The Coastal Archaeology and Dune Geoarchaeology of Lake Michigan
The Coastal Archaeology andDune Geoarchaeology of LakeMichigan William A. LovisPresented by William A. Lovis Department of Anthropology MSU Museum Michigan State University Alan F. Arbogast Department of Geography Michigan State University G. William Monaghan Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology Mathers Museum Indiana University Teaching Climate Change: Insight from Large Lakes Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College American Quaternary Association Biennial Meeting Large Lakes Observatory and Department of Geological Sciences University of Minnesota Duluth MN 19-20 June 2012 (Photo by A. Arbogast; used with permission)
Graphic by G. W. Monaghan. Modified from Monaghan and Lovis (2005; Table 3-1)
The basins varied in configuration Relative to changing elevations or water planes High lake levels in one basin may correlate with lows in others (Graphics modified from original by Rob MacDonald)
(Graphic by R. MacDonald from original by W.A. Lovis)
This period was characterized by mobile hunters and gathers. PaleoIndians hunted caribou, and actively scavenged mastodon. They made stylistically distinctive spear points. Some of their occupations are found(Photo by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections) on relict beach ridges of early lake stages.
Adept hunters of deer using the atlatl or spear thrower Intensive acorn, walnut and hickory nut collectors Early exploiters(Photo by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections) of native copper
These people participated in exchange systems so vast that they brought Gulf Coast conch shells to the upper Great Lakes, and Lake Superior copper was transported across the Eastern United States(Photo by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)
(Photos by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)
(Photos by W. Lovis; right -MSU Museum Archaeological Collections;left - State of Michigan Archaeological Collections)
The Woodland period begins variously around 2000 to 2500 years ago across the Great Lakes It was initially defined on the basis of ceramic technology, and divided into three subperiods Woodland peoples domesticated indigenous seed plants as well as tropical newcomers such as squash and corn (maize) Many village sites are found in coastal zones due to the moderating lake effects of the Great Lakes
An uncarbonized Cucurbita pepo (pepo? Cucurbita Rind (BorderlineDomesticovifera?) seed (ca 16x8 mm) collected Variety) From the Marquette Viaduct Site.from organic deposits 3 m deep adjacent Note That Squash is NOT Indigenous toto the Green Point Site. Michigan.Sample dated 3064-2844 cal BP Sample dated 4516–4248 cal BP (Photo by G. Monaghan, used with permission) (Photo by G. Urquhart, used with permission)
BP/ AD-BC 0/2000 Late Limited Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Woodland Maize (Zea mays mays) macrobotanicals relatively abundant 1000/1000 Limited Maize (Zea mays mays) macrobotanicals Wild Rice (Zizania aquatica) Early & Middle Woodland2000/ 0 Earliest Maize (Zea mays mays) microbotanicals EAC Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) EAC Limited Goosefoot/Lambsquarter (Chenopodium sp)3000/1000 EAC Limited non indigenous sumpweed (Iva annua) Late EAC Large domestic Squash Variety (C. pepo) Archaic EAC Small domestic Squash Variety (C. pepo)4000/2000 EAC Possible non indigenous domestic Squash (Cucurbita pepo)
Note the position of the primary 140 frost free day contour line across the lower and upper peninsulas of Michigan. AsaYarnell presented a slightly different contour map in his major 1964 work.(http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/images/big03.gif)
Left – pottery rim section from the Upper Great Lakes Laurel culture Middle – Hopewell style pottery from the southern Great Lakes Right – Late Woodland cordmarked pottery from southern Michigan (Photo by A. Fortier; State of MichiganArchaeological Collections, used with permission) (Photos by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections)
Woodland peoples, and their Upper Mississippian counterparts, built burial and effigy(Photo by W. Lovis; MSU Museum Archaeological Collections) mounds, and earthworks They mastered the use of the bow and arrow And developed elegant fishing technologies based on spears and gill nets
To synthesize existing geomorphological, geological, and archaeological data on coastal dunes, and to gather supplementary information from fieldwork as appropriate To better understand the processes responsible for the cycling of coastal dune activation and stabilization To better understand the contexts, both landforms, and elevations, in which coastal dunes are formed To better understand the ages and timing of coastal dune formation and cycling To better understand the ages and contexts in which archaeological sites will be formed and preserved
Dune geomorphological documentation of eolian activation and stabilization cycles Coastal geology and glacial geology documentation of uplift, subsidence, outlet incision, lake level fluctuation, beach terrace formation Archaeological documentation of burial and stratification in coastal and dune contexts
Canada Lake Superior La ke 1) westerly winds H ur on ta rio e On Lak 3) Lot’s of sand! ie e Er kMississippi River La 2) long fetch (~ 110 km) U.S. across Lake Michigan America’s North
This Regional Map Shows the Distribution of Dunes and Dune Fields in Michigan, Displaying the Primary and Secondary Project Study Areas Along the Coastal Zone of Lake Michigan in Michigan.(Graphic by G. Monaghan, used with permission)
(Graphic and photo by A. Arbogast, used with permission)
OSL date of920±90 BP/1080 AD from18m below thedune crest,from below soilzones, but atuppermost partof Unit 1 eoliansand.
Three Curves Modeling Changes in Water Levels During the Mid- To Late- Holocene Corrected for Uplift Near Port Huron (Graphic by G. W. Monaghan, used with permission)
O’Neil Site(20CX18),Charlevoix County,MichiganNote stratification in swale behindforedune complex adjacent toInwood Creek. Basal occupationdates ca. A.D. 1200, upper soilhorizon was stable by the turn of the18th century A.D.(Photo by W. Lovis, graphic from Lovis1973; used with permission)
2163-1856 cal BP 1873-1280 cal BP 2043-1512 cal BPThis site sits atop high dunes at Petoskey. The basal occupation is primarily MiddleWoodland, the upper occupation is primarily Late Woodland. Initial stabilizationoccurred ca. 0 A.D. (Photo by W. Lovis, used with permission)
Conventional 14C Dating Existing dates recalibrated and placed stratigraphically; limited new dates obtained on charcoal incorporated into existing sequenceAccelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) Dating of small samples of carbonized residues from ceramic sherds with good stratigraphic provenience, as well as small paleosol samplesOptically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Dating of samples of inorganics, primarily dune sands “sandwiching” stable organic deposits revealing soil formation, and possibly cultural use
Previously Reported Sites Had Information of Variable Quality on • Assemblage Composition, • Stratigraphy and Formation Processes, • Ages and Dating These Data were Differentially Reported. We Needed to Develop Standard Procedures for Both Known as Well as Newly Investigated Sites
Map showing the locations of archaeological sites and dune sampling locales around Lake Michigan. The dashed line indicates the approximate position of the Algonquin and Nipissing “hinge line”; after Leverett and Taylor (1915). Areas of presumed subsidence and uplift are labeled on either side of the “hinge line.”(Graphic by G. Monaghan; used with permission)
(Photos by W. Lovis:used with permission) Winter site composite stratigraphy of Richner’s Ekdahl-Goudreau site composite stratigraphy as described archaeological units and noted from GeoProbe core. Note: by UMMA field notes and that noted from the GeoProbe units depths and boundaries are approximate. core. Note: unit depths and boundaries are approximate. (Graphics by G. Monaghan; used with permission)
Oneota Shell TemperedJuntunen Drag and Jab Mackinac Punctate (Photos and graphic by W. Lovis; used with permission)
The Eastport Site, Antrim County, MI 616’/187.75m Eolian Sand Paleosol Leached B/E 614’/187.15m Spodosols Lacustrine Sand Artifact Zone 612’/186.54m 610’/185.93m 608’/185.32mOSL 5150±390 B.P. In Eolian Sand atVillage of Eastport Unit 1/Unit 2 Composite (Graphic by W. Lovis; used with permission)
Results of 2007 14C and OSL Dating The Camp Miniwanca Site, Oceana Co, MI • Wood charcoal from hearth in buried paleosol identified by Dr. Frank Telewski as 20+ Meters! Picea sp., spruce. Tight growth rings reveal a stressed environment. • A 14C date of 820±40 BP from a hearth with ceramics, chipped stone, and bone cal. BP 730/AD 1220. OSL ages 870±80 BP above 920±80 BP below(Photos by W. Lovis, graphic by G. Monaghan, used with permission)
Procedures for GeoProbeTM OSL Sampling Step 1: Once a sample location has been selected on a larger site, position GeoProbeTM and take visible solid core to the appropriate stratigraphic depth. Photo at left is Bill Monaghan coring at Winter site. Step 2: Assess stratigraphy within the core. Ascertain whether OSL sample is appro- priate, and from what depth within the stratigraphic section. Photo at left is from Winter site.(Photos by W. A. Lovis; used withpermission)Step 3: Properly record stratigraphy in terms ofstandard criterion such as color, texture, grainsize, organic content. Again determine at whatdepth the OSL sample should be taken. Photoat right is at Ekdahl-Goudreau/Seul Choix site.
Procedures for GeoProbeTM OSL Sampling Step 4: Repeat the coring procedure at least once, and possibly twice. It is necessary to obtain a control, or Gamma, sample, which does not need to be light tight. More importantly it is necessary to obtain a light tight, sealed sample for OSL dating. Thus, the core tube is blackened, and covered with duct tape. It is “blind”, which is why depth assessment is critical since the sealed sample tube is cut at the appropriate location. Photo at left is the Ekdahl-Goudreau/Seul Choix site. Step 5: Appropriately field archive all samples, both OSL, and Gamma, as well as preserved solid cores with visible stratigraphy. Document UTM and Lat/Long locations of cores using reasonably accurate GPS device. As necessary, appropriate, or required, backfill core holes with BentoniteTM clay to prohibit contaminant seepage into groundwater. Photo at left shows solid cores from Winter site. (Photos by W. A. Lovis; used with permission)
Sample transect through dune ridges between the Nipissing wave terrace and the Lake Michigan beach, Antrim Creek Natural Area. West – Lake Michigan East - Inland•Not to scale•Graphic by A. Arbogast and G. Monaghan, used with permission)
Mt. McSauba Site, City of Charlevoix Organic horizon with cultural material. Modern 14C date on wood detritus. (Cal 2C B.P. 305[229-132]0) OSL date on underlying sand. 740±70 B.P. Late Woodland ceramic vessel base eroding from the buried organic horizon. Decoration suggests age of ca. 1000- 1200 AD. See the rim sherds illustrated below. (Photographs by W. Lovis; used with permission)
The Winter Site, Delta County, MI The Winter site was AMS dated using carbonized food residues adhering to the interiors of ceramic vessels. The basal occupation horizon was dated from two sherds, a Plain sherd, and a North Bay Corded sherd. The middle/upper horizon was dated from a single sherd of Vertical Corded pottery. The dates on the lower horizon are statistically identical. The date on the middle/upper horizon is both earlier, and not identical. This suggests Photos by W. Lovis; that these stable horizons used with permission) are all very close in time. The basal OSL date is earlier than all of the AMS(Graphic by G. Monaghan; used with permission) dates.
The Scott Point Site, Dated diagnostic ceramic rims from Mackinac County, the top 30 cm of the deposits include a Juntunen Drag and Jab MI Mean Pooled Age and an Oneota Shell tempered rim producing statistically identical dates Cal BP 865±28/AD 1085 with a mean pooled age of cal BP 865. This reveals that the last stabilization of the site took place ca. A.D. 1085. The base of the deposits were dated on the basis of a diagnostic 400 yrs Mackinac Ware rim producing an age of cal AD 770. This date is consistent with the known age of the ware, and indicates that the basal EXCAVATED deposits at 1.5 mbs were stable ca. A.D. 700-800.Cal BP 1270-1068/AD 670-890 Oneota Shell Tempered Juntunen Drag and Jab Mackinac Punctate
Based on our sample, there are very few Nipissing age dunes, i.e. pre- 4000 B.P., and they are relatively small. There is a surge in dune growth frequency, intensity, and size ca. 3200 to 2000 B.P. Dune activation slows and reduces in intensity between ca. 2000 and 1000 B.P. Dunes again become more active from 1000 B.P. to 700 B.P.
Probability Density Distribution of all OSL Dates:University of Illinois-Chicago, and University of Sheffield(Function Plot by Steve Forman, UI-C)
OSL Probability Density Distribution Source: Steven L. Forman Medieval Warm Period? Largest Dunes Form Few Nipissing Dunes 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 OSL Age Estimate
Foredune East of Marquette Michigan South shore of Lake Superior Dune has grown ~1.3m+ since May 2010Bottom edge of dune grass marks former dune crest (Photos and composite by W. Lovis, used with permission)
Three Holocene Lake Level Curves proposed for Lakes Michigan and HuronBasis of Lake-Level Curves:Larsen (1985): 14C ages from beach ridges, mainly insouthern Lake Michigan.Thompson et.al. (2004): sedimentology of sets ofrecessional beaches within embayments.Monaghan and Lovis (2005): 14C ages of beaches,transgressions in mouth of rivers and archaeologicalsites, mainly southern Lake Huron (Saginaw Bay).Points of Agreement: three broad intervalsHigh water events 6-4 kyaLow water (or stable?) interval ca 4-2 kyaFluctuating levels (alternating high/low) post-2 kya
(Graphic by G. Monaghan, used with permission)
Sample Transect Through the Torch Bay Nature Preserve Between the Nipissing Shoreline and Lake Michigan. West – Lake Michigan East - InlandNot to scale(Graphic by A. Arbogast and G. Monaghan, used with permission)
Fisherman’s Island State Park transect across increasingly younger dune ridges. West – Lake Michigan East - Inland Campground Loop Transect 2180-2660 yaNot to scale(Graphic by A. Arbogast, used with permission)
Descriptive modelof middle and lateHoloceneshoreline and dunedevelopment inareas ofsubsidence orstability along thesouthern andsoutheastern shoreof Lake Michigan.
Descriptive modelof middle and lateHoloceneshoreline anddune developmentin areas of rapiduplift along thenorthern andnortheasternshore of LakeMichigan.
Diagrammaticmodel of theformation, burialand stratificationof archaeologicalsites in areas ofrapid uplift on thenorthern andnortheasternshore of LakeMichigan.
Potential Human – Dune Landscape Interactions North of the Zone of Isostatic Rebound Human occupation is normally BEHIND dune crests, most often in a hollow orthe swale behind the foredune Occupation surfaces most likely are not stable, and they do not display thenormal signatures of soil formation. This suggests they may be induced as theproduct of human enhancement rather than natural pedogenic processes. Theyare anthropogenic horizons, and may not be formal paleosols. Organic enhancement occurs with the introduction of charcoal, oils and fats,charred bone, and organic debris. This organic enhancement fosters rapidvegetative growth in protected and occupied swales and hollows. Human foot traffic over lakeward positioned dune crests results in local levelmobilization of the sand supply. Eolian activity deposits a veneer of inorganicsands of varying depth over the organic occupation surface. This process mayoccur once, resulting in burial of a single occupation, or cyclically resulting instratification.
Michigan Department of Transportation Michigan Department of Natural Resources Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Michigan Office of the State Archaeologist USDA Forest Service, Hiawatha National Forest Antrim County Planning Commission Torch Lake Township National Park Service, Midwest Archaeological Center Northern Michigan University Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan Department of Anthropology, Western Michigan University Department of Anthropology, Grand Valley State University
Dr. David Ruggles Dr. James Robertson Barbara Mead Jeff Richner Dr. Marla Buckmaster Dr. Michael Nassaney Dr. William Cremin Glenn Palmgren Dr. Janet Brashler Dr. John O’Shea Robert Spencer Dr. Charles Cleland John Franzen Jennifer Holmstadt Frank and Sandra Sakowski Dr. Diane Portfleet Eric Drake Jeanne Kokx Sue Rose Lynn Hyslop James Phillips Stevan Christianson Dr. Steven L. Forman Dr. John R. Halsey