Epidemiology is derived from the Greek words , where the epi- , which means " the surface ,
above , override , or about " , demos meaning " people , population , population , human "
and ologi means " science " . Etymologically, the epidemiology , the science about what
happened to the population .
Epidemiology of birth based on two basic assumptions . First , the disease does not occur in
the human population and scattered so randomly. Second , the actual human disease has
causal factors and preventive factors that can be identified through systematic research on
various populations , place , and time . Based on these assumptions , epidemiology can be
defined as " the study of distribution and determinants - the frequency of disease and
determinants of health status in human populations .
The definition implies that epidemiology is essentially a quantitative empirical science ,
which involves a lot of observation and systematic measurement of the frequency of the
disease and a number of factors related to the disease being studied .
The final goal of epidemiological research that is preventing the incidence of disease , reduce
the impact of disease and improve human health status . Target epidemiology is the human
population , not individuals . These characteristics that distinguish epidemiological from
clinical medicine and biomedical sciences , which has focused to individuals , tissues , or
Epidemiology is useful to examine and explain the impact of public health control measures ,
prevention programs , clinical interventions and health services to assess and explain the
disease or other factors that impact on the health status of the population . Epidemiology also
may exacerbate the disease include a description of their presence in the population and the
factors - factors controlling the presence or absence of the disease .
a. To know the definitions , concepts , types, purpose and application , role , scope ,
measurement epidemiology .
b . To determine the natural history of the disease and prevention efforts .
Epidemiology is a branch of health science to analyze the nature and spread of a variety of
health problems in a specific population and to study because the incidence of these health
problems and disorders for purposes of prevention and mitigation . Epidemiology is the
discipline of health sciences including medicine , which is a logical process between the
physical, biological and social phenomena are closely related to health status , incidence of
disease and other health problems .
Methods of epidemiology is a scientific approach in the search for the causes and factors
causal relationship occurrence of certain events on a particular population group . In this case
the term can mean a group of residents of a particular object both living organisms such as
humans , animals and plants as well as the nature of objects / materials from industrial
products as well as other objects . Thus it is not surprising that epidemiological methods are
not limited to the health sector but in other fields , including the field of management .
Therefore, in use , is closely related to the epidemiology of various health disciplines outside
ilm , both eksata disciplines and social sciences .
Epidemiology is the science of complex and constantly evolving . Therefore , it is not easy to
determine a limit standard . This tmpak with various constraints expressed by epidemiologists
as follows :
Epidemiology is the study of distribution and determinants of diseases that affect the
frequency of disease in groups of humans ( Mac Mahon , B & Pugh , TF , 1970)
Epidemiology is the study of factors that determine the frequency and distribution of
disease in human populations ( Lowe C.R & Koestrzewski . J , 1973)
Epidemiology is the study of distribution and determinants of disease and forced Ruda in
human populations ( Mausner J. S & Bahn , 1974)
Epidemiology is the science yng was studying the distribution of disease or physiological
state of the population and the determinants that affect the distribution ( Lilienfeld AM & D.
E Lilienfeld , 1980)
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human
populations ( Barker , DJP , 1982)
The limitation of the equation there are all expressed epidemiology is the science that studies
the frequency distribution of disease and its determinants , there are only two differences are
additional physiological phenomena ( Lilienfeld & Lilienfeld ) and forced Ruda ( Mausner &
Bhan ) . It can be concluded that epidemiology is the study of disease , forced Ruda , and
physiological phenomena of frequency distribution and determinants in human groups .
Understanding epidemiology is reviewed from various aspects :
a. Academic aspects
Academically , epidemiology means DTA analysis of health , socio-economic , and the trend
is going to conduct the identification and interpretation of changes in health status that occur
or will terjdi general population or specific population groups .
b . Clinical aspects
Epidemiology means an attempt to detect early changes in the incidence or prevalence of
discovery through clinical or laboratories at the beginning of an outbreak or the emergence of
new diseases such as , carcinoma of the vagina in girls or AIDS were first discovered by the
c . Practical aspects
Epidemiology of the practical aspects of science that is aimed at the prevention of the spread
of diseases that afflict individuals , groups or the general public .
In this case , the cause of the disease should not be known for certain , but preferably on the
mode of transmission , infetivitas , avoiding agents suspected as the cause , or environmental
toxins and establish immunity to ensure human health .
For example :
a) The discovery of drug side effects iodokloroquinolin serious in Japan , although when the
mechanism is not clear and in global undiscovered side effects are , but the Indonesian
government through the Ministry of Health has banned the circulation of the drug. This is
intended to prevent the spread of the side effects of the drug into Indonesia
b ) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ( AIDS ) , although the means of protection and
treatment is not known , but it has made many efforts to prevent the spread of the disease , for
example, there must be free of AIDS information to be able to enter a state , blood donor
screening , surveillance of homosexuals , and others.
2.2 CONCEPT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
Epidemiological concepts are still applicable today are among others :
a. Environmental effects on the incidence of a disease
b . The use of quantitative data and statistical
c . transmission of the disease
d . Experiment on humans
In the development of epidemiological limit further includes at least three elements , namely :
a. Includes all diseases
Epidemiology studying all diseases , both infectious disease and non- disease infeksi.seperti
cancer, malnutrition ( malnutrition ) , traffic accidents and workplace accidents , mental
illness and so on . Even in developed countries , epidemiological activities also include health
b . population
If medical clinic oriented images of the individual diseases epidemiology is focused on the
distribution of disease in populations ( people ) or group .
c . ecological approach
The frequency and distribution of disease studied from the background to the whole human
environment both physical environment , biological , and social . This has meant an
ecological approach . The occurrence of the disease in a person's total assessed from humans
and the environment .
2.3 TYPES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
a. Descriptive Epidemiology
Epidemiology which only illustrates the magnitude of the health problems that occur in the
community . The magnitude of the health problems described in 3 epidemiological variables
that person (person ) , where ( place ) and time (time ) . Way to describe the health problems
of the form: narrative , tables , graphs or images / maps .
i . Analytical Epidemiology
Epidemiology is in addition to describing the magnitude of health problems , also look for
factors that cause health problems in the community . Analytic Epidemiology addition to
describing the magnitude of the problem with 3 variables epidemiology also seek the causes
of health problems tsb.Cara seek the causes by doing research
2.4 PURPOSE AND APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
2.4.1 Objectives Epidemiology
In general , it can be said that the objectives to be achieved in the study of epidemiology is to
obtain frequency data distribution and determinants of disease or other phenomena related to
public health . The data obtained can be used to obtain information about the cause of the
disease , for example :
1 . Epidemiological studies conducted in outbreaks of food poisoning can be used to reveal
the contaminated food and find the cause .
2 . Epidemiological studies are conducted to find the relationship between lung carcinoma
with asbestos .
3 . Determine whether the hypotheses generated from animal percobaabn consistent with
epidemiological data . For example , experiments on the occurrence of bladder carcinoma in
animals smeared tar . To determine whether the results are consistent with the reality of
animal experiments in humans , conducted an analysis of all patients with carcinoma of the
bladder is exposed to more cigarettes than non- sufferers .
4 . Obtain information that could be used as a material consideration in planning , prevention
of health problems , as well as determine the priority public health issues , for example :
a. Data frequency distribution of the various diseases that are in the community can be used
to plan health care needs of a region and determine the priority issues .
b . When the results of epidemiological studies found that the incidence of neonatal tetanus in
a region is high enough then the data can be used to formulate an effective and efficient
strategy in menggulangi such problems , for example with mengirirm field workers to
provide counseling to mothers and conducting immunization in pregnant women .
2.4.2 Application of Epidemiology
1 . Epidemiologic observations ( epidemiological surveillance ) is the observation of the signs
of outbreaks of disease in the community .
2 . Surveillance activities conducted by collecting data , then record and analyze the
emergence of disease events .
3 . Epidemiologic research : nature and conduct more in-depth analysis and conclusions .
4 . The study aims to find the factors that cause disease or prove hypotheses that have been
made based on the study problems that have occurred .
2.5 ROLE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH
In msyarkat health , epidemiology mempenyai three main functions :
1 . Menerangkn about the magnitude of the problem and ganggun health ( including disease )
and its distribution in a given population .
2 . Preparing the data / information that is essential for the purposes of planning , program
implementation , and evaluation of various service activities ( health ) in the community ,
both the prevention and control of diseases and other forms as well as give priority to those
3 . Identifying the various factors that cause problems or factors associated with the
occurrence of the problem .
To carry out these functions , the epidemiologist has focused on a variety of properties of
individual characteristics in a particular population characteristics such as the nature of the
biological , socio- economic , demographic , individual habits and genetic properties . At
various properties of these characteristics , will give an idea of the nature of the problems that
exist in the community as well as the possibility of the factors that influence it .
Understanding of epidemiology and epidemiological methods , the shape of the epidemiology
of activities covering various aspects of community life , whether related to the health sector
and outside the health sector . Various forms and types of activities in the epidemiology
related to each other NZ so it is not rare form of overlapping activities . Form of basic
epidemiological activities most commonly used is a form of descriptive epidemiology
epidemiologii the form of activities that give an idea or information about the state and nature
of deployment health status and health disorders and diseases in a specific population groups
( especially according to the characteristic nature , time , and place )
Forms of activity are closely related to ang epidemiology descriptive epidemiology is to
assess the health status and the size of the health problems that exist in a given society . This
form of activity is closely connected with the preparation of public health planning and
outcome assessment of health care operations in a particular population .
Today epidemiological studies can basically be divided dlam two forms namely basic
research observation of the natural events in the community to find a causal relationship
disruptions in the normal state of the society , as well as an experimental research study based
on the particular treatment of the object to dpat get answers about the effect of the treatment
on the object under study . In this case , the target population dientukan carefully and any
changes that arise as a result of a special treatment by the investigator .
In a further development the principles of epidemiology which include descriptive
epidemiology and epidemiologic studies more widely developed as a system approach in a
variety of civic life
The scope of epidemiology as mentioned above including across various problems that arise
in the community , both of which are closely related to the health sector as well as with a
variety of social life , has encouraged the development of epidemiology in different fields :
1 . Epidemiology of infectious diseases
This form which has provided opportunities in the prevention and eradication of infectious
diseases . Successful men treat various infectious diseases today is one of the great results of
epidemiology . The role of epidemiological surveillance at first only aimed at infectious
diseases careful observation , it has given significant results in tackling the problems of
infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases .
2 . Epidemiology of non-communicable diseases
Is currently growing rapidly in search of a variety of factors that play a role in the onset of
various issues non-communicable diseases such as cancer , systemic disease and other
chronic diseases , including the growing problem of traffic accidents and abuse of certain
drugs . This field is used primarily by the increase in many health problems closely related to
various health problems as a result of advances in various fields of industry influenced the
state of the environment , including the physical environment , biological , cultural and social
3 . clinical epidemiology
This form is one of the areas of epidemiology that is being developed by clinicians that aims
to equip clinicians / physicians on how to approach the problem through disilin science of
epidemiology . In use everyday clinical epidemiology , medical officers , especially the
doctors often use epidemiological principles = principle in handling individual cases . They
are more oriented towards the cause and how to resolve individual cases and are usually not
interested in knowing fatherly and analyzed the sources of disease , mode of transmission and
distribution properties in the community . Various results obtained from the clinicians , an
extra- yng information data useful in epidemiological analysis but it should be remembered
that epidemiology is not limited to data and information alone but it is a discipline that is to
own the approach and its application in particular
4 . Epidemiology of population
Is one branch of science that uses the system Epidemiologist Epidemiologist approach in
analyzing the various issues related to the field of demographics and factors that influence the
demographic changes occurring in society . Population epidemiology approaches not only
provides an analysis of the nature of the demographic characteristics of the population in
relation to health and disease in society but also very involved in various aspects of
population and family planning . Services through the service , which is closely connected
with the community such as education , social welfare , employment opportunity , it is related
to the circumstances and nature of the population served . In this case the role of the
epidemiology of population is very important to be used as a basis in / take kebijakn and in
good planning . Also being developed epidemiological reproductive system that is closely
related to the family planning movement dn population .
5 . Epidemiology of health care treatment
This form is one of the systems management approach in analyzing problems , finding the
cause of a factor issue as well as the preparation of solving such problems in a comprehensive
and integrated . Sisem epidemiological approach to health planning is widely used by health
planners in the form of situational analysis , determination of priorities and outcomes
assessment in the form of a general health activities as well as the specific target .
6 . Epidemiology of environmental and occupational health
This form is one part of the study as well epidemioloi mnganalisis state of health workers due
to the effect of exposure on lingkubngan work , both physically kimiawo biological and
social culture , and habits of life of the workers . This form is very useful in the analysis of
health levels ekerja as well as to evaluate the situation and work environment and
occupational diseases .
7 . Epidemiology of mental health
Is one of the basic approach and analysis of issues of mental disorders in the community ,
both the objec mental disorders specific population groups , and analysis of the various
factors that influence the onset of mental disorders in the community . With the increasing
variety of complaints ang community members more mengarh to psychiatric problems
accompanied by social change society demands a car approaches through community social
epidemiology menuntu an approach through social epidemiology relating to the epidemiology
of mental health , given that today is no longer a mental health disorder is only individual
examples of health problems , tetau have a public social problem .
8 . nutritional Epidemiology
Today many used preformance analysis of community nutrition problems in which these
issues are closely related to various factors related to lifestyle of the people . Approach to
community nutrition problems through nutritional epidemiology aims to analyze the various
factors which are closely related to the emergence of community nutrition problems , whether
they are biological , and especially with regard to the social life of the community .
Countermeasures issue public nutrition , along with more nutritional surveillance
countermeasures leads kepad various factors are strongly associated with the incidence of
these problems in society and not just limited to target any individual or work environment .
2.7 NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE
The natural history of a disease can be classified into 5 stages :
a. pre Pathogenesis
This stage has been the interaction between the host with germs , but this interaction occurs
outside the human body , in the sense of germs is outside the human body and not into the
body . In these circumstances have not found any signs of the disease and the host immune
system is still strong and can resist disease . This situation is healthy .
b . Incubation stage ( already entered Pathogenesis )
At this stage germs get into the body of the host , but the symptoms have not appeared . Each
disease has a different incubation period . Cholera 1-2 days , which is a chronic disease such
as lung cancer , AIDS , etc. .
c . Early disease stages
This phase is calculated from the appearance of disease symptoms . at this stage the host had
fallen ill but still light and still be able to do daily activities . When the disease may be cured
promptly treated , but if it can not get worse . This terganting human endurance itself, such as
improving diet , rest and good care at home ( self-care ) .
d . Advanced disease stage
When host disease gets worse , because it is not treated or treatment of irregular or no
attention to the suggestions given in the disease early , then enter at an advanced stage of
disease . Host look defenseless and no longer able to do the activity . This stage of the host
requires intensive care and treatment .
e . End stage disease
The final stage is divided into five circumstances :
1 . Complete recovery ( shape and function of the host 's body back to function as a previous
state or free from disease )
2 . Healed but deformed , ending host disease or disease-free , but the recovery is not perfect ,
due to disability ( physical , mental and social ) and is highly dependent on the disease attacks
the organs of the host.
3 . Career , career stalled due course of the disease as the symptoms do not appear again , but
there is still a host body germs at a time when the host immune system will decrease
recurrence. This situation is not only harmful to the host itself , but can be harmful to others
or the community , because it can be a source of disease transmission (human reservoir ) .
4 . Chronic course of the disease at this stage appears stalled , but the symptoms did not
change . In other words, do not gain weight or lighter . This state of the host is still in a state
of pain .
5 . Died , When the disease worsens and the state can not be treated anymore , so cessation
course of the disease because the host dies . This situation is not a desirable situation .
2.8 MEASURES OF DISEASE PREVENTION AND SIZE FREQUENCY
In public health there are 5 levels of disease prevention by Leavell and Clark . At point 1 and
2 were taken during the pre- hospital and 3,4,5 point made during the illness .
1 . Improved health ( health promotion )
a. Provision of healthy food and enough ( quality and quantity )
b . Improvement of hygiene and environmental sanitation , such as water supply , waste
disposal , excreta disposal and waste .
c . Health education to the community . Eg for the upper middle class in developing countries
against the risk of coronary heart disease .
d . Exercise regularly according to the ability of individuals .
e . For the sake of entertainment opportunities to obtain mental and social development .
f . Advice marriage and responsible sex education .
2 . General and special protection against certain diseases
a. Providing immunization to vulnerable groups to prevent disease .
b . Isolation of patients with infectious diseases , such as avian flu .
c . Prevention of accidents both in public places and workplaces .
d . Protection against materials that are carcinogenic , toxic materials or allergies .
e . Control of pollution sources .
3 . Enforcement of early diagnosis and prompt treatment and appropriate
a. Finding the case as early as possible .
b . Looking for people in the community by way of examination . For example, blood tests ,
pulmonary rontgent .
c . Looking for all the people who have been associated with infectious disease to be
supervised so that if the disease can arise immediately given treatment .
d . Increasing the regularity of treatment to patients .
e . The provision of appropriate treatment at the beginning of every case .
4 . Restrictions disability ( dissability Limitation)
a. Perfect treatment and care so that the patient recovered and no complications occurred .
b . Prevention of complications and disability .
c . Improvement of health facilities as a support for the possible treatment and intensive
5 . Health Recovery ( rehabilitation )
a. Developing rehabilitation institutions by involving the community .
b . Sensitize the public to accept them back by giving at least moral support for those
concerned to survive .
c . Ensuring that each township social rehabilitation of patients who have disabilities are able
to defend themselves .
d . Extension and continuation of efforts that must still be done one after he recovered from
an illness .
Size frequency of disease shows the magnitude of the health problems found in the human
group or society . That is when the problems associated with the disease shows many groups
of people afflicted by the disease . To determine the frequency of health problems that occur
in a group of people / society do these steps :
1 . Finding health problems , by taking the data of patients who come to the clinic , reports of
people who come to the clinic .
2 . Research or health survey , for example : Household Health Survey
3 . Case studies , for example : the case of post-tsunami disease.
2.9 RESEARCH AND VARIABLE Epidemiology
Simply put , epidemiological studies can be divided into two groups as follows :
1 . Descriptive epidemiology , namely cross sectional study or studies or cross-sectional
prevalence study or survey .
2 . Analytic epidemiology , consisting of :
1 ) Study cohort / follow-up / incidence / longitudinal / prospective study . The cohort is
defined as a group of people . The purpose of the study sought due to ( illness ) .
2 ) Case-control studies / case control study / retrospective studies . Goal is to find the causes
of disease .
3 ) Ecological Studies . The study uses ecology as a source of material for the empirical
investigation of risk factors or characteristics that are in a constant state of society . For
example , air pollution caused by fuel combustion that occurs in big cities .
b . Experimental .
1 ) Clinical Trial
2 ) Community Trial .
1 . variables People
b ) Gender
c ) Type Peketjaan
d ) pengahasilan
e ) Group of conduct
f ) Marital Status
2 . The variable
3 . variable Time
a) Short Term
b ) Change in Status
c ) Changes in morbidity
2:10 MEASUREMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
Measurement of disease epidemiology divided widened 2 are:
1 . incident
The incident is an overview of the frequency of new cases of a disease that is found at a
certain time in the community . To be able to calculate the incidence of a disease , previous
must be known in advance about :
a. Data on the number of new patients .
b . Number of people who may be exposed to new diseases
In general, these incidents can be divided into three kinds , namely :
Ie number of new cases of a disease that is found in a certain time period ( usually 1 year )
compared with the number of people who may be affected by the new disease in the middle
period in question .
The formula is used :
Number of New Patients
Incidence rate = −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− x K
The number of residents who may be affected
The disease in midK = Constant ( 100 % , 1000 ‰ ) X K
Benefit Incidence Rate is :
- Knowing the health problems faced by
- Knowing the risk for developing health problems faced
- Knowing the burden of tasks that must be held by a health care facility .
Ie number of new cases of a disease that is found at some time compared with the number of
people who may be exposed to the disease at the same time .
Benefits Attack Rate is :
- Estimating the degree of transmission of a disease or attack .
The higher the value of the AR , the higher the ability of transmission of the disease .
The formula is used :
Number of New Patients within One Today
Attack rate =−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−xK
Population reply . May be exposed to disease
The pd . When the reply . Same .
Secondary Attack Rate
The number of new cases of a disease contracted in the second attack reduced compared with
the total population of people / residents who had disease in the first attack .
Used to calculate a panyakit contagious and in a small population ( eg in One Family ) .
The formula is used :
Number of New Patients pd . Both attacks
SAR = −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−xK
( Jml. Penddk - Pendd . Clincher . Affected First Attack )
The description of the frequency of old and new patients were found at a certain time in a
certain group of people . In the calculation of prevalence figures , the total population is used
regardless of the person / people who Invulnerability or Pendeuduk with Risk ( Population at
Risk ) . So it can be said that the actual prevalence rate was an RATE NOT - pure , because
the population is not affected by the disease may also be included in the calculation . In
general, the value of prevalent divided into 2 , namely :
a) Period prevalent Rate
Number of patients with a disease of old and new that is found in a certain period of time
divided by the total population in the corresponding period of the mid- period value is only
used for the prevalent rate of disease emergence is difficult to know when , for example in
cancer disease and Mental Disorders .
The formula is used :
Number of patients with old & new
Period prevalent Rate = ------------------------------- xK
The population of the mid-
b ) Point prevalent Rate
Number of patients with a disease of old and new at one time divided by the total population
at that time . Can be used to determine the quality of health services being offered .
The formula :
Number of Patients When the old and new
Point prevalent Rate ----------------------------- = xK
When the Population
Epidemiology is defined as the study of the frequency and distribution of health problems in
a group of humans and the factors that influence it .
Simply put , epidemiological studies can be divided into two groups as follows :
Descriptive epidemiology , namely Cross Sectional Study / cross sectional studies /
prevalence studies or surveys .
Analytic epidemiology consists of :
At this time epidemiology is defined as the study of the frequency and distribution of health
problems in a group of the human family and the factors that influence it . Of such
restrictions , soon seen that in terms of epidemiology , there are three things that are the
a) The frequency of health problems
b ) Dissemination of health problems
c ) Factors that memepengaruhi
There are several roles epidemiologist in public health , which are:
Locate / identify the factors that affect the incidence of health problems or disease in a given
society in search of the data for the prevention and how to prevent it . Preparing the data /
information for the purposes of health programs to assess the health status in the community
as well as provide an overview of the threatened population groups .
Help assess some of the results of health programs .
Develop a methodology to analyze disease and how to cope , both individual diseases ( but
analyzed in the group ) and extraordinary events ( KLB ) / outbreaks in the community .
Epidemiology also has important benefits in solving public health problems , namely :
gives an overview ( description ) about the spread ( distribution ) , and the large extent and
other health problems . factors explain the interaction agent , host and environment .
Population groups that outlines the risk and high- risk groups to the population that has no
risk . evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency as well as the success of the activities .
administrative work which helps health planning ( planning ) , monitoring ( observation ) ,
and evaluation ( evaluation ) . explain the causes of health problems that can be composed
mitigation measures . Can explain the natural progression of a disease . Can describe the state
of a health problem are: epidemic , pandemic , endemic , and sporadic
1. Anwar , asrul.dr.m.ph.1988 . Introduction to Epidemiology . Jakarta : PT . Binarupa
2. Sutrisna , Method Bambang.dr.MHSc.1986.Pengantar Epidemiology . Jakarta : PT .
Dian people .
3. Basic Material Module FKM UNDIP Epidemiology 2010.
4. Epidemiology Budioro.B.2007.Pengantar Edition II . . Semarang : Board Publisher
Praise and Gratitude I pray to God the Almighty, because of the blessings and abundance
rahmatnyalah then I must finish an essay in a timely manner.
Here the author presented a paper entitled
Through this preface first writer apologized and pleaded proclamation which the contents of
this paper when there is a shortage and there are posts that I make less precise or menyinggu
I hereby dedicate this paper with gratitude and may God Almighty bless this paper so as to
Raha, Maret 2014
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................... ii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.................................................................. 1
1.1 Background 1......................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION..................................................................... 2
2.1 DEFINITIONS........................................................................................ 2
2.2 CONCEPT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY.....................................................
2.3 TYPES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY............................................................. 4
2.4 PURPOSE AND APPLICATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY..................... 4
2.5 ROLE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN HEALTH......................................... 5
2.6 SCOPE.................................................................................................. 5
2.7 NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE.................................................... 8
2.8 MEASURES OF DISEASE PREVENTION AND SIZE FREQUENCY9
2.9 RESEARCH AND VARIABLE EPIDEMIOLOG................................. 10
2:10 MEASUREMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY........................................... 11
CHAPTER III CLOSING........................................................................... 14
3.1 Kesimpulan........................................................................................... 14
3.2 Saran..................................................................................................... 14
REFERENCES ................................................ ............................................ 15
: HERRY FANTRI
: III. B
ACADEMY OF NURSING
GOVERNMENT OF THE DISTRICT MUNA