return it to you without processing it. The • Your family situation is not clear because of a situation, visa office where you have applied will send you a letter when they receive your complet- such as a divorce or an adoption that is not yet complete or ed application. The letter will tell you what child custody issues that have not been resolved or you need to do and what happens next. • The visa office that processes your application has to Immigration Scenario International | March 2009
  • 36. E N T R E P R E N E U R S H I P consult with other CIC offices in Canada or abroad. after you have submitted your application required to attend an interview. • You can check the status of your application online to the visa office. If your application is approved, you will be asked to submit your passport to after the visa office has started to process your appli- Criminal and security the Canadian visa office where you have cation. checks applied in order to receive your perma- Medical examination If you have a criminal record you may nent resident visa. not be allowed to enter Canada. People who pose a risk to Canada’s security are Change of address not allowed to come to Canada either. If you move or change your address, If you want to immigrate to Canada, telephone number or any other contact you and any family members over the information after you submit your appli- age of 18 who come to Canada with you cation, you must contact the visa office must provide police certificates to the where you have submitted your applica- visa office. tion. If you apply using the regular applica- tion process, you must submit the police certificates with your application. If you apply using the simplified application process, the visa office will contact you and ask you to provide the required doc- umentation at a later date. You must pass a medical examination The decision on your appli- before coming to Canada. Your depen- cation: dants must also pass a medical examina- The CIC officer will make a decision tion even if they are not coming to Cana- on your application based on several fac- da with you. tors, including: Applications for permanent residence • The results of your medical examination will not be accepted if an applicant’s • The results of your criminal and security checks health: • Whether you meet the definition of an entrepreneur • Is a danger to public health or safety, or and • Would cause excessive demand on health or social • The points you accumulate under each of the five services in Canada. selection factors. Instructions on how to take the medical The visa office will contact you if it examination will normally be sent to you needs more documentation or if you are March 2009 | Immigration Scenario International
  • 37. E N T R E P R E N E U R S H I P If your application is approved, you must commit to managing and owning at least one Confirmation of your permanent residence third of a business of a defined size for at If your application is approved, the visa least one year within three years of arriving office will issue a permanent resident visa to in Canada. you. Your permanent resident visa includes your Confirmation of Permanent Residence Arrival (COPR) and your entry visa. Your COPR When you arrive in Canada, you will be will include identification information as greeted by an officer from the Canada well as your photograph. Please check the Border Services Agency (CBSA). The CBSA information on your COPR to make sure it is is responsible for border and point of entry correct. It should be the same as the informa- activities in Canada. The officer will ask to tion on your passport. If there is a mistake on see your passport and other travel docu- your COPR, contact your visa office. You ments. Make sure they are not packed in must have your COPR and your visa with your luggage and that you have them with you when you arrive in Canada. you. This will help speed up your entry to there are no problems at the point of entry, Canada. the officer will authorize you to enter Canada as a permanent resident. The officer will also Conditions of the confirm your Canadian mailing address. Entrepreneur Program You must present the follow- To remain in Canada as an entrepreneur, ing documents upon arrival: Your permanent resident card will be mailed you must comply with the conditions of the • Your valid passport and/or travel documents. Your pass- to you at this address. If you arrive in Cana- Entrepreneur Program by owning and active- port must be a regular, private passport. You cannot immi- da with more than C$10,000, you must dis- ly managing a Canadian business that con- close this information to the CBSA officer. If grate to Canada with a diplomatic, government service or tributes to the economy and creates jobs. you do not disclose this information, you public affairs passport. could be fined or jailed. These funds could • Your valid permanent resident visa and your Confirmation be in form of: of Permanent Residence (COPR). The officer will make sure • Cash you are entering Canada before or on the expiry date shown • Securities in bearer form (for example, stocks, bonds, on your permanent resident visa. Please note that this docu- debentures, treasury bills) or ment cannot be extended. Therefore, you should make sure • Negotiable instruments in bearer form, such as bankers’ to use it before it expires. drafts, cheques, traveler’s cheques or money orders. • The proof that you have sufficient funds to support your- Quebec self and your family after you arrive in Canada. The officer will ask you a few questions to Under the Canada-Quebec Accord, the make sure you still meet the requirements to province of Quebec operates its own busi- immigrate to Canada. They will be similar to ness immigration program. If you want to the ones you answered on your Application settle in the province of Quebec, contact the for Permanent Residence in Canada. The nearest Quebec immigration office, or visit officer will confirm that you still meet the the website of the Quebec ministry that han- requirements for admission to Canada. This dles immigration. should only take a few minutes. You will not be allowed into Canada if you What you can bring into give false or incomplete information, or if Canada? you do not satisfy the officer that you meet You can find customs and border informa- the requirements for entry into Canada. If tion on the website of the CBSA. Immigration Scenario International | Nov 2008