Name&Surname : Serdar SÖNMEZ / Chibuikem EUGENE ONUOHAProject Name   : Semantic WEB/XML/DOMNumber         : 20110197     /...
What is Semantic?• Semantic is related to syntax.Syntax is how  you say something• Semantic is meaning behind what you sad...
Semantic WEB• The idea behind the semantic web is to make  the Web as intelligent as possible.[1]• Therefore,in addition t...
Communication of Semantic And Web• A Web includes any document and collection  of knowledge• Web allow to people to add wh...
Semantic Web• The Web is beneficial for us,but how can we  make it better.The answer is with SEMANTIC.• The figure 1.1,tha...
Layers of Semantic Web  Figure 1.1:Layers of Semantic Web [2]
THE UNICODE• In first layer Unicode and URI are important  features of WWW(World Wide Web).• Unicode is a code language it...
URI-Uniform Resource Identifier• On the other hand Uniform Resource  Identifiers(URI) identifies the name and  location of...
What is URI?• It includes a string of characters for the file  name and it contains path to the directory of  the file.• A...
How URI Works?• In other words: the URN defines an items  identity, while the URL provides a method for  finding it.• An a...
Chibuikem……………Your Starting POINT…………….     ………Your First Part……..
XML/DOM         XML stands for:   eXtensible Markup Language.       XML:for storing data.     HTML:for displaying data.XML...
XML/DOMXml is a style of writing that helps us store dataabout webpages, although it doesn’t display iton the webpage. It ...
Difference b/w HTML&XMLXML document<note><to>Tove</to> // User defined tags//<from>Jani</from><heading>Reminder</heading>...
Properties of XML• XML Separates Data from HTML• XML Simplifies Data Sharing• XML Simplifies Data Transport• XML Simplifie...
Properties of XML• All xml documents must contain a root  body, and that root body will contain sub  elements. Eg;• <root>...
Ways to display an XML fileBecause tags are user defined browsers displayXML files as they are. There are two ways tocorre...
• ----------YOUR FIRST PART İS FINISH--------------
Beginning of Resource Description          Framework(RDF)• Using XML,the Semantic Web will use which  are triplets that co...
What is RDF?• It has used for only representing  METADATA(data about data[4]) about WWW  resources, such as the title, aut...
Basicly Triplet Code                      A SentenceSubject:JANE      VerbPredicate:sells Object:Books            Figure 1...
Using RDF• Using RDF triplet connect the Jane and books  together in a spesific relationship.• The computer can remember w...
RDF-Resource• Resource is anything that has identity,it is Jane  and Book.• How does something get identity.• Be identifie...
RDF-Description• Description is really just a container holding everything  all together,several statements describing the...
RDF-Framework• The last part of RDF is framework that the  computer make decision and determine that  when we ask about Ja...
RDF Triplets [Jane]         [books]      -Here is RDF pictorial form                             -Trusted Info:Jane sells ...
Trust Factory with RDF• Computer eliminate the untrusted information  with trust factory.• We have to find this way in ord...
Ontology• After RDF we built on Ontology vocabulary with  basic rules.• Ontology connect this related items to easiliy  Ac...
Ontology Structure• it provides additional standardized vocabulary  also that can declare classes.We can see  simple Ontol...
A Simple Concept Hierarchy• As a in this ontology,has five classes.Plant and  Animal are subclass of Organism.• A good way...
Logic• The upper layer in Logic will be done Proofs that will  know how things work .• Logic searches this question answer...
Digital Signature• You can see the four layers RDF,ontology,logic  and proof.• These are form in digital signature.• Digit...
The Highest Level:Trust• The Trust:In the real world,you don’t want a  program doing things without being careful.• One of...
About Semantic Web• Currently users search for data on the web by  asking questions that are of the form:”which  document ...
The Grand VisionGrand Vision of Semantic Web ;• Better web communications with Semantic  Web• Personal devices dektop,lapt...
rdf)-----Chibuikem 2. Part for      Explaining DOM         Parser-----
XML DOM• The XML DOM defines a standard way for  accessing and manipulating XML documents• The DOM is a W3C standard. The ...
Definition of XML DOM•   A standard programming     interface for XML
Loading an XML document• An xml parser converts an XML document to  XML DOM
Loading an XML documentif (window.XMLHttpRequest)  {  xhttp=new XMLHttpRequest();  }else // for IE 5/6  {  xhttp=new Activ...
Loading an XML documentCode explained:• Create an XMLHTTP object• Open the XMLHTTP object• Send an XML HTTP request to the...
Browsers & SecurityFor security reasons, modern browsers do notallow access across domains.This means, that both the web p...
Positioning XML• Like CSS the XML code can be written in an  external file to make it easily modifiable and  maintainable....
• -------------------------------------------• YOUR 2.PART IS FINISH______________• ALSO YOU HAVE CONCLUSION PART
The Conclusion(SERDAR)• In the conclusion part;we start basic alphabet Unicode  which is computerized.• We build on top of...
--Chibuikem-----YOUR CONCLUSİON                PART--• XML/DOM is a great programming language that has  helped programmer...
Semantic web xml-rdf-dom parser
Semantic web xml-rdf-dom parser
Semantic web xml-rdf-dom parser
Semantic web xml-rdf-dom parser
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Semantic web xml-rdf-dom parser

  1. 1. Name&Surname : Serdar SÖNMEZ / Chibuikem EUGENE ONUOHAProject Name : Semantic WEB/XML/DOMNumber : 20110197 / 20101179
  2. 2. What is Semantic?• Semantic is related to syntax.Syntax is how you say something• Semantic is meaning behind what you sad? Also semantic cares about what you say actually means?
  3. 3. Semantic WEB• The idea behind the semantic web is to make the Web as intelligent as possible.[1]• Therefore,in addition to storing and managing data and information.• Computer understand as human beings do.
  4. 4. Communication of Semantic And Web• A Web includes any document and collection of knowledge• Web allow to people to add what they know and find answer to their questions.• We have also search engines about website that we want but today’s computers blindly showing same information.It is the big problem for access to target data.
  5. 5. Semantic Web• The Web is beneficial for us,but how can we make it better.The answer is with SEMANTIC.• The figure 1.1,that shows us diffrent layers of semantic web.I want to tell about semantic web layers and how it works step by step;
  6. 6. Layers of Semantic Web Figure 1.1:Layers of Semantic Web [2]
  7. 7. THE UNICODE• In first layer Unicode and URI are important features of WWW(World Wide Web).• Unicode is a code language it gives up computer number standart encoding character sets.• It allows that all human languages can be used (written and read) on the web using one standardized form
  8. 8. URI-Uniform Resource Identifier• On the other hand Uniform Resource Identifiers(URI) identifies the name and location of a file or resource in a format.URI is dividing into two part.We can see in Figure 1.2 Figure 1.2:Uniform Resource Identifiers[3]
  9. 9. What is URI?• It includes a string of characters for the file name and it contains path to the directory of the file.• A uniform resource name (URN) functions like a persons name,other one is uniform resource locator(URL) like any persons street address.
  10. 10. How URI Works?• In other words: the URN defines an items identity, while the URL provides a method for finding it.• An absolute example from wiki:http://example.org/absolute/URI/with/absolute /path/to/resource.txt
  11. 11. Chibuikem……………Your Starting POINT……………. ………Your First Part……..
  12. 12. XML/DOM XML stands for: eXtensible Markup Language. XML:for storing data. HTML:for displaying data.XML became a W3C Recommendation on February 10, 1998
  13. 13. XML/DOMXml is a style of writing that helps us store dataabout webpages, although it doesn’t display iton the webpage. It can also be modified anddesigned.
  14. 14. Difference b/w HTML&XMLXML document<note><to>Tove</to> // User defined tags//<from>Jani</from><heading>Reminder</heading><body>Dont forget me this weekend!</body></note>HTML document<html><body>// HTML defined tags//<h1>Tove</h1><p>Dont forget me</p></body></html>
  15. 15. Properties of XML• XML Separates Data from HTML• XML Simplifies Data Sharing• XML Simplifies Data Transport• XML Simplifies Platform Changes• XML Makes Your Data More AvailableIn xml all elements must have a closing tag.
  16. 16. Properties of XML• All xml documents must contain a root body, and that root body will contain sub elements. Eg;• <root>• <subelement>• <sub, subelement>.....</sub, subelement>• </ subelement>• </root>
  17. 17. Ways to display an XML fileBecause tags are user defined browsers displayXML files as they are. There are two ways tocorrect this;CSS.XSLT.
  18. 18. • ----------YOUR FIRST PART İS FINISH--------------
  19. 19. Beginning of Resource Description Framework(RDF)• Using XML,the Semantic Web will use which are triplets that connect diffrent objects together• RDF is a framework for representing information about resources in a graph form.
  20. 20. What is RDF?• It has used for only representing METADATA(data about data[4]) about WWW resources, such as the title, author, and modification date of a Web page but later on it used for store any other data.• It is based on triples subject-predicate- object that form graph of data.• All data in the semantic web use RDF as the primary representation language
  21. 21. Basicly Triplet Code A SentenceSubject:JANE VerbPredicate:sells Object:Books Figure 1.4:An example about Triplets-So we have the three things how we can teach to computer to remember this thing relationship each other.
  22. 22. Using RDF• Using RDF triplet connect the Jane and books together in a spesific relationship.• The computer can remember work data with using XML language.
  23. 23. RDF-Resource• Resource is anything that has identity,it is Jane and Book.• How does something get identity.• Be identified by URI• Not all resources are retrievable across network• For example agency,a human,an abstract concept(such as love,marriage)
  24. 24. RDF-Description• Description is really just a container holding everything all together,several statements describing the source.• A friend (or computer) to describe Jane• One statement might be:Jane sells books(If you ask a question to computer they will probably say Oh Jane she sells books,Specifically if she knows which Jane you are talkıng about which is the URI concept from the computer so you use RDF triplet you could ask some question and computer tell you Jane sells books based on triplet stored instead of base or memory or another network )
  25. 25. RDF-Framework• The last part of RDF is framework that the computer make decision and determine that when we ask about Jane who sells books.• Framework is needed to enable humans add machines to make and understand statements
  26. 26. RDF Triplets [Jane] [books] -Here is RDF pictorial form -Trusted Info:Jane sells books [statement] -Untrusted Info:Jane sells(Built From Triplet) books. Figure 1.5:A RDF TripletYou can see the resources Jane and books,that makegroup of statement.It is main point of in here is trust factory.
  27. 27. Trust Factory with RDF• Computer eliminate the untrusted information with trust factory.• We have to find this way in order to computer know how can trust the sources.
  28. 28. Ontology• After RDF we built on Ontology vocabulary with basic rules.• Ontology connect this related items to easiliy Access for target data.• It is a precise exploration of terms and reasoning in a subject area.• Semantic as a ontology making the meaning so clear,a computer can understand it,or at least utilize it.
  29. 29. Ontology Structure• it provides additional standardized vocabulary also that can declare classes.We can see simple Ontology structure in figure 1.3. Figure 1.3:A Simple Concept Hierarchy[5]
  30. 30. A Simple Concept Hierarchy• As a in this ontology,has five classes.Plant and Animal are subclass of Organism.• A good way to think of these classes:Organism is defined for set of the living things.
  31. 31. Logic• The upper layer in Logic will be done Proofs that will know how things work .• Logic searches this question answer;IS IT APPLICABLE?• Logic evaluate the information coming from ontology vocabulary and try to find correct and consistent knowledge.
  32. 32. Digital Signature• You can see the four layers RDF,ontology,logic and proof.• These are form in digital signature.• Digital signature verifies integrity of a document,treating the information as mere strings of bytes.[7]
  33. 33. The Highest Level:Trust• The Trust:In the real world,you don’t want a program doing things without being careful.• One of the more difficult things is figuring out what rules you really use for deciding what data to trust.• The Semantic Web doesnt make that social problem much easier.• When you have figured out a trust model, the Semantic Web allows you to write it down.[8]
  34. 34. About Semantic Web• Currently users search for data on the web by asking questions that are of the form:”which document contains these word and phrases.• The Semantic Web will involve more involved questions ,relationships and how diffrent things related to each other.• For example:How does the weather affect the stock market?crime?birth rates?
  35. 35. The Grand VisionGrand Vision of Semantic Web ;• Better web communications with Semantic Web• Personal devices dektop,laptop,servers are getting munch smarter with Semantic Technology
  36. 36. rdf)-----Chibuikem 2. Part for Explaining DOM Parser-----
  37. 37. XML DOM• The XML DOM defines a standard way for accessing and manipulating XML documents• The DOM is a W3C standard. The DOM is separated into 3 different parts / levels:• Core DOM - standard model for any structured document• XML DOM - standard model for XML documents• HTML DOM - standard model for HTML documents
  38. 38. Definition of XML DOM• A standard programming interface for XML
  39. 39. Loading an XML document• An xml parser converts an XML document to XML DOM
  40. 40. Loading an XML documentif (window.XMLHttpRequest) { xhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(); }else // for IE 5/6 { xhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"); }xhttp.open("GET","books.xml",false);xhttp.send();xmlDoc=xhttp.responseXML;
  41. 41. Loading an XML documentCode explained:• Create an XMLHTTP object• Open the XMLHTTP object• Send an XML HTTP request to the server• Set the response as an XML DOM object
  42. 42. Browsers & SecurityFor security reasons, modern browsers do notallow access across domains.This means, that both the web page and theXML file it tries to load, must be located on thesame server.
  43. 43. Positioning XML• Like CSS the XML code can be written in an external file to make it easily modifiable and maintainable.• Also XML codes are usually written in a functionFunction loaddoc(docname){…..}
  44. 44. • -------------------------------------------• YOUR 2.PART IS FINISH______________• ALSO YOU HAVE CONCLUSION PART
  45. 45. The Conclusion(SERDAR)• In the conclusion part;we start basic alphabet Unicode which is computerized.• We build on top of it XML structure.• This structure used build RDF triplets.This triplets follows spesific rules that are not confusing the computers that are not biggest data like our mind.• We set up ontology vocabulary handles these triplets it follows logic,prof and trust.• The Semantic Web enabling the machines to make more sense of the web,with result of making the web more useful for humans.
  46. 46. --Chibuikem-----YOUR CONCLUSİON PART--• XML/DOM is a great programming language that has helped programmers and web developers store data without having to modify a webpage everytime it is transferred from one network to another.• XML/DOM, like HTML can be found everywhere, not only in webpages but even in our operating systems( to check it go to the event viewer in windows, an XML view is available).• XML in the future can be advanced to accommodate much more complex data operations while simplifying, because in the world of internet programming there is much more room for development.

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