Theoretical Issues - Intro to Quantitative Presentation Transcript
Theoretical IssuesBy Serena Carpenter
Assignment• Targeting journals: List at least four journals youshould follow to keep up with your potentialtopic.• Choose one journal and summarize trendsamong articles and the journal such as:• the types of research found in the journal,• background of editorial board• manuscript instructions
Peer-reviewed• Double-blind• 2-4 reviews
Manuscript review processIf revisions, re-reviewAcceptance & Publication RejectDecisionMajor Revisions Minor Revisions RejectAssignment and ReviewSubmit manuscriptConfirm acceptanceCompletion of research & manuscript
Acceptance rates• 15% or less• JQ, JOB, JOC, JCMC, HCR, NMS, CSMC• MCS (15.9% ’10 to 18.3% ’11)• 20% or higher• NRJ (30-40%)• Journalism (30%)• Journalism Practice (30%-40%)• Journalism Educator (30%)• JRAM (30%)• Journalism History (25%)• These may not be the most current figures.
Impact factor• J Comp-Mediated Communication 2.7• J of Communication 2.4• Human Comm Research 1.8• J of Health Comm 1.6• Media Pysch, J of Adv Research & New Media & Society 1.4• J of Advertising .99• J of Broadcasting .89• MCS .82• JQ & Journalism Studies .54• webofknowledge.com• Create citation alerts and access citation reports
1. Communicating relevance• Youth of field• Establish validity and salience to outside fields• Nonacademic fields
• How? How much?• Media effects• U.S.• Testable• Predict• Why? Why not?• Controls communicationsystem?• Europe• Understand2. Critical vs. empirical school
Functionalism• Social change versus social control theorists
3. Qual vs Quant• Reliability, validity,generalizability• Directing attention,organizingexperiences,authenticity
Two Models of CommunicationTransmission Model• Transportation• Sender & Receiver• Sent & Received• Receiver gets it(sense oftransmission)• InfluenceRitual• Ceremony• Participants• Created & Recreated• Shared experience(sense ofcommunity)• Communicationacross time
Positivism vs. interpretivism• Truth claims based on only direct observationand quantification• Meaningful only if they can be empiricallyverified
Exercise• What is the state of the debate between positivist andinterpretivism research philosophies?• Search Sociological Abstracts for articles that used theseterms. Based on the abstracts, list points that are media insupport and opposition to both perspectives.
Primary Research• Google Scholar• http://staff.lib.msu.edu/junus/libs/gso.html• Topic search engines• http://www.lib.msu.edu/resources/articles.jsp• PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Comm & Mass Media Complete• Research journal title• http://www.lib.msu.edu/• eBooks• http://www.lib.msu.edu/research/findbooks.jsp• Illiad• http://interlib.lib.msu.edu/illiad.dll
Goals of scienceUnderstanding PredictionInteractionXOutcomesX
4. Not focused on communication• Focused on content and effects• Dance• “Emphasis is on that which is made common (sharedmeanings, cultural symbols, traditions, common ground,understanding) or on the process of making things common(the transmission of message from place to place; thelanguages in which things are framed; the patterns of action inwhich they occur; the things that people actually do and sayto each other.” -Frey, Botan, & Kreps (2000) p.27
5. Lack of theoretical progress• Increasing attention paid to qualitative andcritical research,• Focus on teaching of skills rather than research,• Use of part-time instructors increasing facultyworkload,• Decrease in funding of research,• Decrease in number of social scientists fromother fields,• Intellectual divides,• Focus on prediction rather than explanation
• Bryant & Miron (2004)• Merely referenced (45%),• Using it as a framework (23%),• Constructing it (18%),• Critiquing it (14%)• Potter and Riddle (2007)• Not guided by theory (65%)Weak theoretical contributions
• Females read a large number of magazines eachmonth.Variable
• Females read more magazines than males do.Variable
Examples• Variable Name Levels (values)• Gender Male or Female• Test Scores # correct• Room Temp. Hot, Warm, Cold• Room Temp. Degrees Farenheit
Manifest vs. latent variables• Extreme positivists believe that only in manifestvariables.
• Psychological tension• Online loyalty• News quality• Social support• Intelligence• Social media use• Communication apprehension• Source credibility• Prejudice• Religiousity• Disclosure• Political participationExample concepts
• Test the theory or conceptual relationship• Contains variables• “The predictions about the values of the units ofa theory in which empirical indicators areemployed for the named units in eachproposition.” Dubin, 1978Hypotheses
IV and DV• Causal relationship
• New areas of research where little is knownabout the relationship among variables• Relational statementResearch Question
Relationships BetweenVariables• Is gender related to happiness?• Do males and females differ in theirhappiness?• Is distraction while studying related to examperformance?• Do people perform better when they are notdistracted than when distracted?
Positive relationships• Increases in the values of one variable areassociated with increases in the second variable• Increasing study time is associated with highergrades
Negative relationships• Increases in the values of one variable areassociated with decreases in the second variable• Increasing hours of work are associated withlower grades
Curvilinear Relationships• Increases in the values of one variable areassociated with both increases and decreases ofthe second variable• Anxiety can help increase performance until itgets to high – then it decreases performance
PERFORMANCELow Moderate HighANXIETYLowHigh
Are the Following Relationships Positiveor Negative?• GPA and alcohol consumption• # of sexual partners and # of STDs• # hrs TV viewed and # hrs studying
• Parsimony vs. Completeness• Number of concepts and the interrconnectionsamong them• Rigor, exactness, logical consistency• LimitationsDetermine boundaries
Situations Your Questions Methods of DataCollectionHow would yourecruit a sampleof participants?Communicationwith parents orgrandparentsCommunicationwith an employerCommunication onthe internet (e.g.,email, FB, Twitter)Communicationwith romanticpartnerCommunicationwith professorCommunicationwith friends orroommates
Identify concepts that couldrelate to your research idea orkeywords list (from last week).
Write several researchquestions or hypotheses thatrelate to your project ideas.
List some major topics thatrelate to your researchquestions or hypotheses.
What questions have beenanswered related to yourproject idea? What remainsunanswered?
Next Week• Concept explication• Have a list of concepts that interest you• Think about definitions• Assignment: IRB training form due• Proposal Prospectus Due Sept. 20th• Three- to five-page paper describing thetheory you are interested in exploring for thisclass.