Foundations of Geoethics

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Foundations of Geoethics

  1. 1. Silvia Peppoloni1,2 2INGV Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology 1IAPG International Association for Promoting Geoethics GEOETHICS
  2. 2. Abbé Antonio Stoppani (1824-1891) 1873 ANTHROPOZOIC ERA hypothesis and definition by Antonio Stoppani Era dominated by human activities 2002 ANTHROPOCENE Definition by Paul Crutzen geological epoch denoted and characterized by human activity 1949 LAND ETHICS “Conservation is a state of harmony between men and land" Aldo Leopold (1887-1948) Paul Crutzen (1934-2012) ORIGINS
  3. 3.  environmental sustainability  defense against natural hazards  prudent use of natural resources  reduction of pollution and its repercussions on human health and climate change  technological and industrial development  growth of population  urban expansion  expanding use of land  increasing demand for natural resources to be managed with common sense, wisdom and foresight WHYGEOETHICSWASBORN
  4. 4.  Geoscientists can promote a culture sensitive to the environment, a correct information on natural risks, a more constructive relationship among scientific community, mass media, civil society and policy-makers. GEOSCIENTISTS  Geoscientists can persuade people that geo-resources and geo-environment constitute a common heritage, to be considered as a cultural, educational and scientific value, as well as a social capital.
  5. 5. WHATISGEOETHICS Philosophy Sociology Geology ethical, social and cultural implications of geological research and practice
  6. 6. “investigation and reflection on the practical behavior of human beings” procedures and practices existing political and economic realities different social and cultural contexts universal shared values GEOETHICS “investigation and reflection on human behavior and practice towards the Geosphere ”
  7. 7.  Geoethics provides references and guidelines to find socio-economic solutions compatible with the respect for the environment and the protection of Nature and land.  Geoethics deals with problems related to the georisks management and the use of geo-resources. THEMES  Geoethics promotes the social role played by Geoscientists and highlights their responsibilities in making choices that have repercussions on society.
  8. 8. THEMES  Geoethics fosters the proper and correct dissemination of the scientific results.  Geoethics aims to organize effective teaching tools to develop awareness, values and responsibility, especially amongst the young people.  Geoethics promotes the development of geoparks and geo-tourism, in order to create social awareness about the value of the geological heritage and geodiversity.  Geoethics highlights the usefulness of the geological knowledge in daily life by promoting disciplines like geo-medicine and forensic geosciences.
  9. 9.  to give a cultural, ethical, and social frame of reference for conducting geological research and practice in favor of public welfare;  to give value to geosciences in a cultural sense as part of a group of disciplines capable of suggesting new ways to understand and investigate our planet. THEORETICAL La Conchita, coastal area of southern California  to provide solutions, compatible with the respect of right balances existing in Nature TOOLS: procedures, protocols, guidelines, codes of conduct, methods, strategies, web resources…. OBJECTIVES
  10. 10.  Attention towards Geoethics is still limited.  Only a few geoscientists are involved in Geoethics or make explicit reference to Geoethics.  Outside of scientific community, among the general public, no one knows of Geoethics. Ah-shi-sle-pah badlands, New Mexico DEVELOPMENTOFGEOETHICS WHY?
  11. 11. subject of study, method, goal CRITICALPOINTS  Does Geoethics meet these requisites? • a theoretical base • a methodology for experimentation • the capability to analyze success or failure • an outcome transferable to students through the process of teaching.  Could Geoethics be defined a science? few research projects and scarce funds  Is Geoethics accompanied by an adequate research base and a satisfactory number of scientific publications?
  12. 12. PROCESSOFRENEWAL Responsibility Geologicalculture Ethicalcriterion GEOETHICS  What should be our points of reference in this process of renewal?
  13. 13. RESPONSIBILITY  what does the responsibility of a geologists consist of ? “geo” gh, gaia (greek) = Earth ga (sumerian) = home, dwelling place “ethics” ἔqo (greek) = social habit, custom ἦqo (greek) = individual, personal esdu (akkadian) = social foundation, social discipline ettu (akkadian) = distinctive character of each individual
  14. 14. RESPONSIBILITY investigation and reflection on the behavior of humans towards the geosphere analysis of the relationships between geoscientists who act and their own actions Geoethics Antelope Canyon, Arizona SOCIAL SPHERE INDIVIDUAL SPHERE To be part of To belong to oneself
  15. 15. Individual dimension  Research and defense of truth.  Advancement of knowledge and life-long learning.  Ethical obligations arise from the possession of a specific knowledge that has practical consequences for the public.  Research activity and geological practice of Geoscientists should be at the service of the common good. Great Blue Hole, Belize RESPONSIBILITY Social dimension  what does the responsibility of geoscientists consist of ?  what motivations are needed to push geoscientists to practice the Earth sciences in an ethical way?
  16. 16. ?
  17. 17. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) The geological discoveries of the past were primarily great cultural achievements and have contributed to the construction of the modern world James Hutton (1726-1797) Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Deep Time Theory Theory of Evolution Continental Drift Theory GEOLOGICALCULTURE
  18. 18. SCIENCE IS CULTURE Jules Henri Poincaré, mathematician, physicist, phylosopher (1854-1912)  methods  goals  values  history  ways of thinking about Nature  specific sensitivity GEOLOGY IS A SCIENCE GEOLOGY IS CULTURE GEOLOGYASSCIENCE We will not get valid geoethical solutions if we don’t consider geology as a part of our culture
  19. 19.  What is the ethical criterion that must guide us? individual sphere: the source of any social action ETHICALCRITERION
  20. 20.  Proper land/environment use and management  Respect of truth and science ETHICALCRITERION How can geoscientists be best assisted in their acquisition of a clear awareness of their ethical responsibility?  Promotion of awareness of every citizen’s responsibility  Commitment to advancing knowledge and life-long learning
  21. 21. Moral obligations arise from the possession of specific knowledge that has practical consequences Hippokrates of Kos (460 BC - 370 BC) Ellis, E.C., and P.K. Haff (2009) Earth Science in the Anthropocene: New Epoch, New Paradigm, New Responsibilities. Eos Trans. AGU, 9 (49), 473. OATH
  22. 22. Inspired by Antoniou et al. (2010): Reflection of the Hippocratic Oath in modern medicine. World J. Surg., 34. Inspired by Antoniou et al. (2010): Reflection of the Hippocratic Oath in modern medicine. World J. Surg., 34. OATH
  23. 23.  the awareness of their social role, expertise and contribution;  the strengthening of their sense of belonging to a professional community;  the awareness of the expectations of society;  the cultural growth at the individual and community levels;  the exploitation of research; The explicit acceptance of the ethical responsibility by geoscientists can foster:  the implementation of scientific and professional skills;  the commitment for the cultural lifelong increase as an ethical duty. Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park - Australia OATH
  24. 24. THEPROMISE  I promise I will practice geosciences being fully aware of the involved social implications and I will do my best for the protection of the geosphere for the benefit of mankind.  I know my responsibilities towards society, future generations, and the environment for a sustainable development.  In my job I will put the interest of society at large in the first place.  I will never misuse my geological knowledge, not even under constraint.  I will always be ready to provide my professional expertise in case of urgent need.  I will continue to improve my geological knowledge lifelong and I will always maintain my intellectual honesty at work, being aware of the limits of my capabilities and possibilities.  I will act to foster progress in geosciences, the dissemination of geological knowledge and the spreading of a geoethical approach to the management of land and geological resources.  I will honor my promise that my work as a geoscientist or certified geologist, will be fully respectful of Earth processes.
  25. 25. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE “OATH” FORMULA: • simple and basic • strictly voluntary • at the end of the university studies BEFORE ITS APPLICATION: wide discussion and acceptance by national and international communities of geoscientists and professionals
  26. 26. with the goal of widening the debate on problems of Ethics applied to the Geosciences IAPG
  27. 27. with peer review process GEOETHICS: ETHICAL CHALLENGES AND CASE STUDIES IN EARTH SCIENCE edited by Silvia Peppoloni and Max Wyss GEOETHICS: THE ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITY OF GEOSCIENTISTS edited by Giuseppe Di Capua and Silvia Peppoloni GEOETHICS AND GEOLOGICAL CULTURE. REFLECTIONS FROM THE GEOITALIA CONFERENCE 2011 edited by Giuseppe Di Capua and Silvia Peppoloni EDUCATION, PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND PUBLIC RECOGNITION OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY editors: Giorgio Lollino, Massimo Arattano, Marco Giardino, Ricardo Oliveira, Silvia Peppoloni
  28. 28. GEOETHICS giuseppe.dicapua@ingv.it silvia.peppoloni@ingv.it Sandra Piacente, Italian Committee of Geoethics “The task of science is not only to develop cognitive proposals and provide useful techniques, but also to present general contents regarding the way of intending nature, man and society. In fact, every science has in itself, and so it must convey, a specific image of the world, showing the manner in which it can be understood and investigated” 2INGV Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology 1IAPG International Association for Promoting Geoethics
  29. 29. http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Stoppani http://www.nsrwa.org/Page.45.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_J._Crutzen http://www.eduweb.com/portfolio/earthsystems/parent_page.html http://www.geologi.info/il-geologo-di-zona_eventi_x_1489.html http://www.compositum-zeolite.it/geomedical/ http://www.filosofico.net http://www.appa.provincia.tn.it/appa/pubblicazioni/-categoria7/pagina80.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Conchita,_California http://hdw.eweb4.com/search/new+mexico/ http://www.lasescapadas.com/fondos/fondo/antelope-canyon-arizona.php http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Blue_Hole http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Hutton http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portraits_of_Charles_Darwin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Wegener http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Poincaré http://www.paid2write.org http://www.riflessioni.it/filosofia-della-medicina/neuroscienze-mente-umana-01.htm http://www.travelnt.com/en/uluru-and-surrounds/places-to-go/kata-tjuta-the-olgas.aspx http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/ http://www.springer.com/?SGWID=6-102-0-0-0 http://www.collegeonlinedegree.com/

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