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Presentazione realizzata da due 4° del Liceo Scientifico di Znojmo nella Repubblica Ceca a conclusione di un corso on line per scuole sulla piattaforma www.teamformula.it (Microcorsi per classi)

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  • The dry, fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of juice from the crushed stalks of sugar cane, used as a source of cellulose for some paper products.
  • Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ), also called Tall Panic Grass , is a warm-season plant ( C4 carbon fixation ) and is one of the dominant species of the central North America tallgrass prairie . Switchgrass can be found in remnant prairies, along roadsides, pastures or as an ornamental in gardens. This hardy, perennial grass begins growth in late spring. It can grow up to 1.8-2.2 m in height, but is typically shorter than Big Bluestem Grass ( Andropogon gerardii ) or Indiangrass ( Sorghastrum nutans ). The leaves are 30-90 cm long with a prominant midrib. Its flowers have a well-developed panicle often up to 60 cm in length and bears a good crop of fruits , which are 3 to 6 mm long and up to 1.5 mm wide. The fruits are developed from a single-flowered spikelet . Both glumes are present and well developed. When ripe, the seeds sometimes take on a pink or dull-purple tinge, and turn golden brown with the foliage of the plant in the fall. Switchgrass is a short rhizomatous plant that tends to resemble a bunch grass. As an ornamental grass, it is easily grown in average to wet soils and in full sun to part shade. It is very drought resistant. Establishment is recommended in the spring, at the same time as maize is planted. Switchgrass is grazed by all kinds of animals. Grazing sheep and horses on monoculture switchgrass stands should be avoided. Due to its hardiness and rapid growth, switchgrass is often considered a good candidate for farming as feedstock or for biofuel production (for example, ethanol ). It was in this capacity that President George W. Bush mentioned it in his 2006 State of the Union address . Many farmers already grow switchgrass, either as forage for livestock, in wildlife areas, or as a ground cover, to control erosion . Switchgrass has the potential to produce the biomass required for production of up to 1000 gallons of ethanol per acre . A high yield like this makes it a very attractive crop to grow as the value by far exceeds any other crop. Yet, some studies claim that switchgrass is not a viable alternative, requiring 45 percent more fossil energy than the fuel produced. It's possible that with research, the conversion process might become more efficient. Other common names for this grass include Wobsqua grass, lowland switchgrass, blackbent, tall prairiegrass, wild redtop, and thatchgrass. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switchgrass
  • http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/mswaste/msw.jpg http://www.eeingeorgia.org/eic/images/landfill.jpg
  • The award-winning gasifier is located at the McNeil Generating Station in Burlington, Vermont, which uses wood from nearby forestry operations—forest thinnings and discarded wood pallets—to generate electric power for the city’s residents. The gasifier can convert 200 tons of wood chips each day into a gaseous fuel that is fed directly into the McNeil Station boiler to generate 8 MW of electricity. Wood fuel in the gasifier is surrounded by sand heated to 1800–1900°F, which breaks down the biomass into gas and residual char in a fluidized-bed reactor at 1500–1600°F. Sand is used to carry the biomass and the char and to distribute the heat. Using sand as a heat carrier keeps out air, which results in a better quality fuel gas. The biomass gasifier enables the use of advanced power systems based on gas turbines and combined cycles that will nearly double the efficiency of today’s biopower industry. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy00osti/28330.pdf
  • Natural gas: 50‑90% methane, plus lesser amount of ethane, propane, butane, and hydrogen sulfide butane and propane can be separated and liquefied as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) methane purified and pressurized, and distributed via pipelines lies above most conventional oil deposits and in less conventional locations (coal beds, shales, etc.) Abundance of natural gas at Prudhoe Bay facilities seems by some as limiting factor to increased oil production (7.5 billion cubic feet every day, more than half the total daily US residential use) some reinjected to maintain well pressure, and some used as local energy source, but lack of pipeline or ice‑free port results in "flaring it off` Expect supply to last 125 years at current consumption rates Abundant supply, low production costs and cleaner than other fossil fuels More than 1/2 of US homes are heated this way Bio. 152, Chapter 16 and George, R.L. 1998. Mining for oil. Sci. Amer. March: 84‑85.
  • huge deposits under deep oceans (> 1000 meters) yet to be discovered (but probably 90% of global crude oil has already been discovered) 10 largest oil companies doing this, estimated to boost reserves by 5% declassified US Navy technology allows seismic exploration under masking layers of salt or basalt very expensive Hibernia: 80 meters of water, 1.3 million barrel storage area, $4 billion to build, 450,000 toms of concrete, expect 615 million barrels of oil over 18 years (9 days of current global consumption) RAM‑POWELL: Gulf of Mexico: 46 stories tall, 270 tom piles in 980 m of water, 12tendons for hurrican anchoring, $1 billion to build, 125 million barrels of oil (2 days global use) South Marlim B well: off Campos, Brazil: deepest active well (1700 m), remotely operated submarines construct facilities on ocean floor, can't use moorings in >1500 m water so use automatic thrusters linked to GPS, 10.6 billion barrels
  • Energia

    1. 1. Energy Gymnazium a SOSPg Pontassievska 3 Znojmo Czech Republic
    2. 2. Power Stations in the Czech Republic Coal Nuclear Hydro Solar Wind
    3. 3. Renewable / Non renewable Resources <ul><li>S olar </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro </li></ul><ul><li>Wave </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal </li></ul><ul><li>Geot h ermal </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul>Energy cycle
    4. 4. Solar The Sun is 150 million kilometres away, and amazingly powerful. <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>solar cells ( photovoltaic or photoelectric cells ) </li></ul><ul><li>solar water heating </li></ul><ul><li>solar power station </li></ul>
    5. 5. Solar Power Station Solar One Barstow, California
    6. 6. Solar Power Station - principle
    7. 7. Solar Water Heating - principle H eat from the Sun is used to heat water in glass panels on the roof.
    8. 8. Solar Water Heating - principle Another principle – a system of parabolic mirrors (like a spout).
    9. 9. Solar map of the Czech Republic Our town is situated in the area with best insolation
    10. 10. Wind We've used the wind as an energy source for a long time. <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>windmill ( used in the Middle Ages ) </li></ul><ul><li>wind generator </li></ul>
    11. 11. Wind mill Historical windmills in the Czech Republic
    12. 12. Wind generator - principle
    13. 13. Sailing ship Energy from wind
    14. 14. Windsurfing
    15. 15. Huriccane – a destructive power
    16. 16. Hydro We have used running water as an energy source for thousands of years, mainly to grind corn. <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>watermill ( used in the Middle Ages ) </li></ul><ul><li>hydraulic power plant </li></ul>
    17. 17. Watermill Historical watermill in Slup, near Znojmo
    18. 18. Make your watermill What you need: How to do:
    19. 19. Hydraulic power plant A dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley where there is an existing lake. Water is allowed to flow through tunnels in the dam, to turn turbines and thus drive generators.
    20. 20. Hydro powers in the Czech Republic The most important series of dams in the Czech Republic is called the Vltava Cascade , consisting of nine water works: Lipno I, Lipno II, Hnevkovice, Korensko, Orlik, Kamyk, Slapy, Stechovice and Vrane. 1900 MW in total Slapy
    21. 21. Vltava river Built in 1954 - 1961 - 720 millions m 3 of water - 4x91 MW Czech Water Power Plant &quot;Orlik&quot;
    22. 22. Lipno – hydro power plant
    23. 23. Vranov hydro power plant – 25 km far from our town
    24. 24. The biggest hydro power in the world Itaipu , Parana river, Brasil / Paraquay, 12600 MW
    25. 25. Wave <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>t he waves arriving cause the water in the chamber to rise and fall </li></ul>
    26. 26. Wave Power Station The Limpet’s design makes it easy to build and install. Its low profile gives low visibility, so it doesn’t intrude on coastal landscapes or views. A company called Wavegen now operate a commercial wave power station called &quot; Limpet “ . T he island of Islay, Scotland’s west coast
    27. 27. Wave Power Station A company called Ocean Power Delivery are developing a method of offshore wave energy collection, using a floating tube called &quot;Pelamis&quot;.
    28. 28. Tidal Tidal power - energy from the sea The movement of the sea could be a huge energy source, but o nly around 20 sites in the world have been identified as possible tidal power stations. These work rather like a hydro-electric scheme, except that the dam is much bigger. <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal barrages </li></ul>
    29. 29. Tidal power station – example 1 Swanturbines I nstead of wind driving the rotor, a tidal stream turbine uses water . Swanturbines is a consortium of 9 partners led by Swanturbines Ltd. Swansea, Wales, UK
    30. 30. Tidal power station – example 2 vertical-axis turbines
    31. 31. Tidal power station – example 3 Another option is to use offshore turbines , rather like an underwater wind farm.
    32. 32. Geothermal energy Diagram shows Icelandic geothermal power station takes advantage of heat from magna chamber relatively close to the surface. Iceland
    33. 33. Iceland Hot water pipeline runs for 17 kms from geothermal plant to R eykjavik. Water provides most of city’s space heating needs.
    34. 34. Geot h ermal <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li> Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Biomass Wood was once our main fuel. We burned it to heat our homes and cook our food. &quot;Bioconversion&quot; uses plant and animal wastes to produce fuels such as methanol, natural gas, and oil. We can use rubbish, animal manure, woodchips, seaweed, corn stalks and other wastes. energy from organic materials
    36. 36. Bioenergy Cycle
    37. 37. Bioenergy Cycle
    38. 38. Type of Biomass - Corn http://www.geo.msu.edu/geo333/corn.html
    39. 39. Type of Biomass - Soybeans http://agproducts.unl.edu/
    40. 40. Type of Biomass - Sorghum http://www.okfarmbureau.org/press_pass/galleries/grainSorghum/
    41. 41. Type of Biomass - Sugar Cane Bagasse http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
    42. 42. Type of Biomass - Switchgrass http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
    43. 43. Type of Biomass - Hybrid Poplar http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
    44. 44. Type of Biomass - Corn Stover http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
    45. 45. Type of Biomass - Wood Chips & Sawdust http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html http://www.energytrust.org/RR/bio/
    46. 46. Type of Biomass - Tracy Biomass Plant Truck unloading wood chips that will fuel the Tracy Biomass Plant, Tracy, California. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/biomass/biomass.html
    47. 47. Type of Biomass - Municipal Solid Waste http://www.eeingeorgia.org/eic/images/landfill.jpg
    48. 48. Biomass Direct Combustion Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
    49. 49. Integrated Waste Plant Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)
    50. 50. Biomass Gasifier <ul><li>200 tons of wood chips daily </li></ul><ul><li>Forest thinnings; wood pallets </li></ul><ul><li>Converted to gas </li></ul><ul><li>Combined cycle gas turbine </li></ul><ul><li>8MW power output </li></ul>McNeil Generating Station biomass gasifier – 8MW http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
    51. 51. Biodiesel Bus http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/photos.html
    52. 52. Fossil Fuel Energy <ul><li>How it works: </li></ul><ul><li>Coal is crushed to a fine dust and burnt. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil and gas can be burnt directly. </li></ul>Burn Fuel heat water to make steam steam turns turbines turbines turn generators electrical power sent around country
    53. 53. Fossil Fuel Energy Geothermal Energy Hot water storage Water penetrates down through the rock Mined coal Pipeline Pump Oil well Gas well Oil storage Coal Oil and Natural Gas Contour strip mining Pipeline Drilling tower Magma Hot rock Natural gas Oil Impervious rock Water Water Oil drilling platform on legs Floating oil drilling platform Valves Underground coal mine Water is heated and brought up as dry steam or wet steam Area strip mining Geothermal power plant Coal seam
    54. 54. Coal mining
    55. 55. Coal Power Station Melnik, Czech Republic
    56. 56. Oil
    57. 57. G as or water is injected back into the reservoir usually to increase pressure and thereby stimulate production. Crude-oil production A hole bored into the earth
    58. 58. Crude-oil production Deep Sea Exploration
    59. 59. Oil Power Station
    60. 60. Gas pipelines in Europe
    61. 61. Gas pipelines in the Czech Republic <ul><li>Plynovod </li></ul><ul><li>see: </li></ul><ul><li>Hostim (15km from Znojmo) </li></ul>
    62. 62. Gas Power Station
    63. 63. Nuclear Energy Nuclear fission makes heat heat water to make steam steam turns turbines turbines turn generators electrical power sent around country
    64. 64. Nuclear Power Station - principle Reactor - separated cooling circuits
    65. 65. Nuclear Power Station - principle Nuclear power station Dukovany, 35 km from Znojmo
    66. 66. Nuclear Energy what to do with spent uranium
    67. 67. WATER MINERAL BIOLOGICAL Plant Diversity ENERGY FLOW BIOLOGICAL Soil Organism Diversity SUN Clouds
    68. 68. The Cycle Water
    69. 69. Energy Cycle in Living Things
    70. 70. END Gymnazium a SOSPg, Pontassievska 3 Znojmo Czech Republic Main resources: http://www.energyweb.cz http://home.clara.net/darvill/altenerg/index.htm