Particulate Organic Carbon and Clorophyll Concentration Correlation
Did the 2004 Indonesian TsunamiAffect the Area of High Particulate Organic Carbon and High Chlorophyll Concentration? By: Maiya Osife & Alexis Naone Teacher: Ms. Everett Southridge High School Grade: 11
Description of Images•Location: Indian Ocean, near Indonesian islands•Date: December 26th 2004• Parameters: Particulate Organic Carbon and Chlorophylllevels
Chlorophyll Concentration in mg/m³2000 2001 20022003 2004 2005 2006
Background•Particulate Organic Carbon: The carbon that is too largeand is filtered out of a sample. The physical and chemicalproperties of the particles control how rapidly a chemicalspecies is removed from solution and incorporated insediment•Chlorophyll: A compound in plants that converts radiantenergy to chemical energy through the process ofphotosynthesis•Epicenter on the west coast of Indonesian island ofSumatra•9.1-9.3 Magnitude, 3rd largest earthquake ever recorded•The rupture was more than 600 miles long and displacingthe seafloor by 10 yards
Question and Hypothesis•Question: Did the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami affect thearea of high particulate organic carbon and chlorophyll andare they correlated?•Hypothesis: We predict that the tsunami would increaseboth the organic carbon and chlorophyll levels because theintense waves would cause the organic carbon to rise andincrease the levels of chlorophyll. The chlorophyll wouldincrease because of the increased nutrient availability.
Variables:•Independent Variable: Years during December measuredfor chlorophyll and particulate carbon (2000 to 2006)•Dependent Variable: Area in km² of particulate organiccarbon above 400 mg/m^3 and area of chlorophyll above 1mg/m^3
MethodsSource of Images:•GiovanniSources of Background Information:•National Geographic•CSA•WET Labs
Data Analysis Steps: Particulate Organic Carbon Concentration How to prepare the images for measurement:•Choose parameters and settings on Giovanni•Open Image J•Set the scale to 1909.19 km per 135.21 pixel (found fromGoogle Earth)•Crop the image so only the map portion shows.•Set the image type to RGB and then to RGB stack.•Set the threshold to include pixel values between 70 and 252• -This will include carbon concentration levels higher than400mg/m³•Set measurements to area and limit to threshold.•Measure the image.
Data Analysis Steps: Chlorophyll Concentration How to prepare the images for measurement:•Choose parameters and settings on Giovanni•Open Image J•Set the scale to 1909.19 km per 135.21 pixel (found fromGoogle Earth)•Crop the image so only the map portion shows.•Set the image type to RGB and then to RGB stack.•Set the threshold to include pixel values between 161 and 252 -This will include chlorophyll levels higher than 1mg/m³•Set measurements to area and limit to threshold.•Measure the image.
Results: Data TableDate (years) Area of Particulate Area of Chlorophyll Carbon (km²) (km²) above above 400 mg/m^3 1mg/m^32000 7030 79612001 6426 74142002 6026 66732003 5997 70712004 6086 68852005 7178 87552006 6437 7480
Findings and Discussion•The highest area occurred in 2005 for both carbon andchlorophyll•The lowest area occurred in 2002 for both carbon andchlorophyll•Data Trend: The concentration levels that were measureddid not change drastically until the year, 2005, after thetsunami. This suggests that the tsunami did cause anincrease in the concentration levels of both particulateorganic carbon and chlorophyll.•Unusual Findings: We had predicted that theconcentration levels of both parameters would increase in2004, the year of the tsunami, when in fact the changestook place over time and the affect showed in 2005.
Conclusion•Hypothesis: Did the 2004 tsunami affect the particulate organiccarbon and chlorophyll concentration levels? Yes, the particulateorganic carbon and chlorophyll concentration both dramaticallyincreased following the year of the 2004 tsunami. Both concentrationsshowed increase in 2005, suggesting the correlation between the two.To follow up, we did a correlation analysis and the r value is .954 whichsuggests a very significant correlation. The increase in particulateorganic carbon was caused by the stirring up of sediment which alsocontained different nutrients which would in turn benefit the algae andcause an increase in chlorophyll.•Future Prediction: We predict that the future years to come theparameters will stay at a pretty moderate level until another naturaldisaster or a cause of stirring up of sediments occurs.
Limitations1. Seeing that the increase occurred in 2005, the year after thetsunami, we feel that it would be more substantial to have recordeddata specifically during all months of 2004 and 2005 and perhaps 2006also to show the levels going back to normal again.2. Inconsistency of computer usage, general speed of the computers inthe lab resulted in very slow results as far as image processing.3. The general time span of this project because we are very pleasedthat our hypothesis proved true and would enjoy expanding the topic,perhaps by expanding the date range specifically to all of 2004, 2005,and 2006.4. Skewed Images led to some possible inaccurate data and furtherresults.5. Considering that the world is round and our images were flat, thatcould have thrown off our data.6. Scale may have been slightly off.
Implications for Humans• Thousands of homes, businesses, and beaches were ruined from the natural disaster. Leaving families broken and no place to go. Many lives were lost, also hundreds were injured or missing.• Aid agencies spent millions on rehabilitation centers, shelters, and fresh water and food to help the civilians get healthy and back on their feet.• Marine fisheries and local markets went out of business from the huge decrease of fish and sea life. There was also severe damage to fishing boats and equipment that could no longer be used.• The sandy beaches and coral reefs were the main tourist attractions. Companies had lost tons of money and business due to the tsunami.• Organizations from all over came together to help the people of need by rebuilding stores and homes.• National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program announced they were installing 32 more satellite tsunami tracker systems that are located in the ocean in several places all over the world. This cost the company a ton of money.
Implications for EcosystemsNegative:•Large amounts of pollution had been drained into the ocean,contaminating the water and killing the sea life.•40-60% of the coral reefs were knocked over and destroyedbecause of the waves.•Sea life living in the coral reefs had died from the pollution(bleaching), and destroyed by the waves.Positive:•Sediments that were brought up also helped sea life continue togrow and animals got the nutrients they need.•Natural barriers saved some coastline communities from severedamage.
Cited Sources• "Ocean Color Radiometry Online Visualization and Analysis." Giovanni. NASA. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://gdata1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/daac- bin/G3/gui.cgi?instance_id=ocean_month>.• "The Deadliest Tsunami in History?" National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 7 Jan. 2005. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/12/1227_041226_tsunami. html>.• "Tsunamis and the International Response: Economic, Social and Environmental Dimensions." CSA. Pro Quest. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/tsunami/overview.php?SID=ed8m1ro o1f1k3mrslur6o7d574>.• "WET Labs: Glossary of Terms." Underwater Sensors from WET Labs. WET Labs. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. <http://www.wetlabs.com/glossary.htm>.